Jurnal Jaffray is a national journal managed by the institution of Jaffray Theological College Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Jaffray Journal is a double blind reviewer and open access peer-reviewed journal that focuses on the novelty of theology, biblical exegesis and Christian service and education practices through quantitative and qualitative research (hermeneutics, argumentative, and case studies). This journal publishes original articles, reviews, and also interesting case reports. JAFFRAY JOURNAL has been accredited by The Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education and academic journal (Decree No. 21 / E / KPT / 2018). Journal Subjects: 1. Development of theology and religion 2. Bible Interpretation 3. Biblical Study 4. Educational Science Research 5. Christian Education Research 6. Christian Ethics 7. Pastoral Practice 8. Old Testament and New Testament Hermeneutics


The Globethics library contains articles of Jurnal Jaffray as of 1(2003) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Coherence of the Metaphor of God's Armor in Ephesians 6:10-20 and Its Implications for the Theological Construction of Spiritual Warfare

    Tacoy, Selvester Melanton; (SINTA ID: 6689708) Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Theologia Jaffray Makassar (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2023-10-30)
    Paul in Ephesians 6:10-20 uses the metaphor of God's armour to explain the spiritual warfare believers face. Of course, the metaphors that Paul put forward are full of meaning based on the context of life at that time in which the life of the people in Ephesus and Asia Minor, in general, had a relationship with the worship of the gods. Using the grammatical-historical method, the writer found that the metaphor of the armour of God that Paul put forward in Ephesians 6:10-20 also has coherence (connectedness, unity) of meanings, ideas, and ideas between these metaphors. This coherence will contribute to efforts to build the theological construction of spiritual warfare and the life practices of believers to face spiritual warfare.
  • Contribution Of God’s Servants In Upholding Sound Doctrine In The Church Community Based On Titus 1:5 - 2:10

    Panggarra, Robi; (ID SCOPUS: 58032836400), Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Jaffray Makassar; Camerling, Yosua Feliciano; (ID SCOPUS: 58032836500), Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Jaffray Makassar (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2023-10-31)
    In the current reality of the development of faith and the church, there are challenges in the form of unhealthy teachings that can hinder the growth of true religion. That is why this research aims to analyze and reveal the concept of God's servants based on Titus 1:5-2:10. Then, show and describe the steps to become a servant of God who contributes to the development of the church and society through sound teachings based on Titus 1:5-2:10. The results of this research are that four factors challenge the church in dealing with heresy. However, this challenge is paradoxical because, on the other hand, within this challenge, there are opportunities for the church, especially for community development. The four factors include, First, Religious Pluralism and Moral Relativism. It is essential to properly understand the moral values taught by the religious scriptures so that they can be the primary key to opening the way for evangelization missions. Second, the influence of media and technology. The presence of social media will become an increasingly important service object for maintaining connections among its people—third, Heretical Teachings. The church needs to act firmly to fight the practices of heretics who try to distort the truth to suit their wishes. Fourth, Materialism and Worldly Pleasures. No human wealth can buy life or health. Therefore, this "empty space" can provide an opportunity for God's servants, who are equipped with sound doctrine, to bring people to the needs of eternity rather than mortal.
  • Labora in Christian Theology: Exploring Its Significance in Relation to Blessings and Salvation

    Department of Theology, Institut Agama Kristen Negeri Toraja; Sampe, Naomi; Institut Agama Kristen Negeri Toraja; Darius, Darius; Institut Agama Kristen Negeri Toraja (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2023-10-15)
    The purpose of this research is to explore the meaning of work in Christian theology, particularly in relation to God's plan and providence, forgiveness, and salvation. The method employed in this study is a literature review of Bible verses, theological texts, and scholarly articles on the topic of work ethics in Christianity. The findings of this research indicate that work is not only a blessing and a privilege for humans as God's stewards on Earth but also a part of God's plan for salvation and forgiveness. The Holy Spirit utilizes human work in accordance with the purpose of salvation, thereby making work an essential ritual in life. All humans are created by God and adopted as children in Jesus Christ, and God works for the good of those who love Him. This research contributes to the understanding of the theological significance of work in the lives of Christians and its role in the existential faith as the people of God.
  • The Trumpet Sounds, But for Who? A Survey of Contemporary Applications of the Biblical Jubilee

    Luthy, Christopher James; (ID SCOPUS: 57225017473) University of Divinity, Australia (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2023-10-10)
    Since the middle of the twentieth century, the biblical Jubilee has enjoyed an increasing level of prominence in the public sphere. It has been cited as the basis for a number of different movements, traditions and practices, many of which vary greatly in their emphases. This qualitative study surveys and critically analyses each of the major contemporary applications of the biblical jubilee, as represented in the current corpus of academic literature. It is concluded that these applications can be categorised under eight headings. It is also concluded that the significant variation in many of these applications is the product of a variety of hermeneutical approaches. The validity of these approaches and an assessment of the varying applications is to be the subject of future study. 
  • Re-actualization of Javanese Ethical Values in Contextual Church Missions in the Samironobaru Javanese Christian Church

    Harti, Sri Dwi; Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Pelita Dunia; Ming, David; Sekolah Tinggi Teologia Kadesi, Yogyakarta; Pandie, Daud Alfons; Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga; Sanjaya, Agus; Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Pelita Dunia, Banten; Sukamto, Sukamto; Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Pelita Dunia, Banten (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2023-10-18)
    This study aims to interpret the ethical values of the Javanese community in the contextual mission of the church in the context of shifting ethical values in society today due to globalization and dynamic social changes in society. The ethical values of the Javanese community which are correlated with the church's mission contextually tend to become degraded in the reality of social change in today's society. Using a qualitative method, this research was conducted at the Samironobaru Javanese Christian Church and found that in an effort to contextualize the church's mission, the church in the context of Javanese society needs to actualize the ethical values of the Javanese community in a contextual church mission approach.
  • Jesus Our healer: Experience of Christians in Indonesia

    Ronda, Daniel; (SCOPUS ID: 58032836300) Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Jaffray Makassar (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2023-10-17)
    This paper discusses Jesus as a healer in C&MA teaching and how this teaching is lived in Asian countries such as Indonesia. The goal is to understand its doctrine and relevance in the church's life, especially the C&MA churches worldwide. Divine healing is a characteristic of Simpson’s teaching that should still be lived out in church life today. The Bible’s teaching about divine healing is not aimed at healing from suffering solely but is aimed at glorifying God and preaching the gospel of salvation. A church that is faithful in preaching the gospel will not stop practising healing prayers for those who ask to be prayed for their healing. Likewise, the church must be an agent of healing both physically and emotionally for communities that are facing various diseases.
  • Covenant Violation as A Pathway For Interpreting The Gospel: An Engagement With Schilder and The Yoruba Thought

    Popoola, Oluwabukunmi; Theologische Universiteit, Kampen, Netherlands; Salurante, Tony; Arastamar Evangelical Theological School, Jakarta (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2023-04-15)
    This paper discussed Schilder's position on the theology of covenant in engagement with the Yoruba thought, identifying their points of agreement and departure and establishing the fruitfulness of Schilder's thoughts on the theology of covenant among the Yorubas. Through library and field studies, it answered whether the levity accorded the Christian faith in the recent by the Yoruba people group is not unconnected to a shallow understanding of the implications of breaking the covenant relationship entailed in the Christian faith. And how the implications of covenant violation, as discussed by Klaas Schilder, can be fruitful for the Yoruba people's understanding of the covenant of grace.
  • Favoritism of God? שָׁעָה in Genesis 4:1-16 and its implications for Cain’s status and offerings

    Lisanias, Haezer; Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Theologia Jaffray Makassar; Luthy, Christopher James; University of Divinity, Australia; Frederik, Hanny; Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Jaffray Makassar; Laukapitang, Yunus D. A.; Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Jaffray Makassar (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2023-04-20)
    This article aims to analyze the meaning of the word שָׁעָה based on Genesis 4:1-16 and explain its implications for the status of Cain and his offering. The research method used by the author in writing this is a qualitative research method based on hermeneutic principles. The results of this study indicate that the word שָׁעָה has the meaning of respect. God honoured Abel and his sacrifice. At the same time, God does not respect Cain and his gift. God knows what Cain's plot was before he killed Abel. The implication of Cain's status and sacrifice is that Cain's evil personality hindered him and his sacrifice before God. His person stands in the way of his gift to reach God.
  • Urban Mission Strategy Through One-on-One Online Dialogue in Melbourne Australia

    Hermanto, Yanto Paulus; Sekolah Tinggi Teologi (STT) Kharisma; Usmanij, Petrus Antonius; La Trobe University, Australia; Zaluchu, Sonny; Indonesia Baptist Theological Seminary (STBI) (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2023-04-25)
    This paper reports the results of research on urban evangelism conducted online using a Zoom application with one-on-one techniques. The method is to conduct worldview talks with other religions in Melbourne, Australia. The dialogue refers to three key questions: (1) What is the worldview of your belief or religion? (2)  Is there more to life than this? and (3) How does your belief or religion contribute to your life? The paper is presented in the form of descriptive reports. As a result, dialogue between religious people through a worldview approach in urban areas is effective as an effort to deepen the beliefs of others and introduce religious teachings embraced by other religions. The research contributes to the strategy of contemporary urban missions in the pandemic in the digital community. It provides new insights that evangelism can be done using technological devices in addition to the traditional way.
  • The Euthanasia Debate and Its Implications on The Legalization of Euthanasia in Indonesia

    Xian, Chia Yee; Theology Department, Mount Carmel Bible Presbyterian Church, Singapore (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2023-04-20)
    Today, an ethical issue that is controversial and much debated is the practice of euthanasia. The ethical debate on euthanasia is basically about competing moral visions and values. The research method used in this study is qualitative. Information is collected from publications such as books and journals. The advocates for the legalisation of euthanasia based their reasons on compassion and individual autonomy. They argue that euthanasia is right because it removes human suffering. Everyone has the right to determine how to die, concerning when and how. They believe that certain lives, such as people in a persistent vegetative state, are not just worth living. Those who oppose euthanasia say it is morally wrong to kill helpless people, even at their request. Christians who oppose euthanasia base their arguments on the sanctity of life. A person’s freedom to decide on euthanasia should follow a structure of healthy moral values. Another key consideration in the debate is the slippery slope argument. Currently, euthanasia is prohibited in Indonesia, as stated in Article 344 of the Indonesian Criminal Code. As more countries legalise euthanasia, the writer believes that the call for legalising euthanasia in Indonesia will be intensified. We need to be better informed because law, medicine, beliefs and reason intersect in the euthanasia debate. The writer will give an overall view of the contemporary euthanasia debate from a Christian perspective.
  • Conformed to the Image of Christ: Evaluating Approaches to Spiritual Formation

    Chia, Philip Suciadi; Evangelical Theological Seminary of Indonesia; Chishi, Asato; Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2023-04-15)
    In his letter to the Church in Ephesus, Paul writes that every disciple of Jesus ought to “make God’s activity the pattern for their lives” and become Christlike by Andrew T. Lincoln. Every disciple’s goal is to imitate the perfect image of God—Jesus Christ. This imitation is possible through practical obedience, as the German theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer stated. Keeping in mind that the disciple’s end goal is to imitate Jesus, it is deemed essential to evaluate Spiritual formational approaches that are viewed as scaffolds in conforming to the image of Christ. The research seeks to critically analyze four approaches to Spiritual formation to appreciate their strengths and identify their weaknesses and evaluate their effectiveness to determine if such approaches can help believers in conforming to the image of Christ. Thus, the thesis of this article is to argue for the quintessential role of the Holy Spirit, the essential responsibility of the human agent, and the indispensable role of the Christian community, which are deemed crucial for effective Spiritual formational approaches.
  • Missionary Thinking in the Perspective of Adult Education Principles and Bible Study

    GP, Harianto; (ID SCOPUS: 57218898497) Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Excelsius; Suparti, Hana; Daliman, Muner; (ID SCOPUS: 57226348242), Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Kadesi Yogyakarta; James, Jonathan D.; (ID SCOPUS: 57006014200), Adjunct lecturer at Edith Cowan University and Senior Lecturer at Sheridan College. (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2022-10-21)
    Adult education is formulated as a process that fosters a desire to ask questions and learn continuously throughout life. The study aims to answer the questions: What is the Bible as the basis for teaching design? What are the characteristics of adult education? What is the correct and effective formulation of a missionary for adult education? The answers are: 1) The Bible as the basis for teaching design means Bible values are the source and guide of all curricula; 2) Characteristics of adult education, both in the field of work and other experiences, are independent, think for their interests (future) and have diverse backgrounds; 3) Appropriate and effective missionary Bible studies for adult education are as follows: a) curriculum that reflects God's missionary vision (Missio Dei); b) a curriculum model for a missionary approach that uses information, stimulation, or projection and a learning process for missionary approach which is developed based on the interests of adults by integrating all forms of activities.
  • Paul’s Justification by Faith: Reformers’ Perspective and Implication for Theological Learning

    Chia, Yee Xian; Theology Department, Mount Carmel Bible Presbyterian Church 152 West Coast Rd, Singapore 127370 (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2022-10-21)
    Since the Fall, man is totally depraved. Therefore, Paul insists that “a man is not justified by observing the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ.” The doctrine of Justification by Faith is one of the most important doctrines of Protestantism. Justification is the remission of sins and the imputation of Christ’s righteousness to sinners who have believed. However, the teaching of this doctrine is largely neglected today when churches do not support the three basic presuppositions in which the doctrine of Justification by Faith rests: the divine authority of Holy Scripture, the divine wrath against sin and the substitutionary satisfaction of Christ. When these truths are not supported and taught, inevitably the doctrine of Justification by Faith will be neglected. The doctrine of Justification by Faith determines whether the church stands or falls. When this doctrine is understood, believed, preached and taught, the church stands in the grace of God and is alive. On the other hand, when this doctrine is neglected, the church will fall from grace and will be in a state of darkness and death. The writer would like to reinstate the doctrine of Justification by Faith to its rightful and central place by giving an overview of Paul’s, Patristic Fathers’ and Reformers’ perspectives of justification. The doctrine of Justification by Faith must be taught in its biblical setting and its presuppositions re-established. Qualitative methods will be used in this study in the form of library research and journals. 
  • Exploring the Spiritual Struggles of God’s Servant in the Book of Jonah

    Sin, Sia Kok; Theology Department, Sekolah Tinggi Theologi Aletheia, Lawang; Simon, Mark; New Testament and Research Associate, Ridley College, Melbourne (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2022-10-19)
    This article focuses on the spiritual struggles of Jonah, as narrated in the book bearing his name. While negative evaluations of Jonah's character have dominated recent scholarly work (for example, as a disobedient, stubborn, nationalistic prophet or anti-hero), this article argues that such categorizations are too simplistic and flat. Jonah is, instead, a complex, round character who dares to disobey and argue with God in the course of his struggle to understand and respond to God's attributes and purposes. Throughout Jonah's book, we see God's patience and mercy at work as he commissioned, disciplined, rescued, recommissioned, and educated Jonah. The article includes an inductive summary of the words and actions of Jonah, a literature review, a re-reading of the text in dialogue with scholarly voices focused on the spiritual struggle of the prophet, and a discussion of key pastoral implications for the calling, discernment and character formation of those in Christian ministry.
  • Eudaimonism: Juxtaposition to the Concept of the Last Judgment on Matthew 25:31-46

    Universitas Advent Indonesia; Hendriks, Alvyn Cesarianto; Universitas Advent Indonesia; Hutagalung, Stimson Bernard; Universitas Advent Indonesia; Najoan, Jemmy Carter; Universitas Advent Indonesia (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2022-10-20)
    The concept of “last judgment” means punishment for the wicked and reward for the righteous with the ultimate goal of human life. Philosophers’ theories sometimes contradict the contents of the Bible. Does eudaimonism go against the Bible or support each other? This study endeavours to cultivate a deeper insight into Aristotle’s happiness theory-eudaimonia juxtaposed with the pericope in Matthew about the final judgment. With a literature review approach, this qualitative method interpreted the narrative through several stages. Eudaimonia walks in rhythm with the concept of the final judgment in Matthew 25:31–46. Eudaimonia is about doing virtue as a self-maximizing potential to achieve the ultimate goal of human life, which is judged by reason as a demand of someone’s current situation with the assumption that leads to the truth. Matthew 25:31-46 reveals that the determination of “last judgment” is judged through practical religion by sharing Jesus’ friendship “today” through virtue with those who hunger and thirst for truth. Those who do it will receive the kingdom of God, and those who do not will be thrown into eternal fire.
  • Ethnotheology Studies Concerning the Substance of Folk Religion as Local Theology of the Tugutil Ethnic in Halmahera Towards Contextual Ministry

    Institut Agama Kristen Negeri (IAKN) Manado; Mawikere, Marde Christian Stenly; Theology Department, Institut Agama Kristen Negeri Manado; Hura, Sudiria; Institut Agama Kristen Negeri Manado; Bonde, Imbran Batelemba; Hartford International University 77 Sherman Street, Hartford, Connecticut. (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2022-10-19)
    This article is an ethnotheological study of the substance of Folk Religion as Local Theology of the Tugutil Ethnic in Halmahera Island, North Maluku Province, Indonesia. This study examines and describes the elements of folk religion, namely beliefs about God, humans, sin and salvation as the fundamental beliefs of traditional societies with animism-dynamism patterns. The research was carried out using a qualitative method with an ethnographic approach. The results of this study show that the local theology of the Tugutil ethnicity regarding Jou Ma Dutu as God. He was the creator and owner of the universe; trichotomous human nature o roehe-o gikiri-o gurumini; the human reality that is o baradoha ma nyawa which only causes the instability of the universe and disturbances to the ancestral spirits. Likewise, the concept of salvation they believe in is present and pragmatic, which does not give place to futuristic eternal life. The final result of this study shows that by examining deeply folk religion, the local theology was adopted by the Tugutil ethnic group. It becomes a consideration for implementing sociocultural approaches and contextual ministry, both spiritual and social ministry, for the Tugutil ethnic group as one of the isolated community groups in Indonesia.
  • The Significant of God-Fearers for the Formation of Early Christians Identity in Acts 8-10

    Aryanto, Antonius Galih Arga Wiwin; Faculty of theology Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta; Racine, Jean-Francois; Jesuit School of Theology Santa Clara University, CA-USA (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2022-03-26)
    This study attempts to analyze the critical role of God-fearers in developing the early Christian identity. Luke-Acts uses ethnic reasoning to define the Christian community. They use words such as gentiles, unbelievers and other ethnic group such as Romans, Greeks as outsiders. The race and ethnicity study provides the theory to understand how people from different groups attempt to accept each other and negotiate their differences, such as their cultures, belief, and social relationship. God-fearers have an important role in the early Christian mission because through them. The mission goes out from Jerusalem to the entire Roman Empire. The mission in the diaspora has mixed members, including Jewish Christians and Gentiles. Both groups enter into table fellowship, which develop a distinct Christian identity. 
  • The Functional Characterization of Pilate and the Kingship of Jesus in John 18-19

    CHRISTOPHER, DANY; Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Amanat Agung (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2022-03-26)
    Scholars generally interpret the character of Pilate (John 18-19) in terms of his personality traits. He is seen either as having a strong character or a weak one. This article seeks to understand his character differently, by seeing his function within the narrative of John 18-19. This article argues that John employs Pilate as his narrative medium to ironically and gradually depicts Jesus’s kingship over the Jews as well as showing his kingship as superior to the Roman emperor.
  • Pastoral Strategies for the Loneliness Epidemic of the Digital Generation

    Gultom, Joni Manumpak Parulian; Sekolah Tinggi Teologi REAL; Simanjuntak, Fredy; (ID SCOPUS: 57224004555) Sekolah Tinggi Teologi REAL (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2022-03-20)
    The negative impact of artificial intelligence is the ability of generations without a sense of care for themselves. In the frenzy of technological advances and the massive capabilities of social media, it turns out that there is a dangerous space that this generation often doesn't realize, namely loneliness. Since the discovery of internet technology, lonely sufferers have experienced a spike among digital people. They often feel lonely and seemingly asymptomatic. If pastoral stewardship does not address this problem, the digital generation is bound to feel lonely, depressed, which can lead to suicide. They experience a decreased quality of life despite being in the church and parental care. The question is, what are the causes and effects of this problem of loneliness? What practical steps can shepherds take? And what kind of pastoral strategy is there to tackle the loneliness epidemic ravaging the digital generation? The purpose of this study is [1] to describe the causes and adverse effects of loneliness problems. [2] Describe simply practical steps a shepherd can take in dealing with loneliness. [3] Describe her pastoral and stewardship strategies as a solution to the problem of loneliness among this digital generation. The method used in this research is Systematic Literature Review (SLR) for journal papers published in 2016-2021. Contribution of this research ; [1] For spiritual practitioners and educators who are directly related to recovery from the loneliness of the digital generation, [2] as a reference for pastoral teams and pastoral candidates in local church stewardship, [3] practical steps for parents in overcoming loneliness problems digital child they experienced.
  • Unnalli Melo's Theology and Peace Study on the Concept and Reality of Peace in Toraja Culture

    Sanderan, Rannu; Institut Agama Kristen Negeri Toraja; Ronda, Daniel; Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Jaffray Makassar; Panggarra, Robi; Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray; Buchanan, Andrew; Church Missionary Society of Australia (Sekolah Tinggi Theologia Jaffray, 2022-03-26)
    This research aims to examine the reality of peace in Toraja. Conflicts in neighbouring areas have surrounded the last ten years. This type of research is a qualitative approach with ethnography methods. This research aims to look at virtue in Toraja human nature, the environment, oneself, and God or all at once. This research seeks to explain, evaluate, and study the portrait of the encounter of the peaceful reality of Toraja culture with the most significant importance of peace in the Bible. It can be concluded that the unique moral qualities in the minds of the Torajan people can be interpreted as the interconnectivity of values in the cosmic integrity of the Toraja people. The monumental work of translating the Bible into Sura' Madatu became the shaper of a new character. The expression to love the enemy is one of the ultimate values in the teachings of Jesus and shocking many people. The value of peace that is embryonic in the human mind of Toraja is very effective when it is renewed (value) and reconstructed (form) into the concept of shalom. 

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