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AbstractThis article focuses on a painting that has not yet been studied, described or published by art critics. This impressive work of art from Vilnius Cathedral was introduced to the society on December 19th 2001, in an exhibition that was updated for the third time Christianity in Lithuanian Art, Lithuanian Art Museum. Although the painting is old, very large (312x145 cm) and was painted by a talented artist, not much data has been collected concerning it. The author of the work of art is unknown; it is an oil painting on canvas that dates back to the middle of the 17th century and that was repainted in the 18th century. The title of the painting is St. Casimir among Angels. Referring to the treatise by Leon Battista Alberti De pictura (1435) as well as treatises by authors of the 16-17th century on the theory of the figures of language and art, the article supports another title for the painting. The new title could reveal new meanings of this work of art. All the aforementioned works advise to start any analysis of the composition from the movements of depicted characters. The latter technique is especially helpful when the title itself seems to be insufficient, because movement as the indicator of expression helps to disclose the content of composition in the most reliable way. The notional relation of St. Casimir and figures surrounding him can be associated with the composition type Sacra Conversatione and the poem Theatrum S. Casimiri (1604) could be the iconographical source or the verbal context of the painting.