Fatma Aliye Hanım’ın Türk Kadın Haklarının Düşünsel Temellerine Katkıları
KeywordsOsmanlı Kadın Hareketi, Fatma Aliye Hanım, Kadının Eğitimi, Çok eşlilik ve Boşanma, Kadının Çalışması, İslamiyet’te Kadın.
Osmanlı Kadın Hareketi, Fatma Aliye Hanım, Kadının Eğitimi, Çok eşlilik ve Boşanma, Kadının Çalışması, İslamiyet’te Kadın.
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AbstractDaughter to General Ahmet Cevdet (Pasha), a leading figure during reform era (tanzimat), Fatma Aliye Hanim is regarded as one of the pioneers of Ottoman feminism. As an intellectual Ottoman woman, she constantly wrote about the problems of women in her articles, books, and novels on femininity. Having an Islamic and conservative mind set just like her father General Ahmet Necdet, Fatma Aliye Hanim mainly focused on issues directly related with femininity such as education of women, how they get married, polygamy, divorce, the visibility of women in social life, working women, and the place of women in Islam.
Tanzimat döneminin önde gelen isimlerinden Ahmet Cevdet Paşa’nın kızı Fatma Aliye Hanım Osmanlı kadın hareketinin öncüleri arasındadır. O aydın bir Osmanlı kadını olarak kaleme aldığı makalelerinde, kadınlıkla ilgili kitaplarında ve romanlarında kadınlığa ait sorunları sıklıkla dile getirmiştir. Fatma Aliye babası Ahmet Cevdet Paşa gibi İslamcı-gelenekçi bir anlayışla kadınların eğitimi, evlenme şekilleri, çok eşlilik, boşanma, kadının sosyal hayatta görünür olması, çalışması ve İslamiyet’te kadının yeri gibi kadınlığı ilgilendiren sorunlar üzerinde durmuştur.
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The Importance of Distant Education in Women's Education and an ExampleDEMIRAY, Yard.Doç.Dr. Emine; CURABAY, Yard.Doç.Dr. Şensu (Aile ve Sosyal Politikalar BakanlığıAile ve Sosyal Politikalar Bakanlığı, 2006-12-01)The literacy rate of the women is lower than mennearly ali around of the world societies, in newMillennium. This rate difference is the same in Turkeytoo. When the literatüre browsed, it will be seen thatone of the best w ay to reach women for be İng educatede them is distance education. First of ali, the position ofwomen both in the world and Turkey, literacy rate, educationalcareer, educational demand and neccessity ofdistance education to satisfy. This demand will be discussedin the study.Than, two-year Home Economy Pre-licenceProgramme of Anadolu University Öpen EducationFaculty; will be evaluated from point ofview of the benefitsto the Turkish women's social life. This programmewill be evaluated according to;•Entrance conditions ofwomen,• Preference reasons to registration to the programme,•Given lecture and their contents for printed materials,• Television programs and their contents which preparedfor this programmes•Number of success rate of graduates, Numberof sex graduates (male-female) rate,• The graduated students' application of the informationwhich gained from programme to daily life,• The lecture which given in programme is fit (suitable)for which women and help of the women as anindividual to develop themselves and socially benefitsof the program.The television programs which belongs to this programmeare broadcasted both night and day andviewed by many people instead of students thereforeserve women in the name ofactive education.
Attitudes of Teachers, Principals and Supervisors Towards Woman Administrators in Primary SchoolsBaştuğ, Özlem Yeşim Özbek; Çelik, Bünyamin; Okulu, Haydarbey Şekerbank İlköğretim (Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık Hizmetleri Tic. Ltd. Şti., 2014-07-27)Background. The percentage of woman teachers working in primary and secondary education is 45% while the percentage of woman administrators working within the whole National Education system is not even 10% (MEB, 2005).There have been numerous studies pointing out to gender discrimination and other factors inside the school system that prevent women from being administrators (Ayan, 2000; Brenner &amp;amp; Tomkiewicz, 1982; Çelikten, 2005; Dubno, 1985; Fierman, 1990; Köroğlu, 2006; Özkaya, 1988; Peters, Terborg &amp;amp; Taylor, 1974; Sefer, 1999; Terborg, Peters, Ilgen &amp;amp; Smith, 1977; Tomkiewicz &amp;amp; Adeyemi-Bello, 1995). Two main factors causing low number of woman administrators at schools are gender bias and social resistance (Çelikten, 2004; Heilman, 1995; Schein, 1973; Terborg, 1977; Timpano &amp;amp; Knight, 1976). Attitudes towards woman administrators have also been noted as another significant factor over the low number of woman administrators (Andruskiw &amp;amp; Howes, 1985; Berkman, 2005; Beydoğan, 2001; Cortis &amp;amp; Cassar, 2005; Garland &amp;amp; Price, 1977; Looa &amp;amp; Thorpe, 2005; Özkan, 2006; Sakallı-Uğurlu &amp;amp; Beydoğan, 2002). Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes of teachers, principals, and supervisors towards woman administrators working in primary education in relation to status, gender, affiliation and educational background. Method. The sample of the study contains 737 teachers, principals, deputy principals, and supervisors working at primary schools located in the city center of Tokat and Samsun in 2007. Scale for Attitudes towards Woman Administrators (Berkman, 2005) was used as the data instrument. Demographic data were collected by using a questionnaire developed by researchers. Scale for Attitudes towards Woman Administrators (Berkman, 2005) is a seven point rating scale with 29 items. Reliability analysis produced a Cronbach&apos;s Alpha coefficient of .92. An exploratory factor analysis produced a three factor structure. The first factor, professional behavior with 15 items explained 23% second factor named as interpersonal relations with 10 items explained 20% and the third factor, professional ethics with four items explained 8.5% of the total variance. Data were analyzed by using t-test and one-way ANOVA. SPSS 15.00 was used for data analysis. Results. Higher the score on Attitudes towards Woman Administrators scale, attitudes towards woman administrators are more positive. Results indicated that on a seven point scale; mean attitude scores were ?=3.57 for professional behaviors; ?=4.80 for interpersonal behaviors and ?=5.00 for professional ethics dimensions of Attitudes towards Woman Administrators scale. Although principals reported (?Principal=126.2) slightly higher attitudes toward woman principals as compared to teachers (?Teacher=122.3) and supervisors (?Supervisor=121.2), ANOVA results did not show any statistically significant differences between three groups (F(2; 654)=1.88, p&amp;gt;.05). There were also no statistically significant differences in attitudes towards woman administrators by private sector &amp;ndash; public sector (t(654)=0.90, p&amp;gt;.05), educational background (F(3; 635)=.707, p&amp;gt;.05) and age groups ( F(3; 631)=1.018, p&amp;gt;.05). However, as expected, there was a statistically significant difference in attitudes towards woman administrators by gender (t(653) =5.51, p&amp;lt;.05). Female teachers, principals and supervisors reported significantly more positive attitudes towards woman administrators (?female=126.1) than teachers, principals and supervisors (?male=118.7). Conclusions and implications. Examination of attitudes towards woman administrators revealed that teachers, principals, and supervisors reported higher scores for the sub-scale of professional ethics than the other two sub-scales. Therefore, it is correct to state that primary school teachers, principals, and supervisors have more positive attitudes towards professional ethics behaviors of woman administrators while relatively low or negative attitudes towards professional job related behaviors. It is also not surprising that male participants are less likely to think positively about woman administrators&apos; professional behaviors, interpersonal behaviors and professional ethics behaviors. This finding is consistent with results of studies reported by Özkan (2006), Mostafa (2005), and Cortis &amp;amp; Cassar (2005), but inconsistent with those of Çelikten (2005). According to Çelikten, woman teachers find it difficult to work with woman administrators, and man teachers accept woman administrators more easily. In addition, this study also found out that age was not a factor influencing attitudes towards woman administrators. Yet, this finding is not in accordance with those of Mostafa (2005). Mostafa emphasized that the young people had more liberal attitudes towards woman administrators than the older ones. The researchers believe that difference between participating groups may have led to such an inconsistency. Mostafa analyzed attitudes of university students and adults at different managerial positions. This study demonstrated that principals, teachers and supervisors show relatively lower positive attitudes towards woman administrators. There is no doubt that these negative attitudes are detrimental to increasing participation of woman in administrative jobs in education. Therefore developing an awareness of gender issues and positive attitudes towards woman administrators by disseminating successful administrative works of woman administrators as well as taking measures to encourage equal participation of woman in administrative jobs may help to increase the number of woman administrators in primary education.
Meşrutiyet’ten Cumhuriyet’e Türkiye’de KadınAydın, Harun; Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Tarih Bölümü. (Aizonia Publishing, 2015-09-28)Beginning from the Tanzimat period, the women movements first made progress in educational field and the girls high school (idadî), junior high school (rüşdiye) and teachers schools were opened for the first time in this period. The innovation movements towards women gathered speed in the period of Constitutional Monarchy. The women who studied at these schools opened subsequent to the Tanzimat merged and made women organisations. The movements and the innovation movements towards women were never discussed in the term of Tanzimat. But with the Second Constitutional Era, though the marginal groups in the Ottoman society discussed all the topics from educating women, woman dressing, islamic clothing to marriage and divorce, these discussions didn’t cause big changes. Due to the war conditions in which the Ottoman State were in the period of Constitutional Monarchy, women first began to work as an officer in the Post Office and Finance Ministry. In the period of Constitutional Monarchy, they themselves commenced to utter their rights any more. With the Second Constitutional Era, they began to gain a place in society more. The women studying at the schools opened especially for women education established women associations and worked organizedly in the provinces that they were in, notably in Istanbul. Women’s rights gained importance after the proclamation of the republic. Women have been given miscellaneous rights by the Turkish Civil Code in Turkish history. Some crucial developments towards providing the equality of women and men occurred in Republic Period