Entre les miasmes et les germes: L'impact de la bacteriologie sur la pratique medicale en territoire Canadien 1870-1930
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AbstractThis article analyzes some aspects concerning the introduction of bacteriological theory and practice into Canadian territory from 1870 to 1930. The author begins by presenting the principal explanatory models characterizing the transition period from pre-bacteriological discourse- referring to infectious diseases and surgical infections- to new bacteriological paradigms. He goes on to analyze the different ways in which the germ theory and then bacteriology spread into Canadian territory. The transition periods, where old and new coexisted, reveal a kind of syncretism by physicians in relation to both aetiology of infectious diseases and surgical procedures. The author then shows that there were two distinct phases in the overall context of the history of antiseptic surgery from 1868 to 1890. He demonstrates that the use of antiseptics did not necessarily mean either adherence to Pasteur's postulates on fermentation or strict observance of Listerian methods. Finally, the article expounds on the role played by European institutions in importing bacteriological knowledge and institutionalizing this new discipline in Canadian territory.