• Knowledge and Awareness of Vicarious Liability: Views of Healthcare Workers in Ghana

      Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Kayi, Esinam Afi (The Aquila Digital Community, 2013-07-23)
      This study explored the knowledge and awareness of Ghanaian health workers on vicarious liability. It also explored the perceptions and experiences of Ghanaian healthcare workers on the incidence, scope, rationale and implications of vicarious liability in healthcare facilities in Ghana. Towards this end, structured questionnaires were administered to four hundred (400) respondents randomly sampled from one private and one public health facility in Ghana. Their responses were analyzed and qualitatively discussed within the context of relevant literature. Study results show that healthcare workers in Ghana had limited knowledge on vicarious liability. Further, vicarious liability of healthcare facilities in Ghana were the result of treatment without consent, breach of patient’s confidentiality, negligence, assault, battery, nuisance, patient abandonment, and wrongful diagnosis or treatment procedure by healthcare personnel.
    • Leadership in the Health Sector: A Discourse of the Leadesrhip Model of Utilitarianism

      Udofia, Dr. Christopher Alexander (The Aquila Digital Community, 2017-01-01)
      This research work with the title, “Leadership in the Health Sector: A Discourse of the Leadership Model of Utilitarianism,” is concerned with examining the appropriateness of Utilitarianism as a leadership model that may be employed and utilized by leaders in the public health industry. The research is predicated on the proposition that leadership is as much a problem in the health industry as it is for all humanity. Most leaderships fail due to the employment of inappropriate leadership theories. The appropriateness of any leadership model can only be determined after the model has been subjected to adequate critical analysis. Hence this research adopts the philosophical methods of exposition and criticism in unravelling its subject matter. This research is significant in exposing a leadership model with an underlying ethical content which can serve as a paradigm for leadership and decision making in the health industry. The paper identifies the control and management of HIV/AIDS as well as the enhancement of National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) coverage in third world countries as critical health issues that can be strengthened through the adoption of the leadership paradigm of utilitarianism. The paper concludes that the utilitarian normative axiom of the greatest happiness for the greatest number will ultimately lead to the engendering of democratic culture in the policy and decision making processes bordering on health issues. However, the work cautions that the majority principle enshrined in axiom of utilitarianism is all too vulnerable to abuse by any leader with a totalitarian bent. Hence a leader who adopts utilitarianism as a normative principle is advised against allowing the good of the majority to always supersede and dominate that of the minority.
    • Legal and Ethical Issues in the Provision of Adolescent Reproductive Health in the United States

      Fouquier, Katherine (The Aquila Digital Community, 2017-01-01)
      In providing comprehensive, evidence based reproductive health care to adolescents, understanding the legal and ethical issues surrounding informed consent and confidentiality is one of the many challenges faced by care providers. Informed consent is an active process between the patient and health care provider but varying state and federal laws contribute to provider’s uncertainty and ambiguity around practice policies and management options. This article describes issues surrounding legal and ethical issues of informed consent and confidentiality for adolescents seeking reproductive health services.
    • Legalization Of Euthanasia And Physician-Assisted Dying: Condemnation Of Physician Participation

      Mazloom, Samira; Hamidian Jahromi, Alireza; Bastani, Bahar (The Aquila Digital Community, 2017-01-01)
      The topic of physician-assisted dying has always been a controversial topic raising a strong ethical dilemma. Currently six states in USA (Oregon, Vermont, Washington, Montana, California, Colorado) have developed regulations legalizing physician-assisted dying (medical euthanasia). We propose that physicians, because of their Hippocratic oath, should be exempted of participating in it. We suggest experts in professional assisted dying (“Euthanasia Specialists”) be ethically and to some degree medically trained to perform such a task when deemed appropriate.
    • Less Talk; More Action: SBAR as an Interactive Approach for Ethical Decision- Making

      Parker, Francine Mancuso, EdD, RN, CNE; McMillan, Libba Reed, PhD, RN (The Aquila Digital Community, 2010-12-14)
      Oftentimes as educators, instructors approach ethics education as if students have all the time in the world to pontificate. This article provides an alternative teaching strategy where there is less ‘talk’, and more action as the SBAR model is utilized in the ethical decision making process. A case study depicting a difficult patient care situation provides the backdrop for a discussion of ethical decision making as a skill which can be developed when sound reasoning and principles are applied by the nursing student or novice nurse. By assuring that students have a working understanding of the concept of advocacy from an ethical perspective, educators can promote nurses’ voices at the multidisciplinary table. Nurses need a practical, relevant approach or tool such as SBAR, which can be universally applied to various practice areas and patient care situations.
    • Living with Productive Discomfort: Ethical Reflections on Critical Care Medicine

      DePergola, Peter A., II (The Aquila Digital Community, 2019-01-01)
      In this essay, the author considers the theme of deaths and resurrections in light of uncertain outcomes, and captures the pressure on ethicists to always know “the right thing to do.”
    • Lucy 1845

      Gunn, Jennie A. (The Aquila Digital Community, 2004-01-01)
      Informed consent is more than simply getting a patient to sign a written consent form. It is a process of communication between a patient and physician that results in the patient's authorization or agreement to undergo a specific medical intervention. In the communications process, the physician providing or performing the treatment and/or procedure should disclose and discuss: The patient's diagnosis, if known; The nature and purpose of a proposed treatment or procedure; The risks and benefits of a proposed treatment or procedure; Alternatives (regardless of their cost or the extent to which the treatment options are covered by health insurance); The risks and benefits of the alternative treatment or procedure; and The risks and benefits of not receiving or undergoing a treatment or procedure.
    • Lynching

      Gunn, Jennie, FNP, Ph.D.; Gunn, Carroll, BA (The Aquila Digital Community, 2008-04-30)
      A single word can bring forth a plethora of emotions. Such a word, lynching, appeared repeatedly in the news recently; its use offended many in the African American community and others. The purpose of this article was: to explore the history and current meaning of the word lynching; to determine why the concept should be examined at this point in time; to examine the meaning of lynching specifically to African Americans; and to create a discussion so that health care providers may reflect upon and understand the concept it calls forward to the African American community and others. In order to provide cultural care to clients, the health care provider is called upon to understand the culture of the client. Cultural understanding begins with knowledge of many aspects of culture including the impact of history and of such words as lynching. A concept analysis lynching was completed in order to enlighten and to cause reflection on the emotions evoked by the word and its implications. A definition of lynching derived for this purpose from the concept analysis was: A definition of lynching for the purpose of understanding derived from the definitions and specific to this need was: Lynching is an extreme violent or covert mob action based on presumed guilt, hate and supremacy without legal sanction aimed at physical and nonphysical punishment through cruelty, terror, torturing and/or execution during unsettled times aimed at a cultural group denied identity and justice, often ignored, intimidated, and humiliated.
    • Managing Endings in the Beginning: Ethical Reflections on Neonatal Intensive Care

      DePergola, Peter A., II (The Aquila Digital Community, 2019-01-01)
      In this essay, the author examines the difficult task of determining quality of life for seriously-ill newborns, and highlights the narrative vitalism so often characteristic of those forced to make end-of-life decisions on behalf of those whose lives have just begun.
    • Managing Peanut Allergies In Schools: Ethical And Policy Issues

      Resnik, David B (The Aquila Digital Community, 2007-01-01)
      Protecting children with peanut allergies from harm poses difficult ethical dilemmas for school administrators. Some schools have responded to the peanut allergy problem by implementing bans on peanuts and peanut products, thereby sparking outrage and protests from some parents. School administrators should carefully consider how best to protect allergic children while taking into consideration the interests of non-allergic children, their parents and practical considerations. While it is not realistic to expect that a school setting can be risk-free, every reasonable effort should be made to protect allergic children from harm in order to promote their health and educational attainment.
    • Mass Burns Casualties: Ethical Dilemmas

      Kong, Victor Y., MBChB, Ph.D. (The Aquila Digital Community, 2013-01-04)
      Mass burns casualty disasters occur rarely, but they are difficult to manage. Management of these cases are often further complicated in poorly resourced settings found in the developing world as triage decisions often have to be made early. This case report discusses ethical dilemmas that have been encountered when treating a mass burns casualty’s incident in the setting of a regional burns unit in South Africa.
    • Maternal Healthcare in Bangladesh and Gender Equity: A Review Article

      Walton, Lori Maria, DPT, Ph.D; Schbley, Bassima, MSW, Ph.D. (The Aquila Digital Community, 2013-07-23)
      Objective: To outline the specific gender equity and socio-economic barriers to maternal health faced by Bangladeshi women. Background: Bangladesh is a country with over one third of the population living in poverty and another one third living just above poverty level. The World Health Organization (2010) indicates that Bangladesh has poor prenatal and postpartum care, nutritional deficiencies, and the second highest maternal mortality and morbidity rates next to sub-Saharan Africa. Women living in Bangladesh are at high risk for maternal mortality and morbidity in the postpartum period directly related to socio-economic status. Methods: This is a systematic review and analysis of the literature regarding gender equity and socio-economic barriers to maternal health for women living in Bangladesh. Conclusion: The need for socio-economic relief for women living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues that need addressed. Poverty is one of the root causes that have led to high maternal mortality and morbidities faced by Bangladeshi women in the prenatal and postpartum period and remains a serious barrier to gender equity and equality.
    • Meaningful Ethical Encounters:The Lived Experience of the Genetics Nurse

      Tinnon, Elizabeth A (The Aquila Digital Community, 2014-01-01)
      Meaningful Ethical Encounters: The Lived Experience of the Genetics Nurse Abstract Discoveries of the Human Genome Project, while beneficial to improving health, are accompanied by new and unique ethical concerns. The aim of this study was to describe and gain an understanding of the lived experience of genetics nurses as it relates to encountered ethical concerns. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach using van Manen’s thematic analysis was the method for this investigation. A sample of eight genetics nurses participated in the study. Seven essential themes emerged from the texts: (a) caring over time, (b) shared pain and suffering, (c) my job is to educate, empower, and equip, (d) not my decision, (e) fight for the patient, (f) anger surrounding misinformation, and (g) the complexity and conflicts of maintaining confidentiality. The findings of this study will increase the knowledge of caring for patients with genetic disorders.
    • Moral Intuition in Clinical Decision-Making

      Scott, Liam P., MBChB (Hons), BMedSc (Hons) (The Aquila Digital Community, 2011-04-20)
      The United Kingdom’s General Medical Council investigation of Dr. Michael Munro raises concerns about the ability of normative ethics to satisfactorily ‘solve’ ethical dilemmas in isolation within the real world. In this particular case it seems vague utilitarian principles were used to justify actions by a doctor that many people find morally unacceptable. This raises questions of what we might do when we find our normative ethical theories conflicting with our moral intuitions. Is there more to our ethical deliberations than merely implementing specific normative theories? Is there in fact a role for considering other elements in the decision-making process, such as one’s moral intuition? I suggest that despite being criticized as overly subjective or unreliable, there may still be a persuasive social and moral justification for paying attention to the unease of moral intuition when we find it conflicting with our normative judgments, especially in complex real-life clinical situations.
    • Nancy O’Neal Tatum Dedication

      Turner, Helen R., M.D., Ph.D. (The Aquila Digital Community, 2004-01-01)
    • New Perspectives in Healthcare Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cross-cultural Approach by Rosemarie Tong Book Review

      Gillis, Marin M., LPh, PhD (The Aquila Digital Community, 2006-01-01)
      Tong, a well-known biomedical ethicist, combines medical ethics, bioethics, and her own unique insights to provide a comprehensive survey of contemporary health care ethics issues. The following is a book review of Rosemarie Tong, New Perspectives in Healthcare Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cross-cultural Approach.
    • Nicotine Vaccines for Smoking Prevention and Treatment from Utilitarian and Deontological Ethical Perspectives

      Alsrayheen, Enam A.; Aldiabat, Khaldoun (The Aquila Digital Community, 2018-11-01)
      Nicotine vaccines are a new prevention and treatment method for smoking addiction. They are promoted as a method to cease smoking among those who smoke and possibly prevent this behaviour from taking place among those who do not smoke. However, offering these vaccines to adults, adolescents, and children will undoubtedly raise an ethical debate among policy-makers, health professionals, and the public. This paper discusses the possibility of using nicotine vaccines treat and prevent smoking among adults/children/adolescents through the lenses of two ethical theories: utilitarianism and deontology (Kantianism). From an utilitarian perspective, nicotine vaccines are good for society because they provide the greatest benefit for the greatest number of individuals. Authors perceive them as a healthy ethical choice to prevent and treat smoking. And, from the deontological perspective, nicotine vaccines are justified because individuals can prevent the harm of nicotine addiction by choosing vaccines or any other smoking prevention and treatment methods.
    • Noetic Propaedeutic Pedagogy as a Panacea to the Problem of Abortion

      Bisong, Peter B. (The Aquila Digital Community, 2016-01-01)
      This work is instigated by the increase in the number of countries that have legalized abortion and the ones debating over the issue. Even most countries where abortion is illegal like Nigeria are experiencing increase in cases of abortion. The author is worried that the danger of abortion is seemingly not taken note of by stakeholders, thereby leading him to believe alongside Asouzu that the constraining mechanisms have clouded the minds of men, and impeding them from seeing reality in a complementary way. The noetic propaedeutic pedagogy as propounded by Asouzu is the self-conscious retraining of the mind to overcome bifurcation and polarization. It is recommended as a way of correcting this defective mindset, so as to make the mind better fit to see reality in a complementary mode, and thereby help it to see the need to accord respect and rights to the foetus.
    • Non-Consensual Care and the Pregnant Woman: An Ethical Concern

      Prive’, Alice, PhD, RNC; Serber, Stacy, PhD, RN (The Aquila Digital Community, 2013-01-04)
      Non-consensual care, or care done to a pregnant woman that includes treatments, hospitalization or even surgery without her consent, raises legal and ethical concerns. When do maternal claims not outweigh third party demands on behalf of the fetus? The American Nurses Association’s (ANA) Code of Ethics for Nurses was developed to guide nurses in responsible, quality care consistent with the ethics inherent in the profession.
    • Nurse’s Awareness of Hearing Impaired Patients’ Communication Needs

      Kemker, Brett K., Ph.D.; Sumrall, Virginia Lois, RN, Ph.D.; Marx, Charles G., Au.D.; Goshorn, Edward L., Ph.D. (The Aquila Digital Community, 2013-07-23)
      Anecdotal evidence suggests that most nursing school curricula do not provide formal training regarding the communication needs of hearing impaired patients. There is also a lack of continuing education opportunities related to hearing impaired patients and/or hearing devices to maintain nursing licensure. This project surveyed nurses’ self-acknowledged skills and awareness of special communication needs associated with hearing impaired patients at a medical center who may or may not wear hearing aids or have cochlear implants. The survey (Appendix I) consisted of two demographic statements and ten knowledge/skill statements developed by the authors. Given the rapidly growing population of aging hearing impaired individuals and the associated increase in hospitalization of the aging population, along with the findings of the survey conducted in this project, there is sufficient evidence to consider the inclusion of the communication needs of the hearing impaired patient in the nursing curriculum. Specific findings and recommendations are discussed.