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Abstract67 Resumé The legal statute of the Jews in the time of the reign of Maria Theresa and Joseph II. The purpose of my thesis is to analyse the legal statute of Jewish minority in the Czech lands in the time of the reign of Maria Theresa and Joseph II. Main concentration is thus focused upon the second half of the 18th century. The reason for my research is to try to understand the background of their long lasting bad treatment during previous centuries and its changes in the upcoming time of the Enlightenment. The thesis is composed of three chapters, each of them dealing with different historical background and timeline. Chapter One is introductory and describes the long way of the Jews from the origin of Jewish nation in the Middle East, followed by the beginning of jewish diaspora and its european history until the French Revolution. Chapter Two describes the legal history of the Jews settled in the Czech lands since their beginning in the 10th century until the introduction of the infamous restrictive so called Familiants laws in 1726. Chapter Three deals directly with the main topic, the legal statute of the Jews in the Czech lands in the time of Maria Theresa and Joseph II. It consists of two main parts. First is dedicated to the time of the reign of Maria Theresa and her well known decision about the...