• A case study of blended teaching and learning in a New Zealand secondary school, using an ecological framework

      Zaka, Pinelopi (Public Knowledge Project, 2013-05-15)
      This paper reports on the findings of a case study that investigated how blended teaching and learning was implemented in a New Zealand secondary school. An ecological perspective was taken, in an attempt to clarify the complexity of blended teaching and learning implementation, by researching the roles of students, teachers, school leaders and other educational stakeholders, within and beyond the school itself. An ecological framework was developed that gives rise to several recommendations for individuals and groups within the three levels of the school's multi-level ecology; the classroom, the school and the wider ecosystem in which the school is embedded.
    • A Comparison of Two Online Learning Systems

      Open Polytechnic; Nichols, Mark (Public Knowledge Project, 2016-08-25)
      Open Polytechnic is a single-mode provider of distance education with a rich history of print-based provision. Strategically, the institution is rapidly adopting an online-only approach, with some exceptions for programmes that require student contact. A recent and internal review of Moodle, the Open Polytechnic’s learning management system (LMS) indicated concern about the likely student experience for an online-only format, so an internal system called iQualify was developed. iQualify was developed specifically from a user-experience (UX) perspective to optimise the online-only learning experience. As part of the drive towards online-only education, Open Polytechnic courses are being purposefully redeveloped for iQualify, moving away from print-and textbook-based materials, and towards textbook-independent and online-only study. This article uses a UX perspective to compare student outcomes, high-level course evaluations, and student perceptions of the two approaches—Moodle, with print and textbook; and iQualify online-only. Findings indicate that while students tend to prefer printed materials, actual withdrawal and pass rates are not affected by an online-only approach. Respondents also indicated a significant preference for the new iQualify platform over Moodle, and openness to online-only study. 
    • A four-step process for the development of knowledge-building communities in a digital intranet

      Stevens, Ken (Public Knowledge Project, 2012-05-29)
      The development of on-line educational structures and processes has led to new opportunities for the delivery of education in and between rural Canadian communities. Within digital Intranets it has been possible to develop virtual classes, which have encouraged collaboration in teaching, learning and the development of knowledge-building communities. Underpinning these developments has been a need to develop pedagogy appropriate for teleteaching and telelearning.
    • A Framework for Developing and Implementing An Online Learning Community

      Khoo, Elaine; Cowie, Bronwyn (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
      Developing online learning communities is a promising pedagogical approach in online learning contexts for adult tertiary learners, but it is no easy task. Understanding how learning communities are formed and evaluating their efficacy in supporting learning involves a complex set of issues that have a bearing on the design and facilitation of successful online learning experiences. This paper describes the development of a framework for understanding and developing an online learning community for adult tertiary learners in a New Zealand tertiary institution. In accord with sociocultural views of learning and practices, the framework depicts learning as a mediated, situated, distributed, goal-directed, and participatory activity within a socially and culturally determined learning community. Evidence for the value of the framework is grounded in the findings of a case study of a semester-long fully online asynchronous graduate course. The framework informs our understanding of appropriate conditions for the development and conduct of online learning communities. Implications are presented for the design and facilitation of learning in such contexts.
    • A Framework for Developing and Implementing An Online Learning Community

      Khoo, Elaine; Cowie, Bronwyn (Public Knowledge Project, 2020-04-26)
      Developing online learning communities is a promising pedagogical approach in online learning contexts for adult tertiary learners, but it is no easy task. Understanding how learning communities are formed and evaluating their efficacy in supporting learning involves a complex set of issues that have a bearing on the design and facilitation of successful online learning experiences. This paper describes the development of a framework for understanding and developing an online learning community for adult tertiary learners in a New Zealand tertiary institution. In accord with sociocultural views of learning and practices, the framework depicts learning as a mediated, situated, distributed, goal-directed, and participatory activity within a socially and culturally determined learning community. Evidence for the value of the framework is grounded in the findings of a case study of a semester-long fully online asynchronous graduate course. The framework informs our understanding of appropriate conditions for the development and conduct of online learning communities. Implications are presented for the design and facilitation of learning in such contexts.
    • A quality picture: Perspectives on a distance learning programme

      McIlroy, Andrea (Public Knowledge Project, 2012-06-22)
      Quality measures are now widely applied in higher education including in distance and open learning programmes. While quality assessment in distance education has traditionally focused on outputs and performance indicators such as retention and pass rates, there is now an increasing emphasis being placed on what quality means to the consumers of the product. Stakeholder models which take account of the needs and perspectives of different groups are also being applied. This paper reports part of a study conducted in the Business Studies faculty at Massey University which compares perceptions of quality in the extramural programme of three stakeholder groups - students, teaching staff and senior managers. A survey of students and staff highlighted areas of congruence and incongruence. Closing the gaps in perception should lead to improved assessments of quality.
    • A systematic review of small group communication in post-secondary online courses

      JAHNG, Namsook (Public Knowledge Project, 2012-09-11)
      The purpose of this systematic review is to establish a comprehensive understanding of research trend and findings of the current studies focused on small group communication in post-secondary online courses. Comprehensive searching electronic databases and step-by-step screening procedures were performed to locate a total of eighteen journal articles published in 2000-2009 as a final data included in the review. Two independent reviewers coded the studies completely, which were mapped inductively into four main categories based on common themes of their research focuses. The findings of individual studies were sub-categorized, synthesized, and summarized. To conclude, the review provides major findings extracted from the eighteen studies and discusses gaps and limitations of existing studies to make some suggestions for future research.
    • Addendum: Reading and studying from the screen

      Nichols, Mark (Public Knowledge Project, 2018-12-13)
      In 2016 the article “Reading and Studying on the Screen: An Overview of Literature Towards Good Learning Design Practice” was published in the Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning (Nichols, 2016b). The article overviewed comparative studies related to reading from the screen and reading from print, and proposed recommendations for on-screen learning design. This addendum to that article considers various additional studies analysed in subsequent blog posts (see http://tel-lingit.blogspot.com/2018/02/an-update-to-reading-and-studying-from.html and https://tel-lingit.blogspot.com/2018/11/a-further-update-to-reading-and.html) up to end November 2018. As this is an invited addendum, I take the opportunity to adopt a more personal and self-disclosing style to talk more about my own position and experience regarding digital education and on-screen reading. This piece alternates across the scholarly and polemic.
    • Addendum: Reading and studying on the screen

      Nichols, Mark (Public Knowledge Project, 2018-12-13)
      In 2016 the article “Reading and Studying on the Screen: An Overview of Literature Towards Good Learning Design Practice” was published in the Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning (Nichols, 2016b). The article overviewed comparative studies related to reading from the screen and reading from print, and proposed recommendations for on-screen learning design. This addendum to that article considers various additional studies analysed in subsequent blog posts (see http://tel-lingit.blogspot.com/2018/02/an-update-to-reading-and-studying-from.html and https://tel-lingit.blogspot.com/2018/11/a-further-update-to-reading-and.html) up to end November 2018. As this is an invited addendum, I take the opportunity to adopt a more personal and self-disclosing style to talk more about my own position and experience regarding digital education and on-screen reading. This piece alternates across the scholarly and polemic.
    • Addressing efficiency and quality of marking in essay assessment with e-learning support

      Heinrich, Eva (Public Knowledge Project, 2012-05-21)
      The value of formative assessment using essays is clearly defined in the educational literature. Essays focus on the highest-level learning outcomes of analysing, evaluating, and creating. Formative assessment provides students with feedback to guide their learning. Current e-learning systems largely focus on summative assessment and give only very limited support for the management and marking of essay assignments. After outlining the educational theories on essay assignments, this article introduces two novel e-learning applications, WebCTConnect and MarkTool. Functional descriptions of these applications and their grounding in assessment theory are given. It is argued that e-learning tools can increase the efficiency in dealing with essay assignments and that the quality of essay assessment can be improved by incorporating scoring rubrics, offering class-wide analysis of feedback, and providing tools for the cooperation of marking teams.
    • An Examination of Government Policies for E-Learning in New Zealand’s Secondary Schools

      Powell, Allison; Barbour, Michael (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
      In 2006 the North American Council for Online Learning surveyed the activity and policy relating to primary and secondary e-learning, which they defined as online learning, in a selection of countries. They found most were embracing e-learning delivery of education as a central strategy for enabling reform, modernising schools, and increasing access to high-quality education. While North American countries appeared to be using the internet as a medium to provide distance education at the secondary level longer than most countries, the lack of a guiding vision has created uneven opportunities for students depending on which state or province they live in. In New Zealand, the government has sought to provide a vision or guiding framework for the development of e-learning. In this article we trace that vision by describing three policy documents released by the New Zealand government over the past decade, and how that vision for e-learning has allowed increased development of primary and secondary online learning.
    • An historical overview of flexible learning in New Zealand from 1990 to the present

      Bewley, Don (Public Knowledge Project, 2012-05-23)
      The recent progress in New Zealand of flexible learning is reviewed, together with its underlying concepts as expounded at the 1995 DEANZ conference by Bruce King, an Australian. These concepts, which already are known and were developed in New Zealand during the 1990s, are considered in the context of changes in New Zealand's political policies for education. The implementation of flexible learning in that environment is traced, particularly in post-secondary institutions engaged in distance learning.
    • Aware, But Don't Really Care: Students' Perspective on Privacy and Data Collection in Online Courses

      Vu, Phu; Adkins, Megan; Henderson, Shelby (Public Knowledge Project, 2020-02-12)
      The purpose of this study was to examine student viewpoints about privacy and personal data collection in online courses. Results of data analysis revealed that students were aware that their learning behaviors such as login frequency, pages viewed or clicked, and learning profiles could be monitored and recorded by their instructors. Additionally, they were not concerned about their learning behaviors being monitored, recorded, or collected for academic research, and used for instructional/teaching improvement purposes. No significant difference between gender (female and male) of students in terms of their awareness and concern about their privacy in online learning settings was evident.
    • Becoming a "communal architect" in the online classroom: Integrating cognitive and affective learning for maximum effect in web-based education

      Woods, Robert; Ebersole, Samuel (Public Knowledge Project, 2012-05-28)
      The authors discuss several online and offline community-building strategies that may be used to foster a positive social dynamic in online courses. Before presenting specific strategies, they begin by introducing readers to what they refer to as "communal scaffolding." The communal scaffold lets instructors conceptualize how affective and cognitive learning are inextricably intertwined in the online learning process. It also provides a theoretical base and sets pedagogical guidelines for fostering a supportive communication climate in the online setting. As presented herein, the communal scaffold is consistent with the assumptions embedded in climate theory (popular in community and social psychology literature), which assumes that psychosocial climates vary with different settings; climates are a product of environmental and individuals characteristics; and the relationships between climate, setting, and individuals are reciprocally influential (Pargament, et al., 1983).
    • Being together - factors that unintentionally undermine motivation

      New Zealand Tertiary Education Commission; Hartnett, Maggie; St. George, Alison; Dron, Jon (Public Knowledge Project, 2011-06-21)
      This paper reports on one aspect of a larger case study that explores the nature of motivation to learn in an online distance environment. The study adopts self-determination theory (SDT) as a theoretical framework and focuses particularly on the underlying concepts of autonomy and competence. These are used to investigate ways in which certain situational factors, that fail to accommodate the specific autonomy and competence needs of co-located learners, can undermine perceptions of personal agency and efficacy. This, in turn, has a detrimental effect on self-determined types of motivation including intrinsic motivation. Results from one collaborative group of learners, situated in a co-located blended learning context, are presented here. They suggest that the differing circumstances of students need to be accommodated to foster autonomous types of motivation among learners.
    • Blended online learning in initial teacher education: A Professional Inquiry on preservice teachers’ inquiry projects

      University of Canterbury; Hunt, Anne-Marie (Public Knowledge Project, 2015-11-24)
      Online and blended learning bring opportunities and challenges, including more opportunities for authentic activities (Gikandi, Morrow, & Davis, 2011). Blended online environments are now a common mode for pre-service teacher education, providing interesting opportunities to develop and showcase alternative approaches that blend with practice in the field. This paper presents a case study of an online course that supported 55 student teacher inquiries into the practice of teaching. The author describes some successful strategies, using a range of e-learning tools, including the university’s Moodle learning management system, in the professional inquiry focused course that she led. The study informs course and programme redesign to encourage student teachers to develop their own networks of practice during pre-service tertiary education. 
    • Book Review

      Stevens, Ken (Public Knowledge Project, 2012-05-21)
      Education and mind in the knowledge age. Encyclopedia of distance learning, vols.1-4. E-learning: Teaching and professional development with the Internet. Women and distance education: Challenges and opportunities.
    • Book review - Adding some TEC-VARIETY: 100+ activities for motivating and retaining learners online

      Hartnett, Maggie (Public Knowledge Project, 2014-12-23)
      With the increasing ubiquity of online and blended learning, more and more educators are being asked to teach online, often without any specific specialist training. Adding some TEC-VARIETY: 100+ activities for motivating and retaining learners online by Bonk and Khoo is a practical ‘how to’ guide for motivating learners in online and blended learning contexts. Drawing from a rich base of research into motivation, this book provides a framework and an extensive set of associated online instructional activities that anyone involved in teaching online, from primary through to tertiary education, can use to engage and motivate learners.
    • Book Review - eLearnings: Implementing a national strategy for ICT in education, 1998-2010

      Sudlow, Darren (Public Knowledge Project, 2013-05-15)
      In 2010 Core Education released a book entitled, Elearnings: Implementing a national strategy for ICT in Education, 1998-2010 which outlines the journey various stakeholders have been on during that period.This review examines the value of the book for a teacher working in a fully online or 'blended' context.
    • Book Review - Making the move to K–12 online teaching: Research-based strategies and practices

      Adelstein, David (Public Knowledge Project, 2013-05-17)
      Making the move to K–12 online teaching: Research-based strategies and practices