• THE ACTIVITY SCHOOL: RATIONALE AND HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS

      Finley, E. Gault (Array, 1966-04-01)
      The Parent Commission on Education in the Province of Quebec has already recommended to the Government that the école active should constitute the basic pedagogical principle for the Provincial educational system. To the Commissioners, the "activist school" entails an institution where pedagogical efforts reflect a twin principle of child psychology - namely, the child is "essentially an active being and it is through use that his capacities develop and his personality expands." In recommending "genuinely child-centered education" in which the pupil's natural curiosity is to be utilized to develop intellectual and moral autonomy, the Parent Commission criticizes the traditional school for generally limiting itself "to more immediate goals" and not striving "to cultivate the spirit of initiative and any feeling of responsibility." The present article is based on Gustav G. Schoenchen's The Activity School: A Basic Philo8ophy for Teachers 3 (an adaptation of his 1939 doctoral dissertation at New York University) and aims to review a major section of this significant and relevant treatise. Schoenchen's book consists of three major parts: 1- Historical and Philosophical; 2- Methodology; 3- Application. The following analysis is primarily drawn from Part 1 which sets forth the basic historical antecedents of the activity school. Emphasis is upon those individuals in Europe whose writings and practices contributed to the underlying principles of what has come to be called activity pedagogy.
    • JUMP IN THE LAKE

      Hawkins, S. Christopher M. (Array, 1966-04-01)
      Between learning to swim and learning to speak a second language a paraIlel may be drawn. The analogy is neither new nor complete, but it contains elements of truth which bear examining.
    • EXAMINATIONS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE SCHOOL

      France, Norman (Array, 1966-04-01)
      At a time when the Province is taking a completely new look at education, it is wise to think again about the form and function of examinations. Why do we test and examine? Our reasons are many and varied. They will not be the same as those offered by parents or by students and we shall differ among ourselves depending on the age of the students we teach and the type of institution we teach in. Any one of us, if pressed, could perhaps advance three or four reasons in detail but we do not always realise that some of the functions we suggest are hardly compatible one with another. An examination devised to assess what a student has learned in high school is not necessarily the most efficient predictor of his success at university.
    • EDITORIAL / ÉDITORIALE: VOL. 1, NO. 1

      Gillett, Margaret (Array, 1966-04-01)
    • THE LEARNING PROCESS AND MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTION

      Whitwell, Richard (Array, 1966-04-01)
      In recent years much has been written concerning the widening gap between the newer developments in mathematics and the traditional mathematics taught in secondary' schools. Not unnaturally, leading scholars in mathematics have looked at the school programmes and found them wanting. These people have considered that mathematics curricula should be reformed so as to bring the subject matter in line with recent developments. Professional educators, many of whom are prepared to take an active part in shaping the future policies of school programmes in mathematics, find themselves faced with the problem of translating the suggested reforms into action within classrooms. Thus, while it is recognized that the mathematicians are in the best position to determine the structure of the discipline, it is the professional educators' responsibility to prepare good school programmes in mathematics.
    • ACTIVIST TEACHING AND THE ORGANIZATION OF HISTORICAL IDEAS

      Wensley, Roland J. (Array, 1966-04-01)
      A student is truly involved in the study of history to the degree that he perceives those patterns of related historical ideas which give to the discipline form and meaning. The most important activity of the history teacher, the very focus of his "activist teaching," is the process by which he organizes and communicates coherent patterns of historical ideas.
    • UNDERSTANDING MEDIA: THE EXTENSIONS OF MAN (Author: Marshall McLuhan)

      Kehoe, Monika (Array, 1966-04-01)
      Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, 359 pp.
    • THE CRACK IN THE REAR-VIEW MIRROR

      McLuhan, Marshall (Array, 1966-04-01)
      When the Middle Ages had departed, the Elizabethan world picture became a medieval one. When the mechanical industry, and rail ways, had created a new environment around the old arts and crafts and the agrarian world, nostalgic image of the departing society became the basis of the Romantic Movement. The more mechanized and urbanized America became, the more flamboyant became its Bonanzas, and its Westerns. But human power to deal with any present reality is minimal. To have discovered this is a huge step toward by-passing this human limitation. In the jet age there are some indications that the rear-view mirror as a notification device is losing its monopoly.
    • THE TEACHER IN THE ACTIVIST SCHOOL

      Hall, Wayne (Array, 1966-04-01)
      It has long been realized that an educational system cannot be better than its teachers. Changes in curricula and regulations mean very little unless they are accompanied by understanding and a desire to change on the part of those who interpret courses in the classroom. Many educators are convinced that the way in which a child is taught is at least as important as what he is taught. This does not necessarily discredit the content of courses in the elementary or the high school. It merely recognizes first that the habits and attitudes which a child acquires may be more permanent than the information which the teacher relays and second, that leading a child to think, to organize, to relate, and to discriminate is much more significant than insisting on recall. Activist educaton accepts both of these principles.
    • THE STRUCTURAL APPROACH TO THE TEACHING OF LATIN

      Ellis, C. Douglas (Array, 1966-08-31)
      Remnants of Latine! For centuries in Western Europe a knowledge of Latin (and, where possible, of Classical Greek), provided the principal access to a study of man's cultural achievements. It could be assumed that a training in Latin was part of the baggage of an educated man. Today, with the explosion of knowledge and the consequent demanda on a student's period of formaI training, the outlay of time and effort in any particultar field must be carefully balanced against the rewards of such concentration. The ready availability of information in any one of a number of modern languages and the staggering development of communications media have deprived Latin of its unique position. As a result, the study of Latin now occupies a somewhat different niche in the hierarchy of educational values.
    • A HISTORY OF EDUCATION: THOUGHT AND PRACTICE (Author: Margaret Gillett)

      Mowat, Alex S. (Array, 1966-08-31)
      Margaret Gillett. A History of Education: Thought and Practice. Toronto: McGraw-Hill of Canada, 1966, 443 pp.
    • TRENDS IN LANGUAGE TEACHING (Editor: Albert Valdman)

      Kehoe, Monika (Array, 1966-08-31)
      Albert Valdman, ed. Trends in Language Teaching, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966, 298 pp., paper.
    • MATHEMATICS 7 - 11, BOOK 1 and TEACHER'S BOOK 1 (Author: Norman France)

      McNicol, Shirley (Array, 1966-08-31)
      Norman France. Mathematics 7 - 11, Book 1 and Teacher's Book 1. London and Glasgow: Collins, 1966, 112 pp. each.
    • GEOGRAPHY AND THE TEACHER and ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY (Author: John H. Wise)

      Lloyd, Trevor (Array, 1966-08-31)
      John H. Wise. Geography and the Teacher. Brisbane: The Jacaranda Press, 1%6, 243 pp. Appendices. Index. John H. Wise, et al. Elementary School Geography, a Handbook of Ideas. Montreal: West Island School Board, 1966, n.p., mimeo.
    • LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION IN SOUTH AFRICA

      Munroe, David (Array, 1966-08-31)
      Among the countries where language has complicated educational policy, South Africa is probably unique. The white or "European" minority of the population is not only separated from the African, Coloured and Asiatic, it is divided within itself between Afrikaner and English. This creates unusual problems. Afrikaans is a new language which has developed during the past century, and its use is limited almost exclusively to the Afrikaners (the Boers), while English, of course, is not only an international language but also the principal lingua franca of the rest of the African continent. Consequently, even leaving aside the numerous native dialects which cannot be ignored in determining educational policies, political leaders have been faced with the problem of encouraging the wider use of Afrikaans without eliminating the general use of English.