Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics only publishes original articles that are aimed at relating ethics to the different areas of public life.


The Globethics.net library contains articles of Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics as of vol. 1(2010) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Aristotle and spiritual capital

    Bosch, Magdalena; Torralba, Francesc; Gràcia, Carla (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2013)
  • Decision-making in organisations, according to the aristotelian model

    Torralba, Francesc; Palazzi, Cristian (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2010)
    This article explores the process of decision-making in the light ofAristotelian ethics, in particular his work Nicomachean Ethics. Making decisions is a common task on the managerial agenda. The decisions of a manager affect individuals, the future of the organisation and, of course, they have consequences for the organisation and its surroundings.
  • Ethical deliberation within organizations

    Torralba, Francesc; Rosàs Tosas, Mar (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
    Note: This paper is a version of a chapter of a previous book by Francesc Torralba, titled Destriar el bé del mal. L'art de trobar criteris ètics en la vida diària (Pagès Editors, 2013).Our aim is to identify the conditions of possibility of a successfulprocess of ethical deliberation. To achieve this goal, we turn toAristotle’s definition of ‘deliberation’ as a rational process that seeks tomake decisions (as opposed to other types of rational processes that aimto find out or achieve a truth). We focus also on the need of incorporationof the other’s perspective in what Rawls labels ‘overlapping consensus’;on Lafont’s three requirements of deliberation; and on Ricoeur’s foursteps to fully engage with one’s commitments through action. In orderto complement the picture of deliberation we get when reading theseauthors in conjunction, we add what in our eyes constitute two majorconditions often neglected. We then point out the shortcomings of twomanifestations of the current interest in the successful processes of deliberation.Firstly, we address ethics committees. Given that their primaryconcern is precisely ethics, they should be –and often are– the organizationswhich more enthusiastically embrace and promote ethical processesof deliberation. Yet they tend to fail in some respects, which wepoint out. Secondly, we confront the contradictions surrounding therecent proliferation of codes of ethics and suggest how their value couldbe maximized.
  • Freedom of Expression, Public Opinion and Journalism in the Work of John Stuart Mill

    Sintes, Marçal (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2016)
    Abstract: This article reviews the basic elements in John Stuart thought on freedom of expression, public opinion and the role of journalism in a democratic society, ideas bringing together and consolidating a tradition which began in the seventeenth century and continues through to the present day. It also considers Mill’s thought in relation with the views of thinkers who came before him, Milton and Jefferson, for example, and his contemporary, Tocqueville. Among the core ideas in Mill’s writings are the “harm principle”, his approximation to the idea of truth, and his account of how political debate should be carried out. His extensive body of work has given rise to intense debate which is still lively today. As Isaiah Berlin emphasised, “[...] the critics of Mill have, on the whole, exceeded the number of his defenders. Nevertheless, the inner citadel – the central thesis – has stood the test”.
  • Justifying an Adequate Response to the Vulnerable Other

    Kavanagh, Chandra (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2016)
    Is it possible to justify requiring that I respond adequately to the other’s vulnerability? I contend that insofar as I value my own personal identity it is consistent to respond adequately to the vulnerability of the other. Part one provides a break down of vulnerability in terms of its fundamental indeterminacy. Part two illustrates how the ability to respond either adequately or inadequately to the other’s vulnerability is implied by the fundamental co-constitution of personal identity. I understand myself as a self only insofar as I stand in relation to other selves that see me as a self. If the relationship between recognition and identity also holds for the other, my response to her vulnerability founds her identity as well. In part three the relationship developed in part two is employed to justify the obligation to respond adequately to the vulnerable other. If I value my own personal identity, then I require an adequate response from others, because that response plays an integral role in the foundation of my personal identity. The other cannot respond adequately to my vulnerability unless her own identity is assured. Only if I respond adequately to the vulnerability of the other will she be in a position to assure my identity. Therefore, I ought to respond adequately to the vulnerability of others if for no other reason than it puts the other in a position where she can assure the personal identity that I value.
  • Minor Patients' Autonomy. Recognizing the Dignity to Create Capabilities

    Martín Badia, Júlia (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2015)
    The current health legislation recognizes minors’ capacity to make decisions or, at least, to take part in those that affect them, according to their age and maturity. But this capacity is not promoted. Capacitating minors to make their own decisions is still a challenge, because it requires something that today is not happening: autonomy has to be understood not as a state, but as a process that needs support. Our proposal is that this support should be based on recognizing minors as vulnerable persons, that is to say, as persons with emotional needs, who are the subjects of rights and duties, and who have social needs of self-fulfillment. All in all, autonomy has to be understood as a process based on recognizing minors’ dignity as a previous condition to help them acquire those typical capabilities of autonomous persons. This concept of support requires, in the first place, a change of the social view of minors.

    Corbella Molina, Laura; Úcar, Xavier (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2019)
    There are three dimensions to consider in the profession of Social Education: knowledge, practice and ethics. While the former two have been widely developed, that of ethics has been largely ignored. Currently, there is an open theoretical debate on how to develop this ethical dimension, and this affects professionals in the field, who do not know how to incorporate it into their daily practice. This article aims to explore the ethical dimension and values involved in socio-educational relationships based on the discourses of scholars, professionals and participants or learners within the framework of Social Education. To this end, a qualitative research process was designed in two phases, namely, a systematic review of the academic literature and a multiple case study of four socio-educational relationships from two different fields of intervention: mental health and children at risk. The main findings of this study confirm that the dimension related to ethics and values plays a fundamental role in the socio-educational relationship, which will be useful when building an analytical framework to analyse said dimension. Finally, the study allows us to describe how social educators incorporate values into their daily practice, providing a snapshot of how this dimension of Social Education is currently evolving in the Spanish context.
  • A Phone of My Own. Gender, Religion and Technology

    Díez Bosch, Míriam; Micó, Josep Lluís; Sabaté Gauxachs, Alba (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2018)
    The invisibility of immigrant women has a negative impacton their integration into the host society. This article examines how accessto technology, particularly mobile devices, is an element that can fosterthe empowerment of immigrant women with religious beliefs who livein the Raval neighborhood of Barcelona. A questionnaire was handedout to 238 women from different origins and different religions, whichwe complemented with six in-depth interviews. Women’s empowermentin the public sphere and their resulting visibility will not be possible ifthey do not have their own digital tools to connect with the host society.Although 88% of the women we surveyed own a mobile device, possessionis not everything. Digital competency (59% admit to having none)and sociolinguistic and cultural competencies are also necessary. In addition,social elements – such as an educational, work-related or social activity– are important in motivating them to expand their networks digitally,so that their use of digital tools does not imply shutting them up intheir family’s past: 58% of these women use new technologies to talk tofamily or other people in their home country.
  • Ethics within a Spiritual/Metaphyisical World View. Towards Integral Value-Based Education. The sages of India: Vivekananda, Tagore and Aurobindo.

    Ferrer, Albert (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2018)
    Most of the publications on integral value-based education focus on Western educationists, either classical authors such as Rousseau or modern pioneers such as Steiner. Too often, the Western world forgets the contributions from other civilizations. This paper opens the horizon of holistic value-based pedagogies from the vast and rich heritage of Indian philosophy, studying in particular the integral value-based philosophy of education of three major figures of modern India: Swami Vivekananda, R. Tagore and Sri Aurobindo. The paper finally shows that the Indian sages have spoken about ethics and education not from the prevailing materialistic utilitarian paradigm but rather from another world view, which is spiritual and metaphysical in deep coherence with Western Philosophical Idealism -from Plato to Hegel and Steiner- and also in deep coherence with quantum physics and the new holistic paradigm.
  • Ethics within a Spiritual/ Metaphysical World view towards Integral value-based Education. Western philosophy: Plato, Kant, Rousseau and Hegel

    Ferrer, Albert (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
    It is well-known in Western scholarship that Rousseau hasbeen the forerunner of integral value-based pedagogies; in any case, his name stands as one of the main educationists of the West. However, the pedagogic reflections of two major philosophers of modern Europe, Kant and Hegel, have been largely overlooked, especially in the last decades.Dr. Ferrer shows in this paper that Kant and Hegel can also be regarded as forerunners of holistic value-based pedagogies. Their enlightening contributions to philosophy of education and ethics, deeply complementary with Rousseau, can enrich the educational scenario of the Western world, dramatically impoverished by materialism, utilitarianism and technocracy. Before them, Plato already outlined a profound philosophyof education that can be regarded as integral and value-based; beyond contextual factors and the historical distance, Plato can still inspire Western education in a spiritual, ethical and humanistic horizon, just like Rousseau, Kant and Hegel.
  • Business Ethics in emerging markets. Evidence from Mongolia

    Choi, Tae-Hee; Zuzaan, Boldmaa (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2011)
  • Business ethics as applied ethics. A discurse ethics approach

    Garcia-Marzá, Domingo (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2012)
  • The problem with a narrow-minded interpretation of CSR. Why CSR has nothing to do with philantropy

    Lin-Hi, Nick (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2010)
    In recent years, the responsibility of corporations has beenwidely discussed. However, there is no general agreement as regards what CSR is exactly. Due to the indefinite nature of CSR, the term actually embraces several ideas and different contents. A very widespread understanding of CSR defines the subject as (strategic) corporate philanthropy, including operations such as corporate giving, corporate volunteering, corporate foundations, etc. The philanthropic approach to CSR implies that corporations must take responsibility beyond theircore business activities. This article argues that a philanthropic approach to CSR is problematic. Moreover, such a conceptualisation strengthens the perception that making profits is immoral; therefore, it endangers the basis of corporations’ licence-to-operate in the long run.
  • The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on the Customer Commitment and Trust in the Retail Sector

    Servera-Francés, David; Arteaga-Moreno, Francisco (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2015)
    The present paper aims at confirming the influence of CSR policies on building up customer relationship through improving trust and commitment, and at the same time to study the influence of these values on satisfaction and loyalty. To achieve this purpose, a causal model that establishes the relationship between those variables has been developed and empirically tested. In order to verify the proposed hypothesis a structured survey was developed. The survey was given to a sample of 501 customers (valid responses) of modern distribution retail stores (supermarkets and hypermarkets) in Spain. All hypotheses are supported, thus confirming that the consumer perception on CSR policies carried out by the retailer influence on trust and consumer commitment to the company. As these variables affect satisfaction and loyalty, these results also confirm the indirect influence of CSR on customer satisfaction, through these relational variables. Therefore CSR is an essential tool for developing a long-standing relationship between the customer and the company. The originality is that there are very few works that address the study of the relationship between CSR and relational variables commitment and trust. The sample, consumers of retail establishments, is another originality. And the value is that CSR improves the competitiveness of retailing companies through the relational variables.
  • The Profitability of Socially Reponsible Companies: Public Subsidies for Sheltered Employment Centers

    Gelashvili, Vera; Camacho-Miñano, M.M.; Segovia-Vargas, M. (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2015)
    During economic crises, more than ever, the companies realize the impact of their activities on society through their social reponsibility. Firms that practice social responsibility strategies are more attractive to their customers, and sometimes this is a way to obtain competitive advantages such as creation of value, better social image, high consumer loyalty and, in consequence, higher profits. Prior literature justifies that there is a positive association between corporate social responsibility and financial performance.A kind of company with a special commitment to develop its business in a responsible way for society is sheltered employment centers, businesses whose workers are mostly disabled people. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether the sheltered employment centers that receive public subsidies achieve greater economic profitability on average than those centers that do not receive it. Although the number of these firms has been growing during the crisis, when governments have reduced their financial help, some theoretical papers justify their profitability due to public subsidies received.After obtaining the total sample of sheltered employment centers in the Community of Madrid using statistical and artificial intelligence methods, our results show that sheltered employment centers, on average, are productive enterprises in which their profitability is not conditioned by the public aid granted. The model obtained shows that these companies are profitable businesses when they can pay their interest expenses with profits every period. Additionally, the social and labour integration of disabled people is a way to improve their corporate social responsibility.
  • The ethics of the ILO. Kohlberg's universal moral development scale

    Klikauer, Thomas (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2011)
  • Corporate Social Responsibility. A Critical Review

    Ibáñez Ruiz del Portal, Eduardo; Senent de Frutos, Juan Antonio (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2015)
    Within the context of the European Union, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been revised in its 2011-2014 strategy to conform with a concept including new features that deal with the impact of business in society. We aim at denouncing the false debate between a compulsory or voluntary vision of CSR because the voluntariness would be in the process but not in its concept. CSR resurfaces with a vengeance after a period of reflection caused by the deep economic and social crisis. Our analysis intends to situate this concept in a critical and historicized perspective of CSR, inspired by a critical theory of society and the historicizing of concepts proposed by Ellacuría. Amartya Sen has also worked on the relationship between ethics and economics and the development of the capability approach as a way of measuring development; this approach may help to enforce the basic premise of CSR that was qualified as a weakness by Professor Stefano Zamagni due to its support of companies’ reputational issues. At a moment when global capitalism is under revision and the environmental and social unsustainability of the current economic system has become evident, CSR could play a role or at least make a proposal to improve not only the visibility of companies, but also the legitimizing of a category of practices that could ultimately be unsustainable.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility in small shops. An ethical proposal

    García-Marzá, Domingo; Martí, Carmen; Ballester, Roberto (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2010)
    In this paper we present the main results of a pilot studyundertaken in the Autonomous Region of Valencia, Spain, on the implementation of ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in small shops. The study’s basic hypothesis is that CSR can become one of the distinctive features of small shops as well as an important value in terms of differentiation from their main competitors, namely, big chains and department stores. The study results confirm the original hypothesis. It shows that the specific features of small shops (their small size, communityinteraction, knowledge of the neighbourhood, proximity to clients and workers, etc.) can be regarded as sources of potential for making CSR a distinctive feature of small or traditional shops. We could also come to view CSR as a basic value for forging a common shop identity, which they currently lack.
  • Religious Approaches on Business Ethics: Current Situation and Future Perspectives

    Melé, Domènec (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2015)
    The Business Ethics Movement began in the mid-1970s. For the first two decades philosophical theories were dominant, but in recent years an increasing presence of religious approaches, in both empirical and conceptual research, can be noted, in spite of some objections to the presence of religions in the business ethics field. Empirical research, generally based on psychological and sociological studies, shows the influence of religious faith on several business issues. Conceptual research includes a variety of business ethics issues studied from the perspectives of different religions and wisdom traditions such as Judaism, Catholicism and other Christian denominations, Islam, Buddhism and Confucianism, among others. There are several reasons suggesting that religious approaches on Business Ethics will be increasingly relevant in the future: 1) the importance of religion in many countries worldwide and increasing interest in academia, 2) a lower acceptance of rationalism and secularism, 3) the reasonability of theological developments of religions that can be presented along with philosophical approaches, 4) an increasingly interconnected and globalized world that fosters a better knowledge of other cultures in which religions play a great role, and 5) the prestige of some religious leaders as moral voices on social issues, including corporate responsibility.
  • CSR in Europe: A New Micro-Social Contract?

    Granda, Germán (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2018)
    This paper adopts Donaldson and Dunfee’s (1999) approach to business ethics to examine the consequences of a fragile social contract regarding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for companies and governments in Europe. Drawing on Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT), the development of a specifically European policy on CSR might be viewed as a “micro-social contract”. However, factual evidence reveals the limitations for the European approach so far. In this sense, it would be important to identify and discuss whether the process of promoting CSR in the EU could then be seen as an attempt to establish a new social contract between society and enterprises, specifically European, and based in part on shared political traditions (consented and accepted) and partly in universal ideals (macro-social contract), on which also would be a consensus in Europe. For this purpose, the EU’s key texts, initiatives and official documents on CSR have been analyzed to testthe robustness of this attempt.

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