Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Missiology is the journal of the Southern African Missiological Society (SAMS). It is published three times a year (April, August and November). Articles and book reviews published in the journal do not necessarily reflect the views of the Editorial, or the Editorial Board, or of SAMS. Manuscripts submitted for publication are assessed by a panel of referees, and the decision to publish is dependent on their reports. As a SAPSE-accredited journal Missionalia publishes research articles that contribute new knowledge to the field of Missiology.


The Globethics.net library contains articles of Missionalia as of vol. 41(2013) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Editorial

    Mangayi,C L (Southern African Missiological Society, 2019-01-01)
  • AIC theologies and western missions - A South African analysis

    Molobi,Victor MS (Southern African Missiological Society, 2019-01-01)
    African Independent Churches are groups of churches emerging out of western mainline church experiences. They have increased into many small groups with variant names of their interest. The process of constant breakaways gave them the urge to multiply and gain autonomy. The mainline churches constantly criticise the disadvantaged of this uncontrollable proliferation for lack of theological focus. In South Africa, they are in both large and small faith groups. They are, however, growing irrespective of the theological concern of the mainline scholars and researchers. Since they have evolved over many years alongside the mainline churches, they are aware of such criticisms. As a result, they are compelled to work on a strategy to develop their theology to public spaces. The founding leaders and visions form the core of their theologies. Their biblical faith learned from their founders' leadership and visions. They are Africans who want to teach themselves the Christian ways anchored in their traditional heritages. Can African Independent Churches ever have their own unique theologies? This is the core-interest approach to this article.
  • Tutu in Memory, Tutu on Memory. Strategies of Remembering

    Maluleke,Tinyiko (Southern African Missiological Society, 2019-01-01)
    This essay profiles the strategies and (theological) tactics used by Desmond Tutu in the management of painful memory in his own personal life, in his various leadership roles in church and society as well as in his role as chairperson of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. To contextualise Tutu's work, we refer, amongst others, to the work of Elie Wiesel, Don Mattera and Leonard Cohen. The essay provides a profile of the ways in which Tutu is remembered as well as the approaches Tutu himself uses in his own acts of remembering. The latter include the importance of childhood memories, the anchoring of memory in familial and parental relationships, a keen awareness of the socio-economic conditions, the valorisation of childhood church experiences, the privileging of the Bible, the leveraging of Ubuntu, making forgiveness the main lens through which to look into the past as well as the maintenance of a hermeneutic that suggests that God is historically on the side of the weak.²
  • Missiology as social justice. A contextual reading of the mission of Christ in Luke 4:16-19

    Kgatle,Mooko S (Southern African Missiological Society, 2019-01-01)
    In honour of Professor Nico Botha, this article is a contextual reading of Luke 4:1619. The article addresses social issues such as poverty, captivity, oppression and bondage, not only as the mission of Christ but in the context of the poor and the marginalised in the City of Tshwane. These are the same social ills that the homeless in the City of Tshwane experience in their everyday life. Literature review on the topic of social justice demonstrates a relationship between social justice and social poverty. It also demonstrates that homelessness is associated with social factors such as unemployment, poverty and inequality. However, the literature review on social justice demonstrates the research gap in studying the subject from Luke 4:16-19. Equally so, the context of Luke 4:16-19 demonstrates a research gap in applying the text in the context of the homeless in the City of Tshwane. To address the two research gaps, this article reads Luke 4:16-19 in the context of the homeless in the City of Tshwane.
  • The 'just war' tradition in Zimbabwean historiography. Dis(entangling) the Gordian knot between religion and morality of war

    Gundani,Paul H (Southern African Missiological Society, 2019-01-01)
    Three wars stand out in Zimbabwean historiography with regard to the use and application of the 'just war' tradition. The first was occasioned by the murder of Father Goncalo da Silveira, a Portuguese Jesuit missionary, in 1560. After seeking the advice of the Ecclesiastical Council, the Portuguese king decided to send an expedition under the leadership of Francisco Barreto to wage war against the Mutapa Empire. Deliberations by the Council had concluded that the military expedition would constitute a 'just war'. The second war broke out in 1893, at the instigation of the British South Africa Company. This war, often referred to as the 'Matabele war' was a war of conquest against the Ndebele kingdom. Again, the 'just war' theory was applied. Thirdly, political and Church leaders in support of the Chimurenga / Umfazo II (1966-1979) also used the concept in their writings. This article argues that the three wars fell short of the moral bar to which the 'just war' tradition aspires. Instead, the three wars were geared to, and indeed succeeded in, serving parochial and sectarian interests of those behind the war at the expense of the lofty ideals espoused by the 'just war' tradition. The study will rely on available secondary sources that form part of Zimbabwean historiography2.
  • When state corruption becomes a 'Sunday School Picnic'. A response to media reports on corruption

    Baron,Eugene (Southern African Missiological Society, 2019-01-01)
    This contribution is part of a festschrift in honour of emeritus professor, Nico Adam Botha, who laboured tirelessly for the concretisation of justice to all citizens in the boundaries of South Africa and beyond. His academic treatise offers volumes to matters of justice/injustice, in most cases particularly related to those with economic power, abusing the resources that cripple the economy and result in the most vulnerable (the poorest of the poor!) suffering. This contribution also reflects critically on the unequal representation of media reports on government corruption, as opposed to corruption in corporate South Africa. Moreover, it transposes beyond such media reporting. The author argues in this contribution that the academic corpus of Nico Botha provides a theoretical framework that can be used as a diagnostic analysis and probe, but also to re-imagine the causes and eradication of corruption in South Africa.
  • Editorial

    Baron,E. (Southern African Missiological Society, 2019-01-01)
  • Cone's binary view of Africanness and Christianity through the eyes of his African American critics

    Urbaniak,Jakub (Southern African Missiological Society, 2018-01-01)
    Unlike some of his American colleagues, James Cone tended to distance Black Theology from Africanness in general and African Traditional Religions in particular. Throughout his life this tendency has evolved, but never disappeared altogether. This article sets out to achieve three goals. First, I give a historical account of Cone's relationship with Africa, particularly with African religiosity, focusing on the criticism he received from his colleagues in the U.S. (notably Gayraud Wilmore, Cecil Cone and Charles Long). Second, I analyse the tension between the Christian and the African in Cone's theological outlook by probing his notion of indigenization/Africanization among others. Third, I seek to interpret Cone's binary view of Christianity and Africanness in the light of his chief locus of enunciation, namely Western Christianity (albeit contested). My attempt here is to lay foundations for an engagement with Cone's attitude toward Africanness from the current South African (decolonial) perspective by considering it, first, within its original African American context.
  • Cracking the Eurocentric Code - A Battle on the Banks of the 'New Blood Rivers'

    Vellem,Vuyani (Southern African Missiological Society, 2018-01-01)
    Belief in divine privilege or God's creation of a volk is fundamental a motif in the propulsion of the superiority of one race against another in the world, ipso facto, the continuous management of systems of knowledge, authority, economics, and a 'world civilization' now quintessentially fundamentalist and racially fascist are effects of this deeply hidden and coded belief. Apartheid simply, is a zenith of this supersessionist (replacement of Israel from the Bible with European white) world enunciated since the justification of the commodification and dispensability of black lives. To elucidate this thesis, this article first offers a presentation of Cone's theological grammar. Second, we punctuate the value of self-criticality as an indispensable criterion by demonstrating that Cone was engaged critically in Black Theology of Liberation's (BTL) internal discourses not only to clarify the relationship between Sunday and Saturday religiosities, but to distinguish and distance BTL from idolatrous imaginations of knowledge and history. Black faith oozes from the volcanic, rapturous explosion that dismantles the divide between Sunday and Saturday religions. Third, we make the point about the ghettoization of Cone's theology at its gestation and by this we seek to demonstrate this continuous relegation of the school to residential alienation and nihilism in the battle of ideas. For this reason, the article argues, cracking the "Western code," to break the coalition of black experience with the white power structure, is the space where BTL might have to dwell in the battle of 'New Blood Rivers.'
  • A Haunting Responsibility to James Cone

    Meylahn,Johann-Albrecht (Southern African Missiological Society, 2018-01-01)
    The Communist Manifesto begins with the words, 'A spectre is haunting Europe - a spectre of Communism'. Maybe with the death of the father of Black Theology one could argue that a spectre of Black Theology is haunting the globe. A Spirit of Black Theology is haunting the globe and particularly South Africa, and this spirit is seeking to become manifest, in other words, seeking to be made manifest by finding an embodiment. Theologies in the South have inherited this spirit, the spirit of James Cone, and with this inheritance comes a responsibility. In this article I will seek to respond to this spirit, but in the light of another of Marx's texts, The Eighteenth Brumaire, where he argues that the new social revolution, which would maybe be an appropriate response to Cone's spirit, is a revolution that takes its poetics from the future. "The social revolution cannot draw its poetry from the past, but only from the future. It cannot begin with itself before it has stripped itself of all its superstitions concerning the past. Earlier revolutions relied on memories out of world history in order to drug themselves against their own content. In order to find their own content, the revolutions of the 19th century have to let the dead bury the dead. Before, the expression exceeded the content; now the content exceeds the expression" (Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire). The content, the cry, exceeds the expression. Between these two texts of Karl Marx (and Engels), I will specifically be reading Cone's expropriation of the cry of black pain, and how this cry calls for a response (expression) in the contemporary context of mass migration, fundamentalism and a shifting world order from a mono-polar world to perhaps multi-polar globe, whilst heeding Marx's words that the content exceeds the expression.
  • The Bible and/as the Lynching Tree - A South African Tribute to James H. Cone

    West,Gerald O. (Southern African Missiological Society, 2018-01-01)
    In this tribute to James H. Cone I reflect on his biblical-theological hermeneutics, drawing on work that spans nearly fifty years, but concentrating on his most recent book, The Cross and the Lynching Tree. I identify in Cone's work radical hermeneutics of reception, which I then bring into dialogue with Itumeleng Mosala's radical hermeneutic of production. This dialogue, I argue, offers us significant biblical-theological capacities for a post-apartheid biblical hermeneutics of decolonisation, with specific reference to South Africa's land expropriation debate.
  • The dynamics of multicultural Youth Ministry in a changing South Africa

    Strecker,Alex; Naidoo,Marilyn (Southern African Missiological Society, 2018-01-01)
    A missiological mandate to reach out to all people is imperative as more youth ministries become multicultural and there is a need for a safe place to learn and grow spiritually within the local church. This ministry is an important issue that needs to be addressed within a changing society and a changing church culture, as youth ministries are challenged to intentionally and authentically reach out to young people from all backgrounds. Churches that have been traditionally monocultural in their approach need to make adjustments as they work with adolescents representing diversity of all kinds. This article reports on the findings of a qualitative research study carried out in a local church in Pretoria, South Africa providing meaningful insights where there is rather limited literature regarding multicultural youth ministry. The findings underline the need for a broader understanding of multiculturalism that engages in purposeful programming, strengthens genuine friendships, nurtures transforming spirituality and develops leadership abilities amongst culturally diverse young people within local youth ministry.
  • Editorial

    Mangayi,L; Niemandt,CJP (Southern African Missiological Society, 2018-01-01)
  • The demise of the Lutheran Theological Institute Library and Archives in retrospect - Reflections of a Manuscript Librarian in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

    Garaba,Francis (Southern African Missiological Society, 2018-01-01)
    The closure of an information centre - be it a library, archives or a museum - should be a cause for concern for the information professional, considering that information available in these centres may be risky, particularly when there is a joint ownership which ends due to conflict. This leaves the record vulnerable, both physically and electronically. To compound the situation, the lack of a proper transition mechanism to oversee that library and archives equipment (with the information from these centres) is handed over to the new custodians of the material, for temporary storage, has far reaching consequences in terms of access and preservation. The dramatic scenes that ensued at the Lutheran Theological Institution's (LTI) Library and Archives are worth documenting for the benefit of sister institutions and for the information sector in general, particularly in situations where conflict is concerned as was the case here. The demise of LTI was an unmitigated disaster owing largely to internal dissension. Teijgeler (2006), the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) (2017) and Ngulube (2018) acknowledged that like many other forms of cultural heritage, documentary works are under constant threat of destruction due to a number of reasons, and conflict was singled out as was the case at the LTI Library. However, a number of lessons can be learnt from this debacle and a few will be highlighted here. Firstly, faith-based collections (religious archives) need to be legislated like their counterparts' - public archives. Secondly, sister institutions need to ensure that both records and archives management functions are harmonised to minimise over-reliance on donors for material in the archives.
  • The evangelical role of wichcraft in some Pentecostal movements - An African pastoral concern

    Baloyi,Elijah M (Southern African Missiological Society, 2018-01-01)
    There is enough evidence that while listening to the preaching and messages of most Pentecostal preachers or watching them on some free television channels today, the emphasis is on freeing people from the oppression of demons and witchcraft. Many people, the poor included, risk asking for cash loans to use for travelling to meet with the so-called prophets in distant areas. There is an example of those South Africans who died in Nigeria when the double storey building fell upon them. Besides promising them prosperity, these prophets also promise to protect them from those who bewitch them. This kind of message is fast becoming the driving force behind the fast-growing megachurches around Gauteng and in other parts of South Africa. The intention of this article is to check if it can be theologically justifiable to use witchcraft to make people come to church. It will be important to also investigate if this kind of advent brings the intended message of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
  • The church and poverty alleviation - The challenges for Congo Evangelistic Mission

    Kakwata,F (Southern African Missiological Society, 2020-01-01)
    This study2 utilised the qualitative methodology in which individual data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews to investigate the challenges facing the Congo Evangelistic Mission (CEM) in its attempts to alleviate poverty in the city of Lubumbashi. The findings of this study revealed that the CEM's ability to respond to poverty problems in Lubumbashi holistically is hampered for the most part by individualistic, structural and fatalistic perspectives that underly perceptions of the causes of poverty that shaped the mind of the people. Consequently, the CEM's intervention in alleviating poverty was found to be insignificant as it was limited to sporadic instances of assistance for the needy. For the CEM to play an active and vital role in tackling poverty, it needs to re-evaluate the theology of missions by expressing the concern for the poor and working towards life transformation.
  • Diakonia and Diaconal Church

    Klaasen,John S (Southern African Missiological Society, 2020-01-01)
    What are the authentic features of a diaconal ecclesia in contexts of crises, such as the coronavirus pandemic? In the South African context, the response of the church has been both positive and negative. During this period of the coronavirus outbreak, the church has been visible and pastoral in Holy Week, and especially during Easter. After Holy Easter, the visibility of the church gave way to non-governmental organisations, social responsibility organisations, government social development agencies, and other government departments. These institutions and organisations emerged as active, practical, and concrete sources of hope because they provided the immediate and tangible needs of the people, including food, shelter, medical care, and psychological support. This research investigates the gap in the church as liturgical movement and service oriented. This elicits the question, what is the church in times of crisis? On the assumption that the church is diaconal, what kind of diaconal ecclesia is suited for times of crisis, like the coronavirus pandemic in South Africa? To understand the main arguments and perspectives of the two modes of church, service and liturgy, the author will review literature with a specific focus on the ecumenical church. In addition, a conceptual analysis of the main terminologies and its effects on the development of notions of church will also be conducted. The modes of church will be interpreted through the lens of catholicity to formulate a diaconal ecclesia with distinctive features for times of crisis such as the current pandemic.
  • The Relevance of Transnational Networking in the Global Ministry of Fredrik Franson

    Reifler,Hans Ulrich; Sauer,Christof (Southern African Missiological Society, 2020-01-01)
    Fredrik Franson, a dual citizen of Sweden and the USA, was an international revival evangelist, mission founder and mobiliser of the Holiness Movement during the last quarter of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Within 22 years, he strongly influenced the founding of thirteen faith missions, six church federations in Europe, North America and Armenia, and several independent churches in the USA, New Zealand and Australia. This article focuses on the relevance of transnational networking for the global ministry of Franson. Starting with a short overview on Franson's life and work, it specifically shows the influence of transnational political and economic developments, transnational trade routes and the importance of the transnational networks of the Evangelical Alliance, the Holiness Movement, the Sunday School Union, and the faith missions for the founding of new missionary societies and church federations by Franson.
  • Scottish missionary perceptions and images of amaXhosa in the nineteenth century

    Mvenene,Jongikhaya (Southern African Missiological Society, 2019-01-01)
    This article gives an analysis of the origins and early beginnings of mission stations among amaXhosa during the nineteenth century, which gradually became a centre of missionary activities among amaNgqika and amaGcaleka. This article analyses the history of the arrival and activities of the missionaries, east and west of the Nciba (Kei) River, in the nineteenth century. It also examines the role of the missionaries in shaping the relations among the traditional leaders and the colonial governors. The activities of the Scottish missionaries among amaXhosa are closely tied to the decline of traditional authority, power, control and influence, disintegration of amaXhosa chiefdoms and kingdom attended to by a loss of land and lives. The colonial government's forceful removal of amaNgqika from Ciskei in 1878 and resettlement in Gcalekaland is also brought to surface, as it is an example in point of how amaXhosa were rendered weak and fragile by the colonial governing authorities.
  • Graphic text, graphic depiction - Genesis 22 and its interpretation on a Louvre miniature plaque

    Lombaard,C.J.S. (Southern African Missiological Society, 2019-01-01)
    In this contribution in honour of colleague Nico Botha, the habit of debate between him and the author is here continued, namely of discussing Bible text and current interpretation. That model of dialogical engagement is used here to enlarge the understanding, through an artwork in the Louvre, the interpretation possibilities of one of the most disturbing Bible passages, Genesis 22.

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