• Open Praxis, volumen 0 issue 1

      Open Praxis, Editor; ICDE (ICDE, 2006-09-01)
      Table of Contents - Providing Effective Feedback Online Zane Berge & Mauri Collins (1-10) - Mobile Technologies and the Future of Global Education Rory McGreal (11-16) - Cross-Border Higher Education through E-Learning: Issues and Opportunities Kumiko Aoki (17-25) - Open and Distance Education in the Global Environment: Opportunities for Collaboration Ellie Chambers (26-33) - Global Trade in Educational Services: Implications for Open and Distance Learning (ODL) S. Savithri & K. Murugan (34-44) - Interactive Computer Simulation to Support Teaching of Biology in Distance Learning Basuki Hardjojo, Diki, S. Nurmawati & Susi Sulistiana (45-54) - An Analysis of Learning Styles of Distance Learners at the Institute of Education Development, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia Syed Jamal Abdul Nasir bin Syed Mohamad, & Ahmad Saat Daud Mohamad (55-61) - Application of Cognitive Dissonance Theory to Reduce Dropouts in Distance Education System G. Radhakrishna & Anurag Saxena (62-66) - Effects of Globalisation on Education and Culture S. Chinnammai (67-72) - Learning Beyond Boundary: The Quest Of a Global Researcher Gomata Varanasi (73-78) - Computer Technology for Literacy and Empowerment of Masses in Developing Countries Piyush Swami & Sasi Benzigar (79-84)
    • Open Praxis, volumen 1 issue 1

      Open Praxis, Editor; ICDE (ICDE, 2007-01-05)
      Table of Contents - A Study on the Importance of Fostering Trust in a Distance Learning Community Sónia Sousa, David Lamas & Brian Hudson (1-10) - Teacher Upgrading through Distance Education in a South African Context C. G. Kruger & Prof. E. J. Spamer (11-19) - An Investigation into Delivery of On-Line Courses within an Early Childhood Teacher Education Distance Programme in New Zealand Susan E. Smart (20-29) - Transnational Online Project Management Curriculum Model for Engineering Students Enrique Benimeli Bofarull, Anke Muendler, Peter Haber (30-39) - China Rural Distance Education and Construction of the New Countryside Li Fanghong & Zeng Yichun (40-46) - E-Learning in Japan: Steam Locomotive on Shinkansen Ali E. Ozkul, Ph.D. & Kumiko Aoki, Ph.D.  (47-55) - Widening Access to Higher Education: Open and Distance Learning in Higher Education Setting in Indonesia Paulina Pannen (56-65) - Research and Development of a Costing Toolkit for Distance, Flexible and ICT-Based Education for Teacher Development in Africa Frank R J Banks (66-75) - Fostering E-Learning in Medical Education: The Eurovacc Team Experience Guilherme Andrade Marson, Nathalie Debard, Jean-Pierre Kraehenbuhl, Pascal Py, Yan Cornneille, Laurent Richard, Alain Meystre (76-86) - Program Upgrading Teachers in Education Irene Hardy de Gómez (87-95) - ICT based learning strategies for Educating nomads Yogesh Kulkarni & Dr. Madhav Gaikwad (96-102) - Information and Communication Technology and Distance Education in Brazil Marta de Campos Maia & Fernando de Souza Meirelles (103-112) - ICDE’s interview with Susan D’Antoni, UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) (113-117) - ICDE Task Force Open Educational Resources – Inquiry Results (118-125) - 22nd ICDE – World Conference on Distance Education: Facts and figures (126-131)
    • Open Praxis, volumen 1 issue 2

      Open Praxis, Editor; ICDE (ICDE, 2007-06-01)
      Table of Contents - Distance Education in North America: An Update Gary E. Miller & Ken Udas (1-14) - Open Educational Resources at the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (15-18) - The Metamorphosis of Distance Education in the Third Millennium Marta Mena (19-21)
    • Open Praxis, volumen 2 issue 1

      Open Praxis, Editor; ICDE (ICDE, 2008-02-01)
      Table of Contents - The Bavarian Virtual University (virtuelle hochschule bayern - vhb) – Structural Configuration and Key Success Factors Godehard Ruppert (1-8) - Teacher education in the PUCPR MATICE project Ricardo Tescarolo, Patrícia Lupion Torres, Elizete Moreira Matos (9-14)
    • Open Praxis, volumen 3 issue 1

      Open Praxis, Editor; ICDE (ICDE, 2009-03-01)
      Table of Contents - Non-Conventional Higher Education and the Construction of a Learning Society GE Daokai (1-9) - Trends, Innovations, and Opportunities in Open and Distance Learning Frits Pannekoek (10-15) - Higher education in the 21st century: the challenges for open and distance learning B.M. Gourley (16-23) - Transformation: Challenges and Opportunities – Vocational ODL in New Zealand Paul Grimwood (24-33) - New Forms of Managing Distance Education Institutions: Advancing open distance learning in Africa N. Barney Pityana (34-40) - Overcoming Obstacles in Building the Learning City: The Case of Brazil Fredric M. Litto (41-50) - A Probe into Reform and Development of DOE in China YAN Jichang (51-62) - Distance Education as a Key Factor in Building Literacy in India Swati Mujumdar (63-69) - Global Connections – Local Impacts Opportunities and Challenges for Cross-Border Open and Distance Learning Don Olcott (70-74)- Borderless Education: Breaking Down Barriers through E-Learning and Effective Networking Anuwar Ali (75-82) - Shanghai’s Practice and Exploration in the Building of Learning City XUE Mingyang (83-89) - Better Learning Better City: Mission and Responsibility of Open Universities ZHANG Deming (90-96) - ICDE at UNESCO is at the crossroads between militant engagement and professional expertise Bernard Loing (97-109) - Final Report (draft version) ICDE Global Task Force on Open Educational Resources (OER) Fred Mulder and Jos Rikers (110-148) - Management of Mega-Universities - A Case Study of CRTVUs Ge Daokai (149-164) - Flexible Learning Futures Jim Taylor (165-169) - The Challenges and Perspectives of Borderless Higher Education Don Olcott (170-187) - Open and Distance Learning Using ICTs - UNESCO’s Perspective Abdul Waheed Khan (188-197) - Using a ‘Portfolio’ as an Assessment Tool for Continuous Professional Development through Open Distance Learning in the Mauritian Civil Service Jheengut (198-212) - A Golden Combi?! - Open Educational Resources and Open, Flexible and Distance Learning Fred Mulder and Jos Rikers (213-228)
    • Open Praxis, volumen 4 issue 1

      Open Praxis, Editor; ICDE (ICDE, 2010-03-01)
      - Correlation between Performance and Quality of Academic Staff in National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) Olubiyi Adeniyi Adewale, Timothy Olugbenga Ajadi & Juliet O.Inegbedion (1-7) - Benchmarking E-Learning in UK Universities: Lessons from and for the International Context Paul Bacsich (9-17) - Structural equation modelling of factors affecting success in student’s performance in ODL-Programs: Extending Quality Management concepts Per Bergamin, Simone Ziska & Rudolf Groner (18-25) - Quality Assurance in Open and Distance Learning in India S.K. Gandhe (26-32) - Leading innovative approaches to the financial crisis Sarah Guri-Rosenblit (33-38) - TOWARDS KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMIES - the contribution of open distance learning strategies in addressing equity and inclusiveness issues in small states like Mauritius Jheengut (39-63) - New Approaches to Quality Assurance in the Changing World of Higher Education Maria Jose Lemaitre (64-75) - Entrepreneurship: New Challenges for Higher Education Institutions Josep Lladós (76-87) - A Psychometric Study in the Performance of Distance learners Ravi K Mahajan (88-94) - Managing Quality Assurance for Distance Learning Programs in Malaysia Mohd Ismail Ramli (95-101) - Employability and lifelong learning Hazel Simmons-McDonald (102-113)
    • The Limitations of Access Alone: moving towards open processes in education technology

      Knox, Jeremy; University of Edinburgh (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      “Openness” has emerged as one of the foremost themes in education, within which an open education movement has enthusiastically embraced digital technologies as the central means of participation and inclusion. Open Educational Resources (OERs) and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have surfaced at the forefront of this development, claiming unprecedented educational reform. This paper provides a critical perspective on these prominent initiatives, highlighting a tendency to view access to online material as the principal concern of the open education movement. It will analyse the portrayal of technology in academic literature and media coverage of OERs and MOOCs, suggesting underlying assumptions of technology instrumentalism and essentialism. Alternative perspectives will be offered, drawing on critical technology studies and the philosophy of technology. The inclusion of “open processes” is proposed, involving the active engagement of learners in participation and dialogue, as well as further critical explorations of the relationships between technology and education.
    • The concept of openness behind c and x-MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses)

      CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones, Argentina; Rodriguez, Osvaldo; Universidad del CEMA, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      The last five years have witnessed a hype about MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) presaging a revolution in higher education. Although all MOOCs have in common their scale and free access, they have already bifurcated in two very distinct types of courses when compared in terms of their underpinning theory, format and structure, known as c-MOOCs and x-MOOCs. The concept of openness behind each of the formats is also very different. Previous studies have shown that c-and x-MOOCs share some common features but that they clearly differ on the learning theory and pedagogical model on which they stand. In this paper we extend earlier findings and concentrate on the concept of “openness” behind each format showing important differences.
    • Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

      Yin, Shuangxu; Open University of China; Kawachi, Paul; Open University of China (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain certification; and Type-3 mapping occupational skills as portfolio-needs analysis. In each of these some e-assessment can play a role, notably in Type-3 in distance education. Our previous research has been in Type-2 and we report the empirical results and challenges involved in practice. Moving beyond Type-2 we further report how e-Type-3 can improve our practice in the Open University of China—a very large ODL provider. We discuss the barriers and challenges being faced, and ways being explored to resolve these issues, to reduce the costs involved and to improve open access to learning.
    • Openness in higher education

      Gil-Jaurena, Inés; Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
    • Assessment challenges in open learning: Way-finding, fork in the road, or end of the line?

      Conrad, Dianne; Athabasca University (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      Growing global commitments to open learning through the use of Open Educational Resources (OERs) are accompanied by concerns over what “to do” with that learning when learners present it to traditional institutions for assessment and accreditation. This paper proposes that established RPL (recognizing prior learning)protocols, in place at many institutions worldwide, can offer a pedagogically sound framework that supports the spirit of open learning and respects the diversity of learners’ efforts.
    • Widening access through openness in higher education in the developing world: A Bourdieusian field analysis of experiences from the National Open University of Nigeria

      Olakulehin, Felix Kayode; School of Education University of Leeds Leeds, LS2 9JT; Singh, Gurmit; School of Education University of Leeds Leeds, LS2 9JT (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      Bourdieu has argued that higher education is a field that reproduces social inequality, thus complicating how openness widens access to higher education in the developing world. Drawing on the experiences of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), this paper critically analyses and evaluates the rationale, approach, difficulties, opportunities, outcomes and benefits of NOUN’s experience in widening access to higher education in Nigeria using Bourdieu’s field theory. We argue that the success of efforts for openness in higher education in a developing world context involves steering the contradictory tensions of openness and access across competing policy and practice fields. We offer this theorisation as a future social theoretical agenda for reflexive research for improving the effectiveness of praxis to widen access through openness in higher education in the developing world.
    • Exploring the downside of open knowledge resources: The case of indigenous knowledge systems and practices in the Philippines

      SEAMEO, European Union; Flor, Alexander Gonzalez; University of the Philippines OPEN UNIVERSITY Los Banos, Laguna (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      The paper is based on the challenges encountered by the researcher while conducting a study titled “Design, Development and Testing of an Indigenous Knowledge Management System Using Mobile Device Video Capture and Web 2.0 Protocols.” During the conduct of the study the researcher observed a marked reluctance from organized indigenous people’s groups to participate in the initiative. It soon became apparent that interfacing indigenous knowledge with open access concepts held complicated issues. The inhibiting factors enumerated and discussed in the paper deal with: honoring indigenous belief systems; respecting the privacy of indigenous peoples; dealing with indigenous knowledge system (IKS) protocols; the significance of context in IKS; mainstream prejudice and value judgments among non-indigenous people users; and themisrepresentation of indigenous knowledge.
    • Embracing openness: the challenges of OER in Latin American education

      Mireles Torres, Nadia Paola; University of Calgary (Canada) IADB - Inter-American Development Bank (USA) (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement and the Open Access began only over a decade ago. During this period, the progress of the Open Educational Resources movement took place in developed countries for the most part. Recently, new projects have begun to emerge with a strong emphasis on open education. Yet, the concept of openness in education is a very innovative one, and it has not been embraced by many. In some regions, such as Latin America, OER is still in its early stages and faces many challenges that need to be addressed. Some of these challenges include awareness raising and capacity development. But there is a bigger challenge to face: embracing openness as a core value and an institutional strategy. In this paper, we offer a brief overview of the meaning of the term “open” in education and we analyze the challenges facing the OER in Latin American countries.
    • On the role of openness in education: A historical reconstruction

      Peter, Sandra; University of Technology, Sydney; Deimann, Markus; FernUniversität in Hagen (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      In the context of education, “open(ness)” has become the watermark for a fast growing number of learning materials and associated platforms and practices from a variety of institutions and individuals. Open Educational Resources (OER), Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC), and more recently, initiatives such as Coursera are just some of the forms this movement has embraced under the “open” banner. Yet, ongoing calls to discuss and elucidate the “meaning” and particularities of openness in education point to a lack of clarity around the concept. “Open” in education is currently mostly debated in the context of the technological developments that allowed it to emerge in its current forms. More in-depth explorations of the philosophical underpinnings are moved to the backstage. Therefore, this paper proposes a historical approach to bring clarity to the concept and unmask the tensions that have played out in the past. It will then show how this knowledge can inform current debates around different open initiatives.
    • Open Praxis, volumen 5 issue 1

      ICDE; UNED; Gil-Jaurena (ed.), Various Authors, Inés (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
    • Distance education regulatory frameworks: Readiness for openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations

      Australian Government Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education through the DEHub Project. The original report was prepared jointly by the project partners DEHub, the Australasian; Tynan, Belinda; University of Southern Queensland; James, Rosalind; University of New England (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010–2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to identifying, accessing, collating, analysing and presenting the requested regulatory information. Here, the findings of the study are discussed in light of the theme of openness. In particular, what “open” may mean for the region; what inhibitors can be observed and what major changes might need to be considered. The discussion draws on formal and informal literature on regulatory frameworks for distance education (DE) in the Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region. Contextual information was collected about the nominated countries within the region, along with nine case studies from representative institutions whose primary focus was distance and online education.
    • Access under siege: Are the gains of open education keeping pace with the growing barriers to University access?

      Olcott Jr, Don; Higher Colleges of Technology Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      Traditional and affordable access to a university education is under siege from all sides. National realpolitiks and global economic downturns have driven open education into the mainstream to stand against educational elitism, the growing digital divide, and to support the core values that give education its fundamental credence as a human right. Indeed, open is good—open with measurable impacts is even better. In the final analysis, the future of open education is at a crossroads that must be driven by those core values that define education as an essential human right with a commitment to expanding access and strengthening academic quality.
    • From OER to PLAR: Credentialing for Open Education

      Friesen, Norm; Thompson Rivers University; Wihak, Christine (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      Recent developments in OER and MOOCs (Open Educational Resources and Massive Open Online Courses) have raised questions as to how learners engaging with these courses and components might be assessed or credentialed. This descriptive and exploratory paper examines PLAR (Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition) as a possible answer to these questions. It highlights three possible connections between PLAR and open education which hold the greatest promise for credentialing open learning experiences: 1) PLAR may be used to assess and credential open educational activities through the use of exam banks such as CLEP (College Level Examination Program); 2) Learning occurring in xMOOCs (MOOCs based on already credentialed courses) and in other open contexts resembling “courses” may be assessed in PLAR through course-based portfolios; and 3) PLAR may also be enabled through the specification of “gap learning” facilitated through OER of many different kinds. After describing these options, the paper concludes that although the connections leading from open educational contexts to PLAR credentialing are currently disparate and ad hoc, they may become more widespread and also more readily recognized in the PLAR and OER communities.
    • Special edition: A Tribute to Nyameko Barney Pityana

      Jegede (ed.), Various Authors, Olugbemiro; National Open University of Nigeria (ICDE, 2013-02-11)
      Table of contents:1 Editorial – Olugbemiro Jegede: When the Unthinkable Happens (p. 1)2 Mandla S. Makhanya: Tribute to Professor Nyameko Barney Pityana (p. 5)3 Sir John Daniel: Unisa’s Unique Academic Odyssey (p. 8)4 Brenda M. Gourley: Force Majeure: Necessity Being the Mother of Invention (p. 10)5 Nicholas H. Allen and Susan C. Aldridge: Pityana – Visionary Service to a Global Community (p. 16)6 Tolly Mbwette: What Makes a Well Managed Modern Open and Distance Learning (ODL) University Much Closer to the ‘Ideal University of the Future’? (p. 18)7 James C. Taylor and Wayne Mackintosh: Creating an Open Educational Resources University and the Pedagogy of Discovery (p. 24) http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.0.0.59