AbstractProstate cancer (PCa) is a major health hazard. In the USA alone, it affects approximately 10 million men. Its incidence is higher than Breast Cancer s (BCa) and it kills approximately the same number of men per year as BCa kills women. Nevertheless, PCa receives about six times fewer federal funds for research and prevention. We have investigated epidemiological trends, the growth of federal funding for medical research, and the political organization of PCa and BCa interest groups in the USA. We argue that discrepancies in funding stem from the combination of two factors: 1) the relative strength of each interest group and 2) the social consensus on the relevance of each disease. We argue that men, especially older and black men, are at a disadvantage in the public policy arena.