AbstractThe article analyses the problem of relationship between the West and the Islam. In 1993, S. Huntington maintained that previous conflicts between leaders, nations, and ideologies, dominant from the Middle Ages, will be replaced by those between civilisations. Boundaries of civilisations will become front lines. The conflict between the West and the Islam might the assumed as that between civilisation, or more precisely, between cultures. In order to understand its sources and predict possible development, we can not be limited by the analysis of terrorist attacks only. We need to go deeper into the worldview and world assumption of the Muslims. Peaceful co-living of both cultures will be possible if both parties, the West and the Islam, refuse expansion and pretensions to the monopoly of truth. If Lithuania does not want to become a marionette of Western culture, it must put efforts on the development of moral values by its domestic policy.