Open Praxis is a peer-reviewed open access scholarly journal focusing on research and innovation in open, distance and flexible education. It is published by the International Council for Open and Distance Education - ICDE. The aim of Open Praxis is to provide a forum for global collaboration and discussion of issues in the practice of distance and e-learning. Open Praxis welcomes contributions which demonstrate creative and innovative research, and which highlight challenges, lessons and achievements in the practice of distance and e-learning from all over the world. An article may present research or surveys of recent work, describe original work, or discuss new technology and its possibilities, implications and/or other related issues.


The library contains articles of the Open Praxis as of vol. 1(2007) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • A Golden Combi?! - Open Educational Resources and Open, Flexible and Distance Learning1: Final report from the ICDE Task Force on Open Educational Resources

    Fred Mulder; Jos Rikers (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2009-03-01)
    This final report of the ICDE Global Task Force on Open Educational Resources addresses the relevance of the worldwide OER movement to educational institutions - such as ICDE member institutions - engaged in the field of open, flexible and distance learning. The composition of the Task Force, with members from open and distance learning universities around the world, sought to provide representation for OER developments worldwide. In order to gain an overview of the penetration of OER developments and involvement, an initial survey of ICDE member institutions was conducted. The Task Force found that it could build on a report from OECD on OER that was published just as the Task Force held its launch meeting. The OECD report “Giving Knowledge for Free: the Emergence of Open Educational Resources”3 gives a very thorough overview of OER developments so far and in addition identifies the major problems and topics for further consideration. The Task Force has used this report for general reference and has focused on the topics and issues that are particularly relevant for open and distance learning institutions, concentrating on higher education. The ICDE SCOP Meeting 2007 at OUNL in Heerlen, The Netherlands was used to consult the presidents and rectors of ICDE member institutions on the expected outcomes of the Task Force’s work. This Final Report describes major milestones during the work of the Task Force and summarizes its conclusions and recommendations in a final chapter.
  • Towards Digital Thinking and Practices: Experiences of Sri Lankan Teachers and Students

    Shironica P. Karunanayaka; W. M. S. Weerakoon; H. D. Wijesekera; N. M. R. K. Nawarathna; P. Ramathass; M. D. B. P. Weerasinghe (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2022-06-01)
    Commonwealth Digital Education Leadership Training in Action (C-DELTA), an open and free online programme of the Commonwealth of Learning, provides a framework to foster digital education. The Open University of Sri Lanka implemented an intervention during 2020-2021 to promote digital education in Sri Lankan secondary schools, through the adoption of C-DELTA. This paper presents how C-DELTA supported developing digital thinking and practices among teachers and students, challenges faced and supports received by them, and impacts of the intervention. Participants’ experiences were captured through questionnaire surveys, concept maps, focus group interviews, reflective stories, and video narratives. The findings revealed that the intervention has enhanced developing digital learning skills of teachers and students, and changing their thinking and practices, yet, amid various challenges. While the implementation of C-DELTA in schools has been slow during the COVID-19 pandemic, the pandemic itself has shown the significance of improving digital literacy and digital practices.
  • Book Review of Evaluating Online Teaching: Implementing Best Practices

    NorHafizah Azhar; M. Khalid M. Nasir (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2021-12-01)
    Thomas J. Tobin, B. Jean Mandernach & Ann H. Taylor (2015). Evaluating online teaching: implementing best practices. Jossey-Bass. 301 pages. ISBN 978-1-118-91036-8.
  • Innovative Application & Enrollment Processes for More Informed Students: Reflections on the Benefits of this Innovative Process through the Analytical Lens of Behavioural Science

    Gerard Creaner; Sinead Creaner; Colm Creaner (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2022-06-01)
    This paper examines the practical experience and research background of one private training provider with over 10 years’ experience reskilling and upskilling mid-career workers with academic qualifications for employment in a growing technical and highly regulated pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. This paper offers insights into how to maximise the efficiency and effectiveness of the admissions, enrollment, induction and orientation process for adult learners looking to commence studies on university accredited continuous professional development (CPD) courses. This process is based on and analysed through the lens of Behavioural Science, while also building upon the work of Dirksen, Colvin Clark, Stolovitch, and Keeps. The data set has been gathered during 2020 and 2021, from 425 adult learner applicants, coming from a variety of educational and employment backgrounds, with 5 to 25 years of work experience.
  • Book Review of Reimagining Digital Learning for Sustainable Development

    Ramesh Chander Sharma (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2022-06-01)
    Sheila Jagannathan (Editor). (2021). Reimagining Digital Learning for Sustainable Development. How Upskilling, Data Analytics, and Educational Technologies Close the Skills Gap. Routledge (1st Ed.). 379 pages. ISBN: 978-1-003-08969-8 (eBook).
  • A Formative Assessment Design Suitable for Online Learning Environments and its Impact on Students’ Learning

    Prasad Senadheera; Geetha Udayangani Kulasekara (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2022-06-01)
    COVID19 outbreak brought about many challenges including the shifting of university assessments to conduct in online mode. This research study tries to explore the impact of newly designed online formative assessments on students’ learning, in a Plant Physiology course. The designing of assessments were carried out focusing on constructive alignment, for which an Open Book Test (OBT) was conducted in three parts: OBT1 –problem based learning assignment, providing feedback using a rubric; OBT2 –multiple choice, multi response, matching and missing word questions with immediate feedback; OBT3 –analysing research results with MCQs and short answer questions with feedback. A mixed approach of convergent parallel design method was followed to collect data through two questionnaires and interviews. Findings indicated students’ engagement in self- determined learning in solving a real-world problem and their enthusiasm in learning with research-based questions in assessments, while self-assessing their performance through feedback. However, geographically varied technological challenges need to be addressed in conducting successful online assessments.
  • Introduction to Open Praxis Volume 13 Issue 3

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2021-12-01)
    This Open Praxis issue includes seven research papers and one book review.
  • Higher education in the 21st century: the challenges for open and distance learning

    B.M. Gourley (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2009-03-01)
  • How to Promote the Use of Open Educational Resources (OER) in Higher Education. A Parley with OER Experienced Teachers

    Daniel Otto (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2022-06-01)
    The idea of Open Educational Resources (OER) is nowadays widespread in higher education. However, notwithstanding their supposed benefits, the actual adoption of OER in teaching remains low. Due to this absence, various studies have primarily focused on (the lack of) OER awareness among teachers and identified barriers to their use. This article argues that the current debate could benefit from insights from those who are already using OER in their teaching practices. Examining their perspectives can disclose measures that promote the adoption of OER. A mixed-method approach was applied that comprised an expert survey among 32 OER experienced higher education teachers in Germany, which results were then subject to a focus group discussion with 20 of them to validate and differentiate the results. Overall, the results reveal that teachers prefer measures comprising incentives and support rather than obligations. Exemplarily, a commitment to publish all materials as OER was rejected. Instead, a more fundamental transformation was requested from closed to open practices. Therefore, it can be stated that the teachers underlying path is guided by a desire for a shift towards openness in higher education. The measures favoured by the teachers can thus be understood as essential puzzle pieces that contribute to the bigger picture of openness.
  • E-learning in Japan: Steam Locomotive on Shinkanseni

    Ali E. Ozkul; Kumiko Aoki (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2007-01-01)
    This paper aims to share the outcomes of a qualitative survey on the status of elearning implementation in Japanese higher education institutions. The research evidence is gathered through: 1). a literature survey related to e-learning in Japan, 2). analysis of the websites of the universities, 3). observations obtained during Tokyo e-Learning World 2005 Expo and Conference, and 4). interviews conducted with the faculty members at the working on e-learning projects in the universities visited. The survey revealed that e-learning has not been adopted by Japanese universities wholeheartedly despite the availability of a highly developed ICT infrastructure nationwide. The main reasons for such gap between technological availability and its actual implementation can be attributable to the lack of support systems to facilitate the utilization of ICT in instructional processes and the lack of long term strategic visions to utilize ICT to enhance teaching and learning in many higher education institutions in Japan. These dilemmas are evaluated from the cultural, societal and managerial perspectives. Cultural perspectives included shared values and customs among policy makers and practitioners. Societal considerations involve the university system itself, its funding structure, and the demand of e-learning among potential students. From the managerial point of view issues such as leadership of university governance and long-term strategic visions of the institution are examined. Finally future prospects of e-learning in Japan are discussed.
  • Upskilling and Upscaling for Quality Open, Flexible and Distance Learning. Introduction to Selected Contributions from the 2021 ICDE Virtual Global Conference Week

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2022-06-01)
    This Open Praxis special issue compiles six selected papers derived from contributions presented at the 2021 ICDE Virtual Global Conference Week that took place online in October, including two articles that received the Best Paper Awards in the two conference tracks: innovation and open education, respectively. The issue includes three more research papers and one innovative practice article from the conference. Finally, the issue includes one book review.
  • Integrating Metaliteracy into the Design of a Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL) Course in Digital Storytelling

    Thomas Patrick Mackey; Sheila Marie Aird (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2022-06-01)
    This paper explores the redesign of a course in Digital Storytelling that integrates metaliteracy to advance Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL). Students from the United States and Prague, Czech Republic are active participants in this fully online global course as they learn to produce digital stories. The metaliteracy framework encourages metacognitive reflection and the active participation in social information environments. A collaborative teaching team from the United States and Europe redesigned this course to integrate metaliteracy into the learning activities and self-assessments. As students learn to become digital storytellers, they self-identify with specific metaliterate learner roles (producer, collaborator, researcher, etc.), assess their learning through four domains of metaliterate learning (affective, behavioural, cognitive, and metacognitive), and lastly reflect on their work in the course through the metaliteracy characteristics (collaborative, open, reflective, civic-minded, etc.). The internationalization of education in this COIL course is enhanced by the novel combination of metaliteracy and digital storytelling.
  • Brief report on Open Praxis figures and data (2013–2014)

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2015-01-01)
  • 22nd ICDE – World Conference on Distance Education: Facts and figures

    none none (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2007-01-01)
  • Developing Student Behaviours that Support Academic Integrity in Distance Learning

    Linda Amrane-Cooper; Stylianos Hatzipanagos; Alan Tait (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2022-06-01)
    The shift to online assessment during the pandemic has generated debates on academic integrity, also highlighting good practice in supporting students and staff. Academic integrity is commitment to six fundamental values: honesty, trust, fairness, respect, responsibility, and courage and academic misconduct refers to practices that are not in keeping with these values and this commitment. There seem to be two dominant threads in such debates in higher education: one involves promoting creative design of authentic assessment and guidelines to students about institutional expectations concerning academic offences such as plagiarism and collusion; the other provides technological and practical safeguards to protect academic integrity. In this paper, we report on the outcomes of a project that evaluated in 2020 the pivot to online assessment at the University of London, UK. Our focus is academic integrity in distance learning environments by exploring the key themes of student and staff perceptions, and related pedagogical issues. We propose a set of measures that can enhance students’ perception of academic integrity and institutional approaches to mitigate against academic offences.
  • Brief report on <i>Open Praxis</i> figures and progress

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2019-03-01)
  • Exploring the impacts of distance higher education on adult learners’ lives and reclaiming lifelong learning as a human development process

    Claudia Neves; Susana Henriques (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2020-12-01)
    <p>This article intends to launch discussion and reflection on two main themes: lifelong learning and digital literacy in nowadays societies. In looking for the intersections between these concepts to connote them with a more humanistic and holistic perspective, we explore the potentials of distance learning in the lives of adult learners. The empirical basis for this exploration is a survey applied to 706 (143 respondents) graduates in the education of the Portuguese Open University to know their future projects and the impact of this degree in the various dimensions of their personal, social and professional lives. The conclusions of this analysis point to recognition, by the respondents, of the positive impacts that distance higher education has in their personal and social lives. However, these impacts are not as visible in professional terms since the answers show little significant professional progressions. In this sense, the article concludes that it is important to rethink the founding ideas of the concept of lifelong learning from a humanistic perspective and to approach it with a holistic and transversal conception of what is now defined as digital literacy. Distance education, for adult learners, is a scenario that not only strengthens the personal, social and professional development of individuals, but also the development of competencies applied not only to the digital world but also to each person’s daily activities.</p>
  • Introduction to <i>Open Praxis</i> volume 12 issue 4

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2020-12-01)
  • Developing a framework for managing the quality use of podcasts in open distance and e-learning environments

    Antonia Makina (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2019-03-01)
    <p>The integration of podcasts in an open distance e-learning environment can play a crucial role in reducing transactional distance through providing quality educational opportunities and access to information through any digital devise. However, technology does not improve teaching, unless if there is a well-conceived educational process taking place. The question therefore is how lecturers can be guided towards the quality use of podcasts in order to achieve most of the learning objectives. Therefore, this paper aims to design and develop a framework that manages the quality use of podcasts for teaching and learning in ODeL environments.</p><p>Using literature review, a developmental qualitative research design was used to develop a framework. McGarr’s (2009) and the revised Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson et al., 2001) were used as domain specific guiders in the development of the framework. Results provided a framework to guide academic developers, learning technologists and course designers interested in quality in online environments.</p>

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