Soudobý čínský pohled na vrcholový sport a na jeho roli ve vzestupu Číny
People's Republic of China
modern history of China
history of sport
sport in China
state-run sports system
jazyk a ideologie
moderní dějiny Číny
sport v Číně
Čínská lidová republika
státní systém sportu
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Abstract& KEYWORDS The topic of this thesis is a metatextual analysis of representative Chinese publications about sport published in the post-Olympic era. Together they offer a comprehensive perspective of the sport in China. The thesis employs critical approach to examine Chinese perception of their own history, Chinese motivation to develop competitive sports, the state- run sports system in China, as well as various problems and challenges lying ahead of Chinese sport, ready to be tackled. Part of the thesis offers an analysis of linguistic and ideological aspect of the Chinese publications. The thesis also encounters the topic of the rise of China (i.e. People's Republic of China) and offers brief explanations in relation to the main topic rather than in a broader context. Keywords: modern history of China, history of sport, sport in China, competitive sports, state-run sports system, language & ideology, Marxism, People's Republic of China
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RESPONSE TO THE STUDY OF GÓMEZ-LÓPEZ ET AL. "PERCEIVED BARRIERS BY UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN THE PRACTICE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES. J SPORT SCI & MED 9, 374-38, 2010"Robert Whitham; Bryn Saville (University of Uludag, 2011-03-01)The article by Manuel Gómez-López et al., 2010 was read with interest by student members of Cardiff University's newly formed Sports and Exercise Medicine Society. As medical students we, more than most, are aware of the long term effects that a sedentary lifestyle may bring and its impact on a healthcare system such as ours in the United Kingdom (UK).We found the results of the study intriguing, particularly regarding the 'external barriers-lack of time' category as an important factor in not participating in sports. In the UK there is one afternoon every week which is set aside purely for sporting activities, providing the time to train and compete against other universities. Furthermore, UK universities on the whole offer more advanced and diverse facilities than those available to people at school, whilst there is also a greater number of sporting and exercise opportunities for people to partake in. University is potentially one of the best times in life to expand one's horizons and spend time enjoying the various extra-curricular activities that there is on offer, hence it is crucial that any perceived barriers to this are broken down to allow implementation of a healthy routine. Physical activity has been shown to decrease psychosocial stress and cardiovascular mortality (Milani and Lavie, 2009), something that would surely be considered positive if a sedentary individual were contemplating regular exercise.As future doctors we are concerned about an obesity epidemic that is only becoming more severe. Much of adult obesity has its roots in childhood (Sinha and Kling, 2009) and in modern times many children progress to university and further education. With students as the next generation of parents and working people, there should be a clear focus, especially across the developed world, on improving involvement in physical activities in the hope of decreasing prospective morbidity and the strain this brings to each nation's health service.It is undisputed that a lot of time is required to meet educational requirements and academic deadlines, yet it is not immensely difficult for those with an interest in sport to also pursue these activities. Medicine is a demanding and time-consuming course, yet the majority of medical students in our year at Cardiff regularly participate in sports, many of us acquiring important roles within the clubs whilst competing to high standards. We believe that students in the UK who have adopted an inactive way of life may be influenced by intrinsic factors, such as those mentioned within the article, to a greater extent than proposed. It would be easy for people to blame extrinsic factors in this questionnaire to hide their own lack of motivation. Although these intrinsic traits cannot truly be altered, educational institutes should commit to provide the facilities and spare time for sport amongst this age group, therefore partially reducing the hindrance of any external factors. The important observations made by Gómez-López et al. should not be taken for granted; it is crucial that a healthy lifestyle is promoted from an early age to maintain a good level of physical and mental health. Universities have a duty to their students whereby they should remove any barriers preventing students from practicing their chosen activity. In the future we hope that participation levels will continue to rise, bringing with it all the associated benefits.
EFFICACY OF HOME-BASED KINESTHESIA, BALANCE & AGILITY EXERCISE TRAINING AMONG PERSONS WITH SYMPTOMATIC KNEE OSTEOARTHRITISMatthew W. Rogers; Nauris Tamulevicius; Stuart J. Semple; Zarko Krkeljas (University of Uludag, 2012-12-01)The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a home-based kinesthesia, balance and agility (KBA) exercise program to improve symptoms among persons age > 50 years with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty-four persons were randomly assigned to 8-weeks, 3 times per week KBA, resistance training (RT), KBA + RT, or Control. KBA utilized walking agility exercises and single-leg static and dynamic balancing. RT used elastic resistance bands for open chain lower extremity exercises. KBA + RT performed selected exercises from each technique. Control applied inert lotion daily. Outcomes included the OA specific WOMAC Index of Pain, Stiffness, and Physical Function (PF), community activity level, exercise self-efficacy, self-report knee stability, and 15m get up & go walk (GUG). Thirty-three participants [70.7 (SD 8.5) years] completed the trial. Analysis of variance comparing baseline, mid-point, and follow-up measures revealed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in WOMAC scores among KBA, RT, KBA + RT, and Control, with no differences between groups. However, Control WOMAC improvements peaked at mid- point, whereas improvement in the exercise conditions continued at 8-weeks. There were no significant changes in community activity level. Only Control improved exercise self-efficacy. Knee stability was improved in RT and Control. GUG improved in RT and KBA+RT. These results indicate that KBA, RT, or a combination of the two administered as home exercise programs are effective in improving symptoms and quality of life among persons with knee OA. Control results indicate a strong placebo effect in the short term. A combination of KBA and RT should be considered as part of the rehabilitation program, but KBA or RT alone may be appropriate for some patients. Studies with more statistical power are needed to confirm or refute these results. Patient presentation, preferences, costs, and convenience should be considered when choosing an exercise rehabilitation approach for persons with knee OA
TAI CHI CHUAN: STATE OF THE ART IN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH: VOL 52 (MEDICINE & SPORT SCIENCE)Youlian Hong (University of Uludag, 2008-09-01)DESCRIPTION This collection on the latest and practical research data about the characteristics and beneficial effects of Tai Chi Chuan on various physiological and pathological matters is published as the 52nd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE To address the effects of Tai Chi Chuan in the fields of biomechanics and physiology, sensory motor control and fall prevention, psychology and social aspects, as well as various clinical applications. FEATURES The book is organised into four sections, each containing four to seven chapters: the first section focuses on biomechanical and physiological aspects of Tai Chi in seven chapters, the second section addresses the benefits of the sport in terms of sensory motor control and fall prevention in five chapters, the third section highlights the psychological and social aspects in four chapters, and in the last section the application of Tai Chi in clinical intervention such as in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes is demonstrated in six chapters. AUDIENCE This is a thorough reference book for students, researchers, teachers and healthcare professionals in exercise science and medicine. In fact, anyone already practicing Tai Chi Chuan or considering it up would benefit from this book. ASSESSMENT This 52nd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal on Tai Chi Chuan is a valuable and essential source of information brought together by recognized researchers around the Globe. The book is for everybody who is interested in understanding the effects and application of this fascinating form of exercise which has been developed as a form of martial arts and used for health exercise for centuries in China.