Kvantitatyvioji lietuvių liaudies dainų ritmika kitų tautų tradicinės muzikos kontekste
Another nations tradition music
The formula of rhythm
The quantity of vowels
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AbstractThis article discusses Indian, Arabic, Ancient Greek and ethnic Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian music from the perspective of quantitative rhythmics. Typological, morphological and comparative methods are used. The article is based on the works of authoritative musicologists (C. Sachs, A. Danielu, Th. Georgiades, M. Kharlap, Safī al-Dīn, I. Rüütel, etc.). The root of quantitative rhythmics is found the alteration of short and long syllables, which is characteristic of many polysyllabic languages (languages that are based on polysyllabic words). The syncretism of music and poetry is characteristic of the quantitative rhythm. Poetry time signatures of Sanskrit and classic versification of Arabs are based on the alteration of different lengths. A classic example of quantitative rhythm is considered to be the rhythm of ancient Greek poetry and music. Quantitative versification was critical in the formation of the rhythm of Indian and Arabic classical music. After the analysis of the rhythm of ancient Lithuanian folk music (especially seasonal and work songs, children songs, and cantabile parts of fairy tales), it has become evident that in some examples the qualitative rhythm is more characteristic than the quantitative one. The characteristics of the quantitative rhythm are the following: 1) the absence of time-signature; 2) mixed or altering time-signature; 3) the bar lines determine the limits of a rhythmic cycle, motive, phrase or poetic line rather than the accentual parts of the time.
Sometimes the quantitative nature of the rhythm is disguised by the melismas. A direct correlation of musical and narrative lengths (e.g., when a long music sound coincides with a long syllable) is not common in Lithuanian songs. More commonly a long music sound coincides with a stressed syllable. This can be explained by: 1) the features of Lithuanian phonetics and accentics: both the quantity of vowels (as in Sanskrit or ancient Greek language) and the floating stress mark (as in English or Russian) create a different meaning in Lithuanian language, 2) different age of poetic and musical text (the poetic text alters quicker than the musical text), 3) the independence of music text (sometimes the poetic text obeys stable and quantitative formulas of rhythm and is transaccentuai). A congruence between the duration of a syllable and the durations of a musical note is evident in ancient and relict texts; for example, in asemantic imitative words, which usually are found in refrains or play the role of a refrain themselves and create stable rhythm formulas that are easy to identify [...]