• A Case Study of Scholars’ Open and Sharing Practices

      Veletsianos, George; Royal Roads University (ICDE, 2015-07-30)
      Although the open scholarship movement has successfully captured the attention and interest of higher education stakeholders, researchers currently lack an understanding of the degree to which open scholarship is enacted in institutions that lack institutional support for openness. I help fill this gap in the literature by presenting a descriptive case study that illustrates the variety of open and sharing practices enacted by faculty members at a North American university. Open and sharing practices enacted at this institution revolve around publishing manuscripts in open ways, participating on social media, creating and using open educational resources, and engaging with open teaching. This examination finds that certain open practices are favored over others. Results also show that even though faculty members often share scholarly materials online for free, they frequently do so without associated open licenses (i.e. without engaging in open practices). These findings suggest that individual motivators may significantly affect the practice of openness, but that environmental factors (e.g., institutional contexts) and technological elements (e.g., YouTube’s default settings) may also shape open practices in unanticipated ways.
    • A Comparative Study of National Infrastructures for Digital (Open) Educational Resources in Higher Education

      German Federal Ministry of Education and Research; Marín, Victoria I.; Bond, Melissa; Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Aydin, Cengiz H.; Bedenlier, Svenja; Bozkurt, Aras; Conrad, Dianne; Jung, Insung; Kondakci, Yasar; et al. (ICDE, 2020-06-30)
      This paper reports on the first stage of an international comparative study for the project “Digital educational architectures: Open learning resources in distributed learning infrastructures–EduArc”, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. This study reviews the situation of digital educational resources (or (O)ER) framed within the digital transformation of ten different Higher Education (HE) systems (Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Turkey and the United States). Following a comparative case study approach, we investigated issues related to the existence of policies, quality assurance mechanisms and measures for the promotion of change in supporting infrastructure development for (O)ER at the national level in HE in the different countries. The results of this mainly documentary research highlight differences and similarities, which are largely due to variations in these countries’ political structure organisation. The discussion and conclusion point at the importance of understanding each country’s context and culture, in order to understand the differences between them, as well as the challenges they face.
    • A Framework for the Ethics of Open Education

      Farrow, Robert; Institute of Educational Technology The Open University Walton Hall Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (ICDE, 2016-05-13)
      What difference does openness make to the ethics of teaching and research? This paper approaches this question both from the perspective of research into the use of open educational resources (OER) in teaching and learning. An outline of the nature and importance of ethics in education research is provided before the basic principles of research ethics are examined through a discussion of traditional guidance provided by three UK research governance bodies: the Economics and Social Research Council; the British Education Research Association; and the British Psychological Society. The importance and foundation of institutional approval for research activities is analysed with several examples of the differences made by openness. It is argued that openness by its nature provokes particular issues for education researchers. A framework for understanding openness in education is then proposed based on basic meta-ethical positions (deontological; consequentialist; virtue). Used as a tool, the framework attempts to retain relevance in a variety of scenarios without requiring a dogmatic vision of openness (e.g. an insistence on open licensing). This framework is then evaluated in the context of the OER Research Hub project, which developed guidance for others in the form of an 'ethics manual' and online learning provided through the OER Research Hub’s 'Open Research' course hosted on P2PU’s School of Open. Use of the framework is intended to contribute to a better understanding of professional ethics for open practitioners.
    • A Framework to Integrate Public, Dynamic Metrics Into an OER Platform

      Cohen, Jaclyn Zetta; University of Michigan; Omollo, Kathleen Ludewig; University of Michigan, Medical School Information Services; Malicke, Dave; University of Michigan, Medical School Information Services (ICDE, 2014-04-23)
      The usage metrics for open educational resources (OER) are often either hidden behind an authentication system or shared intermittently in static, aggregated format at the repository level. This paper discusses the first year of University of Michigan’s project to share its OER usage data dynamically, publicly, to synthesize it across different levels within the repository hierarchies, and to aggregate in a method inclusive of content hosted on third-party platforms. The authors analyze their user research with a target audience of faculty authors, multimedia specialists, librarians, and communications specialists. Next, they explore a stratified technical design that allows the dynamic sharing of metrics down to the level of individual resources. The authors conclude that this framework enables sustainable feedback to OER creators, helps to build positive relationships with creators of OER, and allows the institution to move toward sharing OER on a larger scale.
    • A Kenyan Cloud School. Massive Open Online & Ongoing Courses for Blended and Lifelong Learning

      Stockholm University; Jobe, William; Stockholm University (ICDE, 2013-11-26)
      This research describes the predicted outcomes of a Kenyan Cloud School (KCS), which is a MOOC that contains all courses taught at the secondary school level in Kenya. This MOOC will consist of online, ongoing subjects in both English and Kiswahili. The KCS subjects offer self-testing and peer assessment to maximize scalability, and digital badges to show progress and completion to recognize and validate non-formal learning. The KCS uses the Moodle LMS with responsive web design to increase ubiquitous access from any device. Access is free and open, and the KCS intends to be a contextualized open educational resource for formal secondary institutions to support blended learning and a free source of non-formal education for lifelong learning. The expected outcomes are that this effort will reduce secondary school dropout rates, improve test scores, become a quality resource for blended learning, as well as validate and recognize lifelong learning in Kenya.
    • A Kenyan Cloud School. Massive Open Online & Ongoing Courses for Blended and Lifelong Learning

      Stockholm University; Jobe, William; Stockholm University (ICDE, 2013-11-26)
      This research describes the predicted outcomes of a Kenyan Cloud School (KCS), which is a MOOC that contains all courses taught at the secondary school level in Kenya. This MOOC will consist of online, ongoing subjects in both English and Kiswahili. The KCS subjects offer self-testing and peer assessment to maximize scalability, and digital badges to show progress and completion to recognize and validate non-formal learning. The KCS uses the Moodle LMS with responsive web design to increase ubiquitous access from any device. Access is free and open, and the KCS intends to be a contextualized open educational resource for formal secondary institutions to support blended learning and a free source of non-formal education for lifelong learning. The expected outcomes are that this effort will reduce secondary school dropout rates, improve test scores, become a quality resource for blended learning, as well as validate and recognize lifelong learning in Kenya.
    • A Kenyan Cloud School. Massive Open Online & Ongoing Courses for Blended and Lifelong Learning

      Stockholm University; Jobe, William (ICDE, 2013-11-25)
      This research describes the predicted outcomes of a Kenyan Cloud School (KCS), which is a MOOC that contains all courses taught at the secondary school level in Kenya. This MOOC will consist of online, ongoing subjects in both English and Kiswahili. The KCS subjects offer self-testing and peer assessment to maximize scalability, and digital badges to show progress and completion to recognize and validate non-formal learning. The KCS uses the Moodle LMS with responsive web design to increase ubiquitous access from any device. Access is free and open, and the KCS intends to be a contextualized open educational resource for formal secondary institutions to support blended learning and a free source of non-formal education for lifelong learning. The expected outcomes are that this effort will reduce secondary school dropout rates, improve test scores, become a quality resource for blended learning, as well as validate and recognize lifelong learning in Kenya.
    • A Kenyan Cloud School. Massive Open Online & Ongoing Courses for Blended and Lifelong Learning

      Stockholm University; Jobe, William; Stockholm University (ICDE, 2013-11-26)
      This research describes the predicted outcomes of a Kenyan Cloud School (KCS), which is a MOOC that contains all courses taught at the secondary school level in Kenya. This MOOC will consist of online, ongoing subjects in both English and Kiswahili. The KCS subjects offer self-testing and peer assessment to maximize scalability, and digital badges to show progress and completion to recognize and validate non-formal learning. The KCS uses the Moodle LMS with responsive web design to increase ubiquitous access from any device. Access is free and open, and the KCS intends to be a contextualized open educational resource for formal secondary institutions to support blended learning and a free source of non-formal education for lifelong learning. The expected outcomes are that this effort will reduce secondary school dropout rates, improve test scores, become a quality resource for blended learning, as well as validate and recognize lifelong learning in Kenya.
    • A MOOC approach for training researchers in developing countries

      UK’s Department for International Development (DFID); Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida); INASP’s AuthorAID project; Murugesan, Ravi; Nobes, Andy; Wild, Joanna (ICDE, 2017-03-31)
      We report on an online course in research writing offered in a massive open online course (MOOC) format for developing country researchers. The concepts of cognitive presence, teacher presence, and social presence informed the design of the course, with a philosophy of strong social interaction supported by guest facilitators. The course was developed with low-bandwidth elements and hosted on a Moodle site. It was offered twice as a MOOC and 2830 learners from more than 90 countries, mainly in the developing world, took part. The average completion rate was 53%. Female learners and learners who were active in the forums were more likely to complete the course. Our MOOC approach may be a useful model for continuing professional development training in the developing world.
    • A New Interactive Method to Distance English Learning in Conceptual Age

      Xu, Wei; Zhejiang Radio&TV University (ICDE, 2013-11-26)
      Latest advance in information technology and innovative teaching confronts DEL (distance English learning) with new challenges and problems. According to the DEL analysis, the paper firstly presents cloud service’s functions to the support service, which serves to distribute and store quality learning resources. Meanwhile, practice-focused conceptual learning is advocated, which inspires distance learners’ autonomy, initiative and subjectivity to the greatest degree. Then the paper discusses designing principles and orientations of conceptual learning for DEL based on cloud service. Finally, by presenting several successful DEL experiences, the paper puts forward new teaching methods and advocates students’ multi-dimensional learning experiences.
    • A survey of the awareness, offering, and adoption of OERs and MOOCs in Japan

      AXIES (Academic eXchange for Information Environment and Strategy); Shigeta, Katsusuke; Koizumi, Mitsuyo; Sakai, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Yasuhiro; Inaba, Rieko; Hiraoka, Naoshi (ICDE, 2017-06-29)
      Awareness about Open Educational Resources (OERs) and the purposes for offering and adopting OERs and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) were analyzed using a detailed survey of higher education across Japan, which was conducted in 2015. A comparison with a similar study conducted in 2013 revealed that awareness of OERs has increased slightly and the number of MOOCs offered has increased significantly in the intervening two years. The increase of offerings and adoption was low for OERs but high for MOOCs. OERs are used to improve the learning environment for students, while MOOCs aim to promote lifelong learning. Only one-fifth of the institutions surveyed in 2013 offered MOOCs or advanced their plans to offer them in 2015, and institutions that did offer MOOCs or advance such plans to offer them after the previous survey tended to provide MOOCs for society and for promotional purposes, not only for themselves because Japanese institutions are self-sustainable in terms of open education activities, operating without the support of the government or foundations.
    • Academic Workload Planning for Open and Distance Learning (ODL) Universities: The Experience of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)

      Inegbedion, Juliet Obhajajie (ICDE, 2017-09-22)
      The quality of the programmes and courses in ODL depends on the academics that plan the programmes, develop the curriculum, manage courses and programmes and carry out administrative duties. It is observed that the academics often complain of work overload. It also appears there is a mix-up in integrating the mode of planning workload in the conventional universities into the open and distance education universities. This may be attributed to inadequate spread in the duties assigned, which if not checked could affect the quality of teaching and learning. This necessitated the study that was carried out to determine academic workload in NOUN. The findings revealed a gap between academic activities and adequate utilisation of time. Also, inadequate spread of activities affects the quality of the academic inputs. This led to the development of academic workload model to guide the spread of academic activities in open and distance learning.
    • Acceptance and Usability of OER in India: An Investigation Using UTAUT Model

      Nil; Padhi, Nayantara (ICDE, 2018-02-22)
      In the global movement towards open knowledge society, open educational resources (OER) have become a prominent contributor as a medium of education, research and training. In India, the phenomenon of OER is still in nascent stage. Although the country has been massively investing on growth and usage of ICT, it still requires acceptance of OER as a medium of education, research or training. Particularly, adoption and usage of OER posses several challenges such as accessibility, reliability, copy right etc. There is plethora of research studies on the ICT usage in education in India, but there is hardly any empirical research evidence on OER in India. With this backdrop, at the first instance it is very much essential to investigate the acceptance and usability of OER in India. This paper focuses on faculty perception by applying Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. Apart from this, the study also identifies the challenges associated with OER. For the purpose of this survey data is collected from 22 Indian universities located pan India. The outcome of this empirical research shall certainly useful and provide guidelines for the policy makers and users of OER in India.
    • Access under siege: Are the gains of open education keeping pace with the growing barriers to University access?

      Olcott Jr, Don; Higher Colleges of Technology Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (ICDE, 2013-01-14)
      Traditional and affordable access to a university education is under siege from all sides. National realpolitiks and global economic downturns have driven open education into the mainstream to stand against educational elitism, the growing digital divide, and to support the core values that give education its fundamental credence as a human right. Indeed, open is good—open with measurable impacts is even better. In the final analysis, the future of open education is at a crossroads that must be driven by those core values that define education as an essential human right with a commitment to expanding access and strengthening academic quality.
    • An Architecture based on Linked Data technologies for the Integration and reuse of OER in MOOCs Context

      Piedra, Nelson; Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja; Chicaiza, Janneth Alexandra; Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja; López, Jorge; Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja; Tovar, Edmundo; Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (ICDE, 2014-04-23)
      The Linked Data initiative is considered as one of the most effective alternatives for creating global shared information spaces, it has become an interesting approach for discovering and enriching open educational resources data, as well as achieving semantic interoperability and re-use between multiple OER repositories. The notion of Linked Data refers to a set of best practices for publishing, sharing and interconnecting data in RDF format. Educational repositories managers are, in fact, realizing the potential of using Linked Data for describing, discovering, linking and publishing educational data on the Web. This work shows a data architecture based on semantic web technologies that support the inclusion of open educational materials in massive online courses. The authors focus on a type of openness: open of contents as regards alteration i.e. freedom to reuse the material, to combine it with other materials, to adapt, and to share it further under an open license.
    • An OER framework, heuristic and lens: Tools for understanding lecturers’ adoption of OER

      International Development Research Centre (IDRC); Cox, Glenda J; Trotter, Henry (ICDE, 2017-06-29)
      This paper examines three new tools – a framework, an heuristic and a lens – for analysing lecturers’ adoption of OER in higher educational settings. Emerging from research conducted at the universities of Cape Town (UCT), Fort Hare (UFH) and South Africa (UNISA) on why lecturers adopt – or do not adopt – OER, these tools enable greater analytical insights at the institutional and cross-institutional level, and hold the potential for generic global application. The framework – the OER Adoption Pyramid – helps distinguish and compare the factors shaping lecturers’ OER adoption which are both immediate (over which they have personal control) and remote (over which they have less or no control). The heuristic – the OER Readiness Tables – derives from the Pyramid and provides a visual representation of the institutions’ obstacles and opportunities for OER engagement. The lens – of “institutional culture” – nuances these comparisons so that the analysis remains attentive to granular, idiosyncratic variables shaping OER decisions. We believe this research will have value for scholars interested in researching OER adoption, and institutions interested in promoting it.
    • An OER Online Course Remixing Experience

      Saide; OER Africa; Mallinson, Brenda Justine; South Africa Institute for Distance Education; and Rhodes University; Krull, Greig Emil; South African Institute for Distance Education (ICDE, 2015-07-30)
      This paper describes the authors’ experience of remixing two existing OER courses to provide an OER course for a particular purpose and context. The developing country target environment is stated as well as the original resources’ provenance. The motivation for remixing these OER is explored, and the design of the adapted resource is described followed by notes on the implementation and evaluation of the remixed ‘Facilitating Online Learning’ pilot course. Lessons learned include that remixing existing OER courses with similar licenses is an achievable undertaking, and OER will be reused if they are deemed to be contextually relevant. It follows that the content, nature, and deployment environment of the OER is important as is its licensing for reuse. The practical illustration of a simple remix experience is significant, as there is little literature available on remixing OER. Sharing this experience is intended to encourage and inform other such remix projects.
    • Analysis of Student and Faculty Perceptions of Textbook Costs in Higher Education

      Brigham Young University; Martin, Michael Troy; Belikov, Olga Maria; Hilton III, John; Wiley, David; Fischer, Lane (ICDE, 2017-03-31)
      The cost of textbooks has continued to impact students in higher education. Students have reported that they make decisions on which courses to take based on the specific cost of textbooks. Faculty have reported willingness to use open textbooks to help ease the burden on students but are unsure where to find viable options. We examined the responses of 676 students and 573 faculty from a large private university (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah) to understand the real impact of textbooks costs to students and how they are dealing with this ongoing problem. We found that 66% of students at this institution have not purchased a textbook due to cost. We also discovered that 91% of faculty at this institution would be willing to use OER alternatives and that 53% of them would welcome assistance identifying and adapting materials for their course.
    • Are MOOCs Open Educational Resources? A literature review on history, definitions and typologies of OER and MOOCs

      Stracke, Christian M.; Downes, Stephen; Conole, Grainne; Burgos, Daniel; Nascimbeni, Fabio (ICDE, 2020-04-06)
      Open Education gained more visibility as a result of the emergence of Open Educational Resources (OER) and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). This article discusses whether MOOCs should be considered as OER. Open Education and OER can be treated as two strands with different historical roots even though, in theory, OER are an aspect of Open Education. Different OER definitions and typologies are analyzed in relation to their dimensions and categorizations. Furthermore, the four conditions and two original categories of MOOCs are discussed, leading to a debate on their quality. It turns out that there are two perspectives on MOOCs: from an OER perspective, MOOCs as a product can be called OER. From an Open Education perspective, MOOCs are going beyond OER as enablers of Open Education and are understood as an innovative way of changing education. These perspectives are reflected by the OpenEd Quality Framework. The short answer to our leading question is: sometimes, and it depends on your perspective.
    • Are Private Universities Exempt from Student Concerns About Textbook Costs? A Survey of Students at American University

      Murphy, Lindsay Renee; Rose, David (ICDE, 2018-09-30)
      A survey conducted in the fall of 2015 at American University in Washington, DC shows that rising textbook prices similarly affect students at an expensive private university as those at community colleges and state schools. Research on high textbook costs that has demonstrated corollary unwanted behavior changes in students, including not purchasing the book, resorting to illegal online downloads, and poor study habits, were confirmed at American University as well. Solutions that have been proposed to this problem of prohibitive textbook prices, including Open Educational Resources (OER), could have an equally profound impact at American University, and potentially similar private universities, as has been demonstrated at less selective and more affordable counterparts.