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AbstractSlavonic Alphabets in the Polemics of the 19th Century (Preliminary remarks) The paper tackles upon some examples of using the images of ss. Cyril and Metodius together with the problems related to the ancient Slavonic alphabets – Glagolitic and Cyrillic – in a variety of discussions held in the Slavonic milieu in the 19th c. Attention is paid to: 1) Exchange of opinions between the Serb Dimitrije Tirol and the Bulgarian Vasilij Aprilov in the context of the Russian claim on the Cyrillic. 2) The dispute of the Croatian prelates concerning the birthplace of Saint Jerome whom they considered to be the inventor of the Glagolitic alphabet and to the testimony of Adam Mickiewicz in this regard. 3) The dilemma the Croatian Grammarian Ignjat Alojz Brlić was faced with: which alphabet to choose for the Serbo-Croatian? 4) The conviction of the rev. Piotr Semenenko, the founder of the Congregation of the Resurrection of Our Lord Jesus Christ, that Constantine-Cyril invented the Glagolitic alphabet while the Cyrillic is the alphabet of the Eastern schismatics. 5) The reasoning of Ivan Platonov, the author of the treatise against the encyclical Grande munus of Leo VIII, about the anti-Orthodox function of Glagolitic as a Roman manipulation with the Church. 6) Anton Budilovich’s ideas of the western genesis of the Glagolitic and the Crimean origin of the Cyrillic alphabet.