Lietuvių kalbos diegimas Vilniaus vyskupijos religiniame gyvenime vyskupo Stefano Zvierovičiaus laikais (1897-1902 m.)
Bishop Stefan Zwierowicz
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AbstractThe study attempts to review the belief deeply rooted in the Lithuanian historical writings regard- I n g the anti-Lithuanian position of Vilnius Bishop Stefan Zwierowicz (1897-1902). It is commonly believed that he was against Lithuanisation of the language of paralithurgy and sermons pursued by the young generation of patriotic Lithuanian priests. In this manner he contributed to the deepening colonisation of Vilnius Region. 23 multinational parishes where linguistic changes at the time of the bishop in question caused tensions or conflicts were chosen as the object of the study. In most cases the linguistic practice change was initiated by patriotically-spirited Lithuanian priests. Lithuanisation of the paralithurgy a r id sermon language was perceived as a means for educating the modern Lithuanian consciousness. Such actions would often trigger unrest in parishes and priests did not always manage to deal with such challenges. Conflicts would occur because small groups of Lithuanian and Polish parishioners formed and cither supported or opposed to the actions of parish priests. Such groups were shaped from various social strata, which illustrates effectiveness of the nationalism ideology. The reaction of Bishop Zwierowicz to the broad and suddenly outspread activities of young Lithuanian priests was not as straightforward as is commonly suggested in the Lithuanian historiography.
Only two Lithuanian priests, namely P. Čelkys and I. Šoparas, lost their position of parish priests for 'heir pro-Lithuanian activities and were appointed as vicars in non-Lithuanian and poorer parishes. Meanwhile the number of priests who actively joined nationalistic activities reached nearly a couple dozens. In most cases of clashes the bishop either supported actions of Lithuanian priests or attempted to stabilise the situation without disciplinary measures. In four parishes Lithuanians appeared to be the offended party and in two cases the bishop tried (though not very decisively and unsuccessfully) to change the situation for the benefit of the Lithuanians. The research data allows challenging the historiographie cliché about the anti-Lithuanian position of Zwierovvicz. Vilnius bishops and rulers in late nineteenth and early twentieth century did not have a uniform strategy for dealing with problems triggered by penetration of nationalism into the religious life. Their reactions widely range between elimination of causes for unrest and support of reforms clearly violating rights of Polish speakers.