• Being together - factors that unintentionally undermine motivation

      New Zealand Tertiary Education Commission; Hartnett, Maggie; St. George, Alison; Dron, Jon (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
      This paper reports on one aspect of a larger case study that explores the nature of motivation to learn in an online distance environment. The study adopts self-determination theory (SDT) as a theoretical framework and focuses particularly on the underlying concepts of autonomy and competence. These are used to investigate ways in which certain situational factors, that fail to accommodate the specific autonomy and competence needs of co-located learners, can undermine perceptions of personal agency and efficacy. This, in turn, has a detrimental effect on self-determined types of motivation including intrinsic motivation. Results from one collaborative group of learners, situated in a co-located blended learning context, are presented here. They suggest that the differing circumstances of students need to be accommodated to foster autonomous types of motivation among learners.
    • Introduction

      Nichols, Mark (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
    • Obtaining high retention and completion rates in a New Zealand ODL environment: A case study of strategies employed by Information and Library Studies Faculty at the Open Polytechnic

      Maathuis-Smith, Sandra Elizabeth; Wellington, Shannon; Cossham, Amanda; Fields, Alison; Irvine, Jan; Welland, Sarah; Innes, Mary (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
      Open and distance learning (ODL) provides unique challenges for student retention and course completion. In an increasingly competitive educational environment, measures such as retention and completion form the basis for the evaluation of institutional and student performance. Information and Library Studies (ILS) faculty at the Open Polytechnic achieve and maintain consistently high retention and completion rates across their faculty-taught ODL courses. This research documents the development and application of strategies that contribute to these high success rates.Information and Library Studies faculty, through a framework of action research, undertook an analysis of implementation strategies designed to support student retention and completion. This framework provided a methodological foundation for focus-group discussion. The faculty evaluated and disseminated the strategies derived from these focus-group discussions across other ILS courses in an iterative process of application and analysis.Strategies for retention and completion in this research are discussed in the context of course selection, orientation, layered support, communication between students and faculty, support between student and faculty, social interaction, and community building in an ODL environment.
    • Your books are in the mail: Fifty years of distance library service at Massey University

      Clarke, Philip Stephen (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
    • Ethical practices and implications in distance learning

      Simpson, Mary (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
    • An Examination of Government Policies for E-Learning in New Zealand’s Secondary Schools

      Powell, Allison; Barbour, Michael (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
      In 2006 the North American Council for Online Learning surveyed the activity and policy relating to primary and secondary e-learning, which they defined as online learning, in a selection of countries. They found most were embracing e-learning delivery of education as a central strategy for enabling reform, modernising schools, and increasing access to high-quality education. While North American countries appeared to be using the internet as a medium to provide distance education at the secondary level longer than most countries, the lack of a guiding vision has created uneven opportunities for students depending on which state or province they live in. In New Zealand, the government has sought to provide a vision or guiding framework for the development of e-learning. In this article we trace that vision by describing three policy documents released by the New Zealand government over the past decade, and how that vision for e-learning has allowed increased development of primary and secondary online learning.
    • Digital Community, Digital Citizen

      Carle, Julie Rosina (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
    • Personalised, Contextualised Professional Learning Development: Putting it into Practice

      Ministy of Education NZ; Owen, Hazel (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
      Research, such as that collated as part of the New Zealand Ministry of Education‘s (MoE) Iterative Best Evidence Synthesis (BES), indicates that regular Professional Learning and Development (PLD) for educators can have a positive effect on the quality of teaching and, in turn, on outcomes for diverse students. PLD, though, needs to offer flexibility of choice, time and approach, and to value personal theories and experiences. Learning should be accessible (both physically and design-wise), cumulative and relevant, and couched within an active community of practice (CoP).A pilot to develop a Virtual Professional Learning and Development (VPLD) model that offered personalised, contextualised PLD was initiated by the New Zealand MoE. The project focused on primary and secondary school teachers, although one tertiary teacher participated. This paper provides an overview of the VPLD pilot (2009–2010) while also synthesising main findings from the in-depth evaluation conducted during the pilot and summarising some of the lessons learned.In brief, results suggest that there are affordances built into the VPLD model that encourage and enable education practitioners to develop at their own pace, in a supported, supportive environment, with access to all that they need to scaffold their learning journey. Thus, if it is accepted that student outcomes can mirror practitioner performance (although this is a somewhat simplistic relationship), it would follow that, if practitioners can be mentored and guided in their own continual development and thinking around learning and teaching, there is potential for the overall learning experience for students to be enhanced.
    • Mobile Learning Communities: Creating New educational Futures

      Stevens, Ken (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
    • A Framework for Developing and Implementing An Online Learning Community

      Khoo, Elaine; Cowie, Bronwyn (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
      Developing online learning communities is a promising pedagogical approach in online learning contexts for adult tertiary learners, but it is no easy task. Understanding how learning communities are formed and evaluating their efficacy in supporting learning involves a complex set of issues that have a bearing on the design and facilitation of successful online learning experiences. This paper describes the development of a framework for understanding and developing an online learning community for adult tertiary learners in a New Zealand tertiary institution. In accord with sociocultural views of learning and practices, the framework depicts learning as a mediated, situated, distributed, goal-directed, and participatory activity within a socially and culturally determined learning community. Evidence for the value of the framework is grounded in the findings of a case study of a semester-long fully online asynchronous graduate course. The framework informs our understanding of appropriate conditions for the development and conduct of online learning communities. Implications are presented for the design and facilitation of learning in such contexts.
    • Supporting adults to address their literacy needs using e-learning

      Ministry of Education; Fletcher, Jo; Nicholas, Karen; Davis, Niki (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
      Many adults need help with literacy learning. This is extremely challenging for the tertiary education sector and workplace-situated learning organisations. E-learning may be an effective and efficient way to improve the delivery of teaching basic skills learners. Our research study included five embedded case studies within one tertiary institution, and a series of stakeholder interviews with representatives across New Zealand. The study found that e-learning opens up greater interaction between adults’ study, work, home, and community environments, simply because the learning environment can be extended into those places.
    • Introduction

      Nichols, Mark (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-07-29)
    • Distributed Learning in British Columbia: A Journey from Correspondence to Online Delivery

      Winkelmans, Tim; Anderson, Barry; Barbour, Michael (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-07-29)
      Kindergarten to Year 12 distance education began in Canada in British Columbia, around 1919. This fi rst distance education was by correspondence. Canada’s fi rst online learning also began in British Columbia, about 15 years ago. Distance education and online learning have continued to grow in British Columbia as a result of geographic and demographic factors. This article describes the development and regulation of K–12 distance education in British Columbia, and the lessons drawn from this history that could be used in other jurisdictions.
    • Integrating E-portfolios: Guiding Questions and Experiences

      Milne, John; Heinrich, Eva; Lys, Isabelle (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-07-29)
      This paper presents a case study of the use of an e-portfolio in a human biology distance course that aimed to foster student refl ection on assignment feedback. An academic developer used a guided question approach to help the lecturer consider pedagogy, administration, and student support of the e-portfolio activity. The authors present student feedback of their e-portfolio experience and the summative assessment for the e-portfolio activity. Theyalso consider the challenges of introducing e-portfolios in a single course.
    • Social Presence and Online Communication: A response to Mersham

      Kehrwald, Benjamin (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-07-29)
      This article draws upon contemporary social presence theory and research into presence, social presence, and computer-mediated communication to highlight the role of social presence in mitigating the perceived deficiencies in online communication highlighted by Gary Mersham in the preceding issue of this publication. The case discusses issues of mediated experience, the development of interpersonal relations between online communicators, and the function of social presence. It concludes with advice for practitioners in promoting effective online communication in technology-enhanced learning.
    • Book Reviews

      Higgins, Andrew; Pratt, Kerryn (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-07-29)
    • Video Conferencing in Distance Learning: A New Zealand Schools’ Perspective

      Roberts, Rachel (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-08-01)
      This article sets outs to trace the development of video conferencing in distance learning in the New Zealand secondary school sector. It begins with an overview of the definition and development of distance learning; then traces the technology of video conferencing from its inception to the present day. It goes on to look at the growth of video conferencing and the role andcontribution it has made to distance learning in New Zealand schools, and concludes with a brief discussion of possible future directions.
    • Interactive scenario design: The value of flowcharts and schemas in developing scenario-based lessons for online and flexible learning contexts

      Stewart, Terry M; Brown, Mark; Weatherstone, Anna (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-08-01)
      A web-delivered problem-based scenario was designed for use in a distance education professional development workshop for academics, and also as a stand-alone module. Early scenario design and development was assisted with flowcharts and iterative table-based schemas, which formalised anddocumented the process before authoring in the e-tool, SBL Interactive. It is well established that such planning techniques can scaffold the course development process. While the flowcharts and schemas described in this paper are designed for use with this tool, the methodology described for their use as planning tools applies generally to the design of interactiveelectronically-delivered problem-based scenarios. They also allow scenario descriptions and content to be archived and shared in an easily accessible form. The paper illustrates the basic principle that, when designing a course, there are many choices about what, when, where, and how to teach. It provides an account of how conventional design techniques can beused alongside new e-tools to systematically select and optimise the most appropriate instructional blend for a particular learning context.
    • Reflections on e-learning from a communication perspective.

      Mersham, Gary (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-08-01)
      This article uses a dialogical model of communication to reflect on communication in e-learning. It is argued that teaching and learning is a singular, dialogical communicative process leading to a shared negotiation of meaning congruent with the collaborative-constructivist perspective. However, misunderstanding and miscommunication are common and less detectable in an online environment, raising questions about the limitations of communication in the context of e-learning.The author examines the importance of communication contexts in e-learning, probing issues of interpersonal and group contexts in the matrix of possible interactions as well as those of distance, place, and proximity. The author also speculates on the limits of encoding and decoding and exchange of meaning in the e-learning transactional process, and the affordances and disaffordances of mediated communication.
    • Fly on the Wall: Using Teleconferencing to Supervise Student Teacher Performance

      Bolton, Marcia (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-08-01)
      The use of teleconferencing between a rural state college supervisor and her professional development school partners has added a new component to the mission to educate teachers of the 21st century and to create a learning community in a remote school location. Supervising student teachers by teleconference has increased the college’s potential for preparing teachers who are in tune with the most advanced types of instruction in ourProfessional Development Partnership with Calhoun County Schools, USA.