La exclusión social en el marco de la comunicación para el desarrollo y el cambio social. Un análisis del tratamiento de la inclusión social en campañas de servicio público sin ánimo de lucro
KeywordsInclusión; exclusión; comunicación; publicidad; cambio social
Inclusion; exclusion; communication; advertising; social change
Inclusão; exclusão; comunicação; publicidade; mudança social
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AbstractEste trabajo pretende ubicar el concepto de comunicación inclusiva en el marco de la comunicación para el desarrollo y el cambio social. Se recogen y analizan las referencias a la inclusión social en los textos fundacionales de la comunicación para el cambio social. Se plantean las implicaciones del concepto de comunicación inclusiva y se aportan ejemplos en el ámbito de la comunicación publicitaria social. Se presentan los resultados de un análisis sobre el tratamiento de la inclusión-exclusión social en 91 anuncios gráficos. Como conclusiones, se muestra la escasa importancia que la inclusión social tiene en el ideario de los documentos programáticos de la comunicación para el desarrollo y el cambio social. Se comprueba el liderazgo de las ONG como emisores y la hegemonía noroccidental en la producción del discurso solidario. Se demuestra la exclusión discursiva sobre la propia exclusión social tanto en la programática como en la praxis de la comunicación para el cambio social. Se demuestra la escasa representación visual y verbal de las personas en situación de exclusión social en el conjunto de las campañas con fines solidarios. Se destaca el enfoque basado en el problema y el discurso moral como estrategia de implicación de los públicos.
This paper focuses on situate the concept of inclusive communication in the frame of the communication for development and for social change. References to social inclusion of the founding texts of these theories are collected and analyzed. We reflect on the implications of the concept of inclusive communication, contributing with examples in the particular area of the social advertising communication. The results of the analysis on presence and treatment of social inclusion/exclusion are presented, over a sample of 91 graphic advertisements. As main conclusions, we noted the little relevance of social inclusion in the thinking of the program documents of communication for development and for social change: the leadership of NGOs as issuers of these campaigns, and the north-western hegemony in the production of solidary speech. There is a “discursive exclusion” of the social exclusion topic, both in theory and in practice of communication for social change. So, the poor visual and verbal representation of people in social exclusion in the whole of campaigns with solidarity purposes, is evidenced. It stands out the approach based on the problem rather than the solution, and the use of moral discourse as a strategy to involve the audience.
Este trabalho pretende situar o conceito de comunicação inclusiva no marco da comunicação para o desenvolvimento e a mudança social. Recolhem-se e analisam as referências à inclusão social nos textos fundacionais da comunicação para a mudança social. Se apresentam as implicações do conceito de comunicação inclusiva, aportando exemplos no âmbito da comunicação publicitária social. Se apresentam os resultados de uma análise sobre o tratamento da inclusão/exclusão social em 91 anúncios gráficos. Como conclusões, se mostra a escassa importância que a inclusão social tem no ideário dos documentos programáticos da comunicação para o desenvolvimento e a mudança social. Comprova-se a liderança das ONGs como emissores e a hegemonia noroeste na produção do discurso solidário. Se constata a exclusão discursiva sobre a própria exclusão social tanto na programática como na práxis da comunicação para a mudança social. Comprova-se a escassa representação visual e verbal das pessoas em situação de exclusão social no conjunto das campanhas com fins solidários. Destaca o enfoque baseado no problema, e o discurso moral como estratégia de implicação dos públicos.
Copyright/LicenseCopyright (c) 2016 Anuario electrónico de estudios en Comunicación Social "Disertaciones"
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Social Protection in Low Income Countries and Fragile Situations : Challenges and Future DirectionsOvadiya, Mirey; Zampaglione, Giuseppe; Das, Maitreyi; Andrews, Colin; Elder, John (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05-28)Demand for social protection is growing in low income countries and fragile situations. In recent years, the success of social protection (SP) interventions in middle income countries (MICs) like Brazil and Mexico, along with the series of food, fuel, and financial crises, has prompted policymakers in low income countries (LICs) and fragile situations (FSs) to examine the possibility of introducing such programs in their own countries. Flagship programs in countries as diverse as Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, and Rwanda have shown the adaptability of social protection interventions to the LIC context. Yet, despite growing levels of support for these initiatives, many challenges remain. In LICs and FSs, governments are confronted with a nexus of mutually reinforcing deficits that increase the need for SP programs and simultaneously reduce their ability to successfully respond. Governments face hard choices about the type, affordability, and sustainability of SP interventions. The paper reviews how these factors affect SP programs in these countries and identifies ways to address the deficits. It supports the establishment of resilient SP systems to address specific needs and vulnerabilities and to respond flexibly to both slow and sudden onset crises. To achieve this, both innovation and pragmatism are required in three strategic areas: (i) building the basic blocks of SP systems (e.g., targeting, payments, and monitoring and evaluation); (ii) ensuring financial sustainability; and (iii) promoting good governance and transparency. These issues suggest the possibility of a different trajectory in the development of social protection in LICs than in MICs. The implications for World Bank support include the need to focus on increasing knowledge and operational effectiveness of SP programs, fostering institutional links between multiple SP programs, and using community capacity and technological innovations to overcome bottlenecks in operations.
Managing Risk, Promoting GrowthWorld Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02-08)A growing body of evidence demonstrates
that individuals and households experience a range of
positive outcomes from social protection. Social protection
increases productivity and growth. Countries can realize
significant benefits by creating an integrated social
protection system. Social protection is affordable in
low-income countries despite tight budgets. While overall
spending on social protection in Africa remains low by
international standards, experience suggests that social
protection programs can achieve national coverage at the
cost of only 1 to 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
While this is only a portion of the financing required to
operate a social protection system, it draws attention to
what countries can achieve in the short-term. Indeed, one
way in which existing social protection spending can be made
significantly more efficient would be by reallocating
existing financing for inefficient subsidies and ad hoc
emergency food aid to predictable safety nets. At the same
time, pursuing reforms to social security systems will
ensure their fiscal sustainability, while expanding
coverage. Notably, the costs of not protecting poor families
are very high, are borne disproportionately by women and
children, and undermine the productivity of future
generations. The Strategy will be implemented by leveraging
partnerships, knowledge, and the World Bank's financing
instruments. The World Bank will continue to invest in
analytical work to fill knowledge gaps and promote an
evidence-based dialogue for social protection systems in
Africa and further innovation. It will work with governments
to build country-owned national social protection systems
with the aim of reducing fragmentation in the sector. The
Bank also will pay particular attention to institutional
development and capacity building by using its lending to
increase the coverage of successful social protection
interventions. Throughout this work, the Bank will work in
coordination with governments, development partners, the
private sector, academics, civil society, and beneficiaries.
ISSPThe International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) is a continuing annual programme of cross-national collaboration on surveys covering topics important for social science research. It brings together pre-existing national social science projects and co-ordinates research goals, thereby adding a cross-national, cross-cultural perspective to the individual, national studies. Formed in 1983, the group develops topical modules dealing with important areas of social science as supplements to regular national surveys. Every survey includes questions about general attitudes toward various social issues such as the legal system, sex, and the economy. Special topics have included the environment, the role of government, social inequality, social support, family and gender issues, work orientation, the impact of religious background, behaviour, and beliefs on social and political preferences, and national identity. Participating countries vary for each topical module. The merging of the data into a cross-national dataset is performed by the Zentralarchiv fuer Empirische Sozialforschung, University of Cologne. A compact disc (CD-ROM) (archived under SN 3479) containing data and documentation for ISSP surveys carried out 1985-1996, 1998, 2000 and 2002 is available from the UKDA. Main Topics:The CD-ROM contains the complete collection of data and documentation of the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) between 1985 and 1996, 1998, 2000. In these years, the ISSP conducted twelve different Social Science Surveys in up to 30 countries. The collection comprises the following titles: 1985 - Role of Government I (6 countries) (ZA 1490,UKDA 2448) 1986 - Social Networks and Support Systems (7 countries) (ZA 1620, UKDA 2560) 1987 - Social Inequality I (10 countries) (ZA 1680,UKDA 2702) 1988 - Family and Changing Sex Roles I (8 countries) (ZA 1700, UKDA 2744) 1989 - Work Orientations I (10 countries) (ZA 1840, UKDA 2864) 1990 - Role of Government II (9 countries) (ZA 1950, UKDA 2956) 1991 - Religion (16 countries) (ZA 2150, UKDA 3062) 1992 - Social Inequality II (17 countries) (ZA 2310, UKDA 3498) 1993 - Environment (20 countries) (ZA 2450, UKDA 3473) 1994 - Family and Changing Gender Roles II (22 countries) (ZA 2620, UKDA 3584) 1995 - National Identity (22 countries) (ZA 2880, UKDA 3809) 1996 - Role of Government III (23 countries) (ZA 2900, UKDA 4480) 1998 - Religion 11 (30 countries) (ZA 3190, UKDA 4482) 2000 - Environment 2000 (34 countries) (ZA 3440, UKDA 4827) 2002 - Family and Changing Gender Roles III (34 countries) (ZA 3880, UKDA 5018) Additionally, the 1985 and 1990 surveys, Role of the Government I and II, have been cumulated for those countries and those variables which have been included in both surveys: 1985/1990 - Role of the Government I/II (5 countries) (ZA 2240, UKDA 3499). All of the above are also available as separate datasets. The data for 1997, 1999 and 2001 are available separately on dedicated CD ROMs.