Open Praxis is a peer-reviewed open access scholarly journal focusing on research and innovation in open, distance and flexible education. It is published by the International Council for Open and Distance Education - ICDE. The aim of Open Praxis is to provide a forum for global collaboration and discussion of issues in the practice of distance and e-learning. Open Praxis welcomes contributions which demonstrate creative and innovative research, and which highlight challenges, lessons and achievements in the practice of distance and e-learning from all over the world. An article may present research or surveys of recent work, describe original work, or discuss new technology and its possibilities, implications and/or other related issues.


The Globethics library contains articles of the Open Praxis as of vol. 1(2007) to current.

Envíos recientes

  • Critiquing Sustainable Openness in Technology-Based Education from the Perspective of Cost-Effectiveness and Accessibility

    Junhong Xiao (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2023-09-01)
    The over-exaggeration of technology’s role in education has dominated the landscape of research, often resulting in the negligence of other important issues. This article critiques openness in technology-based education from the perspective of sustainability, put more specifically, cost-effectiveness and accessibility, both of which have direct impact on sustainable openness. It first reviews the purpose of using technology in education advocated in strategy documents, namely using technology to break the iron triangle of access, cost, and quality, hence increasing openness in high-quality education. It contends that technology-based education cannot be sustainably open without both cost-effectiveness and accessibility. Nevertheless, sustainable openness is an under-researched theme according to the findings from a review of 3,059 primary studies conducted in this article. The article then goes on to rethink sustainable openness in the digital age, arguing that technology-based education should be cost-effective to educational institutions and students alike and cater for socio-economic diversity and disparity, among other things, to ensure sustainable openness to all. It concludes by calling for a critical approach to researching technology-based education with the aim of achieving high quality, cost-effectiveness, and accessibility at the same time and opening up education to all.
  • The Relationship between Satisfaction, Interaction, E-learning Readiness, and Academic Achievement in Online Learning

    Ayşe Bağrıacık Yılmaz (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2023-09-01)
    In this study, the relationship between students’ e-learning readiness, perceptions of interaction in online learning environments, satisfaction, and academic achievement was examined. The research was conducted according to correlational study principles. The academic achievement variable of the study was determined based on the final exam grades of the students, and three separate scales were used for other variables. The data of the study were obtained from 212 students who received fully online education. The data obtained were analyzed by structural equation modelling method. According to the results of the study, e-learning readiness and interaction perception are predictors of satisfaction in online learning environments. The effect of interaction on satisfaction was found to be higher. There is a moderate relationship between student-content and student-instructor interaction dimensions of interaction and satisfaction. There is a low level relationship between many dimensions of e-learning readiness and satisfaction. However, e-learning readiness, interaction, and satisfaction are not predictors of academic achievement. Moreover, no significant relationship was found between e-learning readiness and interaction. Based on the findings of the study, various comments and suggestions were made regarding better online learning environments.
  • Book Review: Handbook of Open, Distance, and Digital Education

    Berrin Cefa (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2023-09-01)
    Zawacki-Richter, O., & Jung, I. (Eds.). (2023). Handbook of Open, Distance and Digital Education. Springer Nature Singapore.
  • Reviewing a 5-Year Grant-Funded Campus OER Initiative: Reflections, Successes, & Challenges

    Christina Boyle (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2023-09-01)
    Open Educational Resources (OER) have continued to gain traction in higher education, assisting with ever-rising costs of publisher textbooks and supporting pedagogical innovation. Starting in 2017, NY state legislature has allocated funds annually to be split between its two public university systems to support and incentivize the adoption of OER. The author’s institution, an included public college, has secured portions of this funding each year. This paper will focus on the initial five years of the state-funded OER initiative at the City University of New York (CUNY) College of Staten Island, with reflections on the successes of the program, the overall process of the annual grant cycle on campus, challenges that arose in the burgeoning OER program, and suggestions for future considerations. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the impact of state funding on the establishment of a library-facilitated OER initiative, to serve as a example for other institutions who are seeking to build an OER program.
  • Designing OER with Equity: An Example of Situating Equity in a Community College Statistics Course Redesign

    Shadisadat Ghaderi (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2023-09-01)
    This article showcases an example of a large-scale open educational resource (OER) statistics course redesign at Guttman Community College from evaluation, creation, and development. It highlights ways I identified students’ needs and responded to them, integrated equity into the OER design by describing how social justice principles were applied, as well as explicit examples of integration of culturally and locally relevant content in the design. This practical illustration of a course redesign is significant due to the lack of literature available on creating culturally and locally relevant and responsive OER. It is the hope that this example will encourage and inform the development of other such relevant and responsive OER projects to promote equity within open education.
  • Epistemic Considerations of Open Education to Re-Source Educators’ Praxis Sustainably

    Barbara Class (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2023-09-01)
    This article suggests to reflect on the philosophical foundations of Open Education. It reaches out to Bergson’s and Popper’s respective understandings of Open Society; ontology of immanence, not-yetness; and post-inquiry. It invites to revisit ethos, eidos and praxis in Open Education to move away from a prevailing Western, dominant, unsustainable paradigm and explore a holistic approach, the inclusion of indigenous knowledge systems, the shift from an overall domesticating to a liberating education, and the making visible of what has been made invisible. This discussion precedes the presentation of a roadmap drafted for Open Education in the Swiss Higher Education landscape, explaining why it has been deliberately prepared at the epistemic level and how relevant this is in relation to the sustainability process, providing a horizon for the first of three steps - survival, security, sustainability.
  • Why All the Hype about ChatGPT? Academics’ Views of a Chat-based Conversational Learning Strategy at an Open Distance e-Learning Institution

    Micheal M. van Wyk; Michael Agyemang Adarkwah; Samuel Amponsah (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2023-09-01)
    The launch of ChatGPT has been revolutionary. This AI chatbot can produce conversations which are indistinguishable from that of humans. This exploratory qualitative study is foregrounded in a constructivist-interpretative perspective. The principal objective of this paper is to explore the views of academics on ChatGPT as an AI-based learning strategy at an open distance e-learning (ODeL) institution of higher education. Thirteen academics, who were enrolled as study participants, posted their views of ChatGPT as an AI-based learning strategy on a Teams chat at an institution of higher learning. The results support a few research studies on ChatGPT. The academics recognized the benefits and risks of using ChatGPT for teaching and learning. Further investigations are recommended to explore similar studies in higher education spaces and specifications.
  • Generative AI, Synthetic Contents, Open Educational Resources (OER), and Open Educational Practices (OEP): A New Front in the Openness Landscape

    Aras Bozkurt (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2023-09-01)
    This paper critically examines the transformation of the educational landscape through the integration of generative AI with Open Educational Resources (OER) and Open Educational Practices (OEP). The emergence of AI in content creation has ignited debate regarding its potential to comprehend and generate human language, creating content that is often indistinguishable from that produced by humans. This shift from organic (human-created) to synthetic (AI-created) content presents a new frontier in the educational sphere, particularly in the context of OER and OEP. The paper explores the generative AI’s capabilities in OER and OEP, such as automatic content generation, resource curation, updating existing resources, co-creation and facilitating collaborative learning. Nevertheless, it underscores the importance of addressing challenges like the quality and reliability of AI-generated content, data privacy, and equitable access to AI technologies. The critical discussion extends to a contentious issue, ownership in OER/OEP. While AI-generated works lack human authorship and copyright protection, the question of legal liability and recognition of authorship remains a significant concern. In response, the concept of prompt engineering and co-creation with AI is presented as a potential solution, viewing AI not as authors, but powerful tools augmenting authors’ abilities. By examining generative AI’s integration with OER and OEP, this paper encourages further research and discussion to harness AI’s power while addressing potential concerns, thereby contributing to the dialogue on responsible and effective use of generative AI in education.
  • Introduction to Open Praxis volume 14 issue 2

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2022-12-01)
    This Open Praxis issue includes five research papers, one innovative practice paper and one book review.
  • Opening Futures for Nigerian Education – Integrating Educational Technologies with Indigenous Knowledge and Practices

    Biliamin Adekunle Adeyeye; Jon Mason (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2019-03-01)
    This paper highlights some key historical perspectives and antecedents of African Indigenous knowledge (AIK) and practices while identifying ‘open’ futures and opportunities for the application of digital technologies for educational opportunities that build on this cultural base. The role and negative impact of colonialism in the under-development of AIK is examined in this context together with the impact of post-colonial and contemporary corruption in further undermining the value of Indigenous knowledge systems. Two key concepts are identified as a counterpoint to this: the resilience of AIK and ‘local wisdom’ and the openness underpinning much of the ongoing digital revolution. This natural alignment can help guide the integration of Indigenous-based knowledge and practices and the deployment of open and distance learning in the re-birth of African Indigenous Knowledge Systems (AIKS). Openness is a pivotal concept here for it is integral to both the architecture of the Web and in its ongoing evolution. Given the identified opportunities associated with digital technology, and despite the challenges, it is argued that there is an unequivocal need for AIKS to explore the advantages of open education resources and practices in promoting this rebirth that is also consistent with modern science and technologies in Africa and beyond.
  • Correlation between familial roles and persistence of female students on distance education programmes in Ghana: Through the lens of an administrator

    Beatrice Asante Somuah; Samson Ikinya Kariuki; Florence Muthoni ITEGI (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2019-11-01)
    The contributions of individuals towards a nation’s development cannot be underestimated. Nevertheless, research has proven that gender roles could create some setbacks to the extent that some individuals may not be able to reach the optimum in higher education. This correlational study explored whether the interplay of some female gender roles affected persistence as female students juggled with studies. A total of 21 study centres with female enrolment of a 100 and above were purposively selected. Using simple random sampling, a sample of 441 female students were drawn from two distance education institutions in Ghana. The study employed the correlational research design. A questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. It was revealed that female students had family roles they performed. The study found that there was a positive correlation between persistence and familial roles among the participants. This implied that as the level of familial roles of the respondents increased, their persistence increased as well, thus revealing some level of resilience towards the progression of their education. It was therefore recommended that administrators of distance education institutions equipped female students with the needed knowledge and support to ensure the effective management of their familial roles.
  • An Evaluation of Online Proctoring Tools

    Mohammed Juned Hussein; Javed Yusuf; Arpana Sandhya Deb; Letila Fong; Som Naidu (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2020-12-01)
    COVID’19 is hastening the adoption of online learning and teaching worldwide, and across all levels of education. While many of the typical learning and teaching transactions such as lecturing and communicating are easily handled by contemporary online learning technologies, others, such as assessment of learning outcomes with closed book examinations are fraught with challenges. Among other issues to do with students and teachers, these challenges have to do with the ability of teachers and educational organizations to ensure academic integrity in the absence of a live proctor when an examination is being taken remotely and from a private location. A number of online proctoring tools are appearing on the market that portend to offer solutions to some of the major challenges. But for the moment, they too remain untried and tested on any large scale. This includes the cost of the service and their technical requirements. This paper reports on one of the first attempts to properly evaluate a selection of these tools and offer recommendations for educational institutions. This investigation, which was carried out at the University of the South Pacific, comprised a four-phased approach, starting with desk research that was followed with pilot testing by a group of experts as well as students. The elimination of a tool in every phase was based on the ‘survival of the fittest’ approach with each phase building upon the milestones and deliverables from the previous phase. This paper presents the results of this investigation and discusses its key findings.
  • Introduction to Open Praxis volume 7 issue 3

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2015-07-01)
  • Networked curricula: Fostering transnational partnerships in open and distance learning

    María Luz Cacheiro-González; Patricia Mata-Benito; George Ubachs (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2013-04-01)
    Transnational Networked Curricula (TNC) provides many benefits to the institutions that offer them as well as to the different stakeholders involved, not only the students but also the academics, the institutions as a whole, and the wider society. Supporting Higher Education Institutions in enhancing and implementing international networked practices in virtual campus building is the main aim of the NetCU project, which has been developed by the EADTU, in partnership with 14 member organizations, from 2009 to 2012. The project outcomes intend to facilitate the future set-up of networked curricula in Higher Education institutions and potentially lead to more transnational partnerships in Open and Distance Education (ODE) and blended learning, showing challenges, obstacles and ways to overcome them. This paper presents the main products developed in the project, assesses its completeness and usage, and discusses on the challenges of curricula networking starting from the ideas and opinions shared in different stakeholders workshops organized under the NetCU project.
  • Book Review of Winning Online Instruction: A Q&A for Higher Education Faculty

    Berkan Celik (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2023-07-01)
    Hillman, D., Schudy, R., & Temkin, A. (2022). Winning online instruction: A Q&A for higher education faculty. Routledge. 196 pages. ISBN 978-0-367-75165-4 (pbk). ISBN 978-1-00-316128-8 (ebk).
  • Innovative Application & Enrollment Processes for More Informed Students: Reflections on the Benefits of this Innovative Process through the Analytical Lens of Behavioural Science

    Gerard Creaner; Sinead Creaner; Colm Creaner (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2022-06-01)
    This paper examines the practical experience and research background of one private training provider with over 10 years’ experience reskilling and upskilling mid-career workers with academic qualifications for employment in a growing technical and highly regulated pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. This paper offers insights into how to maximise the efficiency and effectiveness of the admissions, enrollment, induction and orientation process for adult learners looking to commence studies on university accredited continuous professional development (CPD) courses. This process is based on and analysed through the lens of Behavioural Science, while also building upon the work of Dirksen, Colvin Clark, Stolovitch, and Keeps. The data set has been gathered during 2020 and 2021, from 425 adult learner applicants, coming from a variety of educational and employment backgrounds, with 5 to 25 years of work experience.
  • Introduction to selected papers on Open Education

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2015-04-01)
  • Faculty Members’ Lived Experiences with Choosing Open Educational Resources

    Troy Martin; Royce Kimmons (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2019-03-01)
    The cost of textbooks has continued to increase with significant financial effects on students in higher education. Although many faculty express a desire and willingness to adopt and create open textbooks (and OER generally), few actually do. To better understand this gap between attitudes and practices, this phenomenological study builds upon the findings of a survey of faculty members at a large, nationally-ranked, high-research-activity university in the U.S. and uses in-depth interviews to understand faculty members’ lived experiences with OER adoption and creation. Results indicated that though faculty might be motivated to use and create OER to reduce cost and improve pedagogy, they are regularly stymied by quality considerations, copyright fears, technical difficulties, and sustainability concerns. We explore each of these issues in some depth and provide discussion and suggestions on how similar institutions (e.g., high-research-activity) should respond to help support OER adoption and creation.
  • Effect of “Tell Me More” on EFL Undergraduate Students’ English Language Achievement

    George Gyamfi; Panida Sukseemuang (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2017-10-01)
    This descriptive study aimed at finding the impact of Tell Me More (TMM), an online language-learning program, on English as a foreign language (EFL) undergraduate learners’ achievement in a University in Thailand. The study also looked at whether the time of use of TMM had an effect on learners’ achievement. Data was collected from the scores of students at four proficiency levels who did the placement, progress and achievement tests in the TMM program for the 2015 academic year. The analysis of the data indicated an improvement in English language achievement for the beginner and advanced proficiency levels after the use of the TMM program. However, TMM did not have any effect on students of intermediate+ and intermediate proficiency levels. The ANOVA and pairwise comparison analysis revealed a significant difference between the proficiency levels. The analysis of the time on task was striking. It raises concerns about the use of time as the sole indicator for assessment. The findings suggest that learning goals and assessment have the capacity to influence the use of computer-assisted language learning technologies. The study therefore will guide instructors on how to design curriculums for autonomous online learning and improve ways of assessment.
  • Impact of organizational culture, organizational communication and supervisor support on the job satisfaction of employees working in online IT based distance learning institutions of Pakistan

    Khalid Usman (International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE), 2019-06-01)
    Distance education particularly the IT based distance learning is a fast growing concept in the academic world. The employees working in such distance learning institutions have certain issues that need to be investigated. One important such issue the job satisfaction of employees. Job satisfaction of employees can be investigated through several variables. Job satisfaction is equally important in all the organizations including the face to face and distance learning organizations. Distance learning organizations differ from face to face as the supervisor and the employees happen to be seated hundreds of miles away from each other. They do not even have a facial know how or interaction with each other. This distance create certain differences in the culture and the facial anonymity also has an impact on the supervisor support and other issues as well. This study intended to analyze the impact of organizational culture, organizational communication and supervisor support on the job satisfaction of the employees working in the IT based distance learning institutions of Pakistan. These variables are so selected because the employees working in such organizations happen to be seated away from supervisor and one another as well. A survey was conducted for this purpose in which data was collected through online questionnaire and data processed through regression analysis. Findings of the study revealed that all the three variables including organizational culture, organizational communication and supervisor support has a positive impact on the job satisfaction of employees working in the IT based distance learning organizations.