Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics only publishes original articles that are aimed at relating ethics to the different areas of public life.


The Globethics.net library contains articles of Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics as of vol. 1(2010) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Ethics in Fintech Through Users’ Confidence: Determinants that Affect Trust

    Vasquez, Oliver; San-Jose, Leire (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
    Abstract: Fintech have irrupted around the world. This paper proposes an analysis of the mechanism of influence of the salient factors of the Fintech phenomenon on user confidence in Fintech companies. This represents a barrier for an increased use and adoption of Fintech services in financial markets, which represent an opportunity for Fintech to become part of the mainstream of access to financial services with a greater ethical and inclusive commitment. We have designed an analysis of the Fintech web platforms from a trust and ethical view. The consensus shows that all six factors influence user confidence, relevant for ethical behaviour because trustworthy if the first step that flourish the well doing and trustbase collaboration between parties. However, it is the risk (security, privacy and financial) where there is a perfect consensus, while financial inclusion presents a consensus with a greater dispersion of opinions. Fintech firms need to ensure that the tools they are building are trustworthy and safe and that their business models do not abuse customer relationships by selling data, maintaining a lack of security protocols and other inappropriate and unethical practices. Therefore, this study contributes to the literature on Fintech’s development by providing a comprehensive analysis of the user-Fintech interrelationship and the incorporation of the determinants influencing trust as a critical and complementary element in the technology acceptance model (TAM). This paper contributes to the ethical relationship based on trust.
  • Behavioral vs. Neural Methods in the Treatment of Acutely Comatose Patients

    Noh, Hyungrae (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
    Abstract: Behaviorally assessing residual consciousness of acutely comatose patients involves a high rate of false-negatives. That is, long-term behavioral assessment shows that 41% of vegetative state patients in fact have residual consciousness. Nonetheless, surrogates need to remove ventilation before the acute-phase passes away if they want to induce medico-legal death due to pragmatic factors, such as financial costs. So, surrogate decision-making regarding behaviorally nonresponsive acutely comatose patients involves a moral dilemma: should we ignore the chance that patients have residual consciousness for the sake of pragmatic factors? This paper examines whether neural methods can resolve the moral dilemma. Neural methods are used to assess residual consciousness of behaviorally nonresponsive postcomatose patients. For instance, by instructing a vegetative state patient to imagine wiggling all of her toes, consciousness is ascribed if brain activities are localized in the supplementary motor area. Since the most extensive application of neural methods has been inchronic population, it is unclear whether such methods can resolve the moral dilemma. I argue that neural methods also involve a high rate of false-negatives because current tasks of neural methods are structurally misguided. Given the argument, there is no significant difference between behavioral and neural methods regarding the moral dilemma.
  • A Cordial Approach to the Duty of Rescue. The Case of EU States’ Moral Obligations in the Mediterranean Crisis of 2014-2016

    Corrales Trillo, Bosco (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
    Abstract: In 2014, the EU States decided not to support Italy’s Mare Nostrum search and rescue operation and neither replace it with an equivalent mission nor take any other effective action to prevent a massive loss of lives in the Mediterranean Sea in 2015. From the perspective of a standard account of the duty of rescue and a conservative notion of humanitarian duties, the EU states did not have a moral obligation to engagein such actions. The reasons for such a lack of obligation would mainly be three: first, the potential rescuers did not physically encounter nor were they in close vicinity of the victims; secondly, the obligation -if any- would have been a collective one, so no individual actor had a specific obligation to search and rescue; thirdly, the cost of the operation was too high. My argument is that, based on Adela Cortina’s notion of cordial reason, which hinges on a compassionate recognition of human dignity, the EU States had a moral obligation to support the Mare Nostrum operation or at least to effectively prevent a more than likely massive loss of lives in the Mediterranean. Cordial reason allows us to respond to the above mentioned three reasons. Firstly, although the potential rescuers did not physically encounter the victims, they had the ability and the skills to save  them if they had wanted to do so; secondly, the collective obligation is not primary, but a result of the obligation that any human being owes to another fellow human being; and thirdly, the duty of rescue -understood in the light of cordial reason- is not subject to cost limitations.
  • Decision Making in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: a Bioethical and Methodological Challenge

    Ramos Pozón, Sergio; Robles del Olmo, Bernabé; Sevilla Guerra, Sonia (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
    The refusal of patients with anorexia to undergo medical treatment may create strong ethical dilemmas for health professionals, obliging them either to accept decisions that leave patients at risk or to apply treatment against their patients’ will. In this paper we discuss the issue of mental capacity in patients with anorexia who consent to or refuse a specific treatment. We also review personal identity as an important factor in decision-making and discuss three decision-making styles: the subjective criterion, substituted judgment, and the best interest principle, and highlight the serious challenges associated with each one.
  • Précis of Regard for Reason in the Moral Mind. May, Joshua (2019)

    Vilchez, José Luís (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
  • Vulnerabilidad [Vulnerability]. Seguró, Miquel. Herder (2021)

    Liedo, Belén (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
  • Bioethics and Complexity. An Appraisal of Their Relationships to Other Sciences

    Maldonado, Carlos Eduardo; Garzón, Fabio Alberto (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
    Abstract: By and large, bioethics is concerned with life, i.e. understanding and explaining the living beings both as-they-are and as-they-could-be. The hard core here is global bioethics, which is a wider and richer domain than clinical bioethics. Global bioethics, it is claimed, stands very much along the way of the sciences of complexity – as an understanding of increasingly complex systems and behaviors. This paper explores the relationship between bioethics and complexity science. Thanks to such an appraisal a landscape appears additionally about the relationship with other sciences and disciplines. The hardcore for such interplay is the concern about life, i.e. the living beings. This paper argues that thanks to the interplay between bioethics and complexity theory, science and technology in general can harness from bioethics, and provides arguments about it. Firstly, it is shown that a right understanding of bioethics entails a distance with clinical bioethics. According to its very origins, bioethics is to be viewed as a sincere concern with life in general. Therefore, the developments from bioethics as a bridge on to global bioethics, and even to deep bioethics are shown and highlighted. This understanding impedes any reductionism of bioethics – which can be named here as “normal bioethics”. On this ground, complexity science is depicted in general terms, and a panorama of links and relations among bioethics and other sciences and disciplines is sketched. The main argument then goes that a solid even though basic understanding of life is needed in order to cope with the challenges and opportunities around us all. This, we claim, is both an ethical and an epistemological demand.
  • Study of the interest on bioethics related topics by scientific societies and society itself

    Perelló Iñiguez, Carme; Quintana Riera, Salvador; Busquets Font, Josep Maria; Esquerda Aresté, Montse; Bertran Muñoz, Joan (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
    Abstract: Bioethics reflect on the new paradigm healthcare professionals face on their daily practice. This new paradigm professionals face is constantly creating new dilemmas, while also giving us tools to face the ones that had been raised in the past. Bioethics deals with constantly rethinking bioethical issues generated when new situations appear, and also constantly rethinks issues from the past that require an updated response. This shift to a new paradigm also worries the citizenship. The daily life of many people is impacted by these new and old dilemmas and they raise questions on them that require answers. There is little scientific production regarding the bioethical interests which concern professionals, especially touching on the alignment of social interest with the professionals who work in these issues. There is some production regarding the knowledge and training that first-year residents or students have. The objective of this work is to assess the interests of professionals in Bioethics and contrast them with the interests in Bioethics manifested by the civil society. We appreciate that there is a misalignment regarding the bioethical resources offered to professionals, their interests, and the interests that are socially appreciated in this field.
  • Updating the Proposal of “Just Communities” for Democratic Civil Education

    Ahedo Ruiz, Josu; Gozálvez Pérez, Vicent; Pérez, Cruz (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
    Abstract: This article examines Kohlberg’s proposal of the “just community” from a current perspective in line with a post-conventional morality grounded on the democratization of schools. A type of teacher training is proposed that uses up-to-date methods to approach just communities. By taking the critical interpretation of the model of moral development, the article also concludes that schools today have integrated some of the cutting-edge advances to the just communities’ program, and that this approach reciprocally calls for updating the idea of moral education by incorporating a broader view of morality. Such an update also includes families in the joint process of stimulating moral development and resolving conflicts of action. Lastly, it has been explained that Kohlberg did not give the family a role in their children’s moral education, stating that the specific way to develop moral reasoning is through the relationships among equals at school. It is unclear whether there is a particular moral family environment that best fosters the development of the child’s moral reasoning. Nevertheless, data provided from some studies confirm that there is a relationship between the moral reasoning of the parentsand that of their children. Indeed, parents may even use teaching strategies to improve their children’s moral development through dialog and the use of inductive strategies.
  • Autonomy, Monomania and free Development of Personality in the clinical Relationship. To What Extent can the Autonomous Person be Protected?

    Vergara, Oscar (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
    Abstract: All competent moral agents have a prima facie right to make their own health decisions. When this competence is lacking, they cease to be autonomous and someone else may justifiably make decisions for them in an act of soft paternalism that is generally admitted. The problem arises when autonomous subjects need to be protected (from themselves). This type of protection only tends to be admitted in very exceptional cases, such as suicide attempts, as a form of hard paternalism. So the question arises as to whether and to what extent this protection can be extended to certain cases in which the autonomous and competent moral agent acts according to an uncommonly singular life plan. To answer this question, we deemed it important to distinguish between freedom and autonomy, for which purpose we have adopted a eudaimonic approach.
  • Labour inclusion of LGBTI people in Spain: Ethics and conduct codes

    Rivera Martín, Beatriz; Martínez de Bartolomé, Ireide (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
    Abstract: The company is a social agent that contributes to the integration of people in their working and social environment. Through codes of conduct, companies set out their values and ethics with the aim of guiding coexistence among the members of the corporation and, at the same time, projecting a certain external image. As argued, LGBTI people continue to suffer discrimination at work in Spain, and a high percentage of them decide to hide their sexual orientation or gender identity to avoid being excluded, which means that they do not find in their workplaces the ideal environment to feel integrated. As discussed in the theoretical framework, the willingness of governments to establish a regulatory framework for the protection of LGBTI people is not enough. Although governments are the main guarantors of the enforcement of human rights, companies have an ethical responsibility to ensure the protection of their workers in the workplace, as stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as contributing to social change. In short, companies should promote working conditions that avoid discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity and/or expression, and at the same time they should establish specific procedures for its prevention and for dealing with complaints that may be made by those who have been subjected to it. To this end, measures such as codes of conduct can be put in place. The codes of conduct of the Ibex35 companies have been analysed to reveal whether they recognise LGBTI people and in which terms. Without wishing to anticipate the final conclusions, readers are warned that they will find relevant data, and that there is still a long way to achieve the effective inclusion of LGBTI people and their different forms.
  • Ethical decision-making: from practice to theory

    Díaz de la Cruz, Cristina; Fernández-Fernández, José Luís; Ferrero, Ignacio (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
    Abstract: The teaching and implementation of Business Ethics remain a challenge for academics and practitioners for three main reasons: the complexity of the factors influencing decision-making processes; the prevalence of business and behavioral models that do not encourage ethics; and the lack of easy-to-apply pedagogical models with theoretical rigor. The aim of this study is to provide a conceptual framework and a guide for decision-making to face ethical conflicts in business. To this end, we carried out an empirical qualitative analysis through the methodology of Grounded Theory, based on 14 semi-structured interviews with experienced people in different business fields. The main contribution of this work consists of providing a simple model of decision-making, combining both an orientation towards the active promotion of ethical behavior and theoretical rigor, confirmed by the consistency with other previous studies present in the specialized literature.
  • When Corporate Social Responsibility meets Human Rights. Business planning based on moral absolutes

    Díez-Spelz, Juan Francisco; Ramírez-García, Hugo Saúl (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
    Abstract: What happens when Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Human Rights meet? This article argues that although CSR is a worthy attempt to propose social-aimed better practices for managerial decisions, a human rights perspective substantially enriches this vision. It also suggests that the ancient principle of res extra commercium can provide the rationale crucial to join CSR with human rights as a source of moral absolutes. Essentially, based on the res extra commercium rationale, businesses should start by identifying areas of economic activity that are off limits because they may violate human dignity.

    Almeyda Sarmiento 
, Juan David (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2021)

    Bertran Muñoz, Joan; Cambra Lasaosa, Francisco José; Carrera i Carrera, Joan; Esquerda Aresté, Montse; Illa Mestre, Marc; Lorenzo Izquierdo, David; Roig Carrera, Helena (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2021)

    Aurenque, Diana; Espinosa, Ruth Marcela; Lecaros, Juan Alberto; Loewe, Daniel; Villarroel, Raúl (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2021)

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