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AbstractThe present work deals with the circumstances and course of the Czechoslovak aid to Israel at the end of the forties of the 20th century. For purposes of this main objective is divided into two parts, the first of which presents a general overview of historical events associated with the formation of the Israeli state on the territory of Palestine, from the period World War I until the mid-20th century. Among other things, pointed to the proportion of major powers, especially Great Britain and France, the development of national sentiments and relations between Arabs and Jews in the Middle East. Expectations of the Arabs are not always coincide with the political intentions of the British and the French, especially as regards the Palestinian territories. When the 29th November 1947 the UN voted for the creation of Israel, the Arabs saw it as a betrayal and violation of earlier promises to give them power. The conflict, which is then unleashed in the Middle East, decided on the existence or nonexistence of the newly established Jewish state. The center of work is the second chapter on its own during the Czechoslovak aid to Israel. There is presented an analysis of the political relationship of both these states, especially with regard to the role of the Czechoslovak leaders to decide on establishment of an...