Pasaulietinių dalykų - rusų kalbos, literatūros, tėvynės istorijos ir geografijos - mokymas dvasininkų rengimo įstaigose : (XIX amžiaus antroji pusė)
Full recordShow full item record
AbstractThe goal of this article was research of process and meaning of teaching secular subjects or subjects of general education (the Russian Language and Literature, the Homeland [Otechestvennaya] History and Geography) in Roman Catholic seminaries of the so-called Northwestern Province of Russia (NWP), in the context of the clerical policy by authorities in the second half of the nineteenth century. Also I attempted to measure the significance of those subjects taught for the sociocultural behavior of clergymen. In such a formulation of my goal I attempted to respond to the historiographical stance about modern Lithuanian nationalism as a project of secular authorities. Thus, I argue against the claim that Lithuanians were positively singled out in policies of the government in the so-called NWP at the end of the nineteenth century, and I do not agree that the measures by the authorities restricting Polish cultural expression in the same NWP were simultaneously rendering wider opportunities and spaces for the Lithuanian language and its users, as well as their political projects. The meaning of teaching secular subjects in seminaries is to be assessed in one way in the period after 1863–1864 insurrection till the end of 1860s, when the policy of sanctions against the Roman Catholic Church or of social relations regulated by the administrative circulars was obviously continued. At that time seminaries did not accept freshmen and teaching of secular subjects there did not proceed smoothly. But the assessment must be different in the 1870s, after the admission to the seminaries was renewed and the project of linguistic assimilation very clearly involved not only believers, but also clergymen (especially those that were prepared in the Vilnius Roman Catholic seminary, because their alumni had to work not only in their own, but also in the former Minsk bishopric, that did not include Lithuanian speaking areas).
At that time seminaries suffered from the active pressure by authorities in favor of secular subjects or subjects of general education, since teaching of the Russian language and its usage in schools that were instructing clergymen became especially relevant. This remained unchanged in the last decades of the nineteenth century, due to the spread of modern Russian nationalism and interests in Roman Catholic seminaries; in broader context, due to the expectations of authorities aimed at this social layer. Tensions occasioned among the Ministry of Interior Affairs, Ministry of Education, and local administration, due to the difference in assessment of institutions that were preparing clergymen, and due to the different perception of the sphere of their competency. One can assess problems of the subjects taught in Russian in more than a single way. Yes, teaching of these subjects meant a non-canonical control of seminaries, which was executed by the secular government, and study of those subjects, in the eyes of the same government, added to qualifications of clergymen, which enabled them to better fulfil their duties for the state. Secular authorities, however, had limited possibilities in the use of Roman Catholic clergymen for their depolonization policy in NWP. Secular subjects constituted only a certain part of their educational curriculum, and there were almost no quantitative modifications since the initial endorsement of seminaries’ statute (1843). Thus, involvement of the clergymen in application of concrete plans promoted by the authorities was challenging. More than that, it does not straightforwardly confirm arguments of the historiographical claim about the nexus between modern Lithuanian nationalism and the secular authorities.[...]