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AbstractThe work talks about education in a sociological and philosophical context. It is based on the Marxist, or rather Neomarxist, point of view, introduced in the first part of the work. It mainly focuses on Marx's historical theory and the alienation of man in capitalism. Furthermore, the works of certain authors, who wrote about these topics, as well as criticised some of the features of the late capitalistic society are briefly discussed. The term education is then put in a social context and introduced in different culturally dependent variations. The goal of this section of the work is to show the dependence of the perception of education on the current historical and social context and to elaborate on its perception in the late capitalistic society. Then a certain theoretical definition is formed, which could be essential in solving certain problems based on the current structure of social relationships. The final part investigates school and reveals it as a certain institucional conservant of the current understanding of education. It shows that even school tuition depends on the historically and socially conditioned values and therefore cannot become the primary source for redefining the meaning of education, so that it could aid in solving some of the structural problems of society.