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AbstractThe aim of this thesis is to reconstruct the principal features of the theory of ideology which can be found in the work of french marxist philosopher Louis Althusser. An attempt to clarify the key differences between approaches of Althusser's and that of classical marxism is also made here, although the author belongs rightfully to marxist philosophical tradition. Owing to belief in usefulness of this method, the thesis tries to enrich a traditional interpretation of Althusser's theory by using less known and less employed writings by the same author. Apart from the above mentioned goal this work also aims to describe author's original conception of the philosophical category of subject. This category is in many ways a centrepiece of the whole Althusser's theory of ideology and due to this reason the examination of his implications permeates almost entirely the work you are about to read.