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AbstractBy applying the historical-descriptive and causal-comparative methods of research, the author discusses the concept of pedagogical self-awareness in Lithuania (1918–1940), and the components of its content are highlighted: conscious determination for work and its implementation, conscious and systemised self-development, perception of the students and organisation of the pedagogical work on the scientific basis, participation in the life of teachers’ community, development of an education space in society. The author states that the problem is approached conceptually, and the pedagogical self-awareness is interpreted as a condition for formation of a teacher’s identity. Some pedagogues solved the problem of self-awareness more conceptually, whereas others came only with separate ideas. In addition, the problem was approached practically and theoretically. When approaching it theoretically, a great many of conceptual ideas were offered. The practical aspect of the problem is related to objectives of a Lithuanian teacher, especially, a rural teacher, to educate society, the youth and families on the organisation of conscious and purposeful activities, relations between the teacher and parents seeking to harmoniously combine all factors of education of children. High pedagogical self-awareness manifesting through adherence to moral standards, dignity and respect to a student as a virtue, socially valuable decisions is a guarantee of a harmonious interaction with social environment and students. It is also a guarantee of pedagogical authority.