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AbstractOur main theme in this work is the philosophical thinking of Jaroslava Pešková, one of the most important Czech philosophers. The problem, which we start with, is the situation of marxist philosophy in 50th and 60th of the 20th century and the position of Jaroslava Pešková in this period and in the Czech philosophy in general. Instead of summation of all the subject in her texts, we rather want to realize the "deep exploration" of the philosophical basis, from which Jaroslava Pešková thinks, and which is not visible at first sight, even for readers familiar with philosophy. This philosophical ground we see in the concept of human being, which is not only in the worldly relations (economical, sociological, political, juridical, psychological, biological etc. etc.), but has a relation to all of these relations. To this structure and its philosophical ground we are trying to take an acccss and to make it visible in our probes into the key themes of Jaroslava Pešková's thinking. The philosophical and ideological movement from marxist to phenomenological philosophy wasn't thematized by marxist thinkers such as Jiří Pešek, Jaroslava Pešková or Karel Kosík. Also this lap we are trying to fill.