• Ethical requisites for neuroenhancement of moral motivation

      Lara, Francisco (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
      No agreement exists among ethical theories on what cancount as a right moral motivation. This hampers us from knowingwhether an intervention in motivation biology can be considered positivefor human morality. To overcome this difficulty, this paper identifiesminimal requirements for moral enhancement that could be accepted bythe major moral theories. Subsequently four possible scenarios are presentedwhere the most promising neural interventions on moral motivationare implemented, by means of drugs, electromagnetic stimulation ofbrain, or biotechnological brain implants. The ultimate goal of this paperis to evaluate the results of each one of these interventions according totheir capacity to fulfill the identified requirements.
    • Ethics awareness among stakeholders in a digital technology research project. Exploring designers and participants’ relationship whith ethical issues and procedures

      Sainz de Salces, Fausto J.; Thomas, Rhiannon; Bustamante Donas, Javier (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
      In this paper we present the perceptions of those engagedin a digital research project. We explored participants’ ethical knowledge,understanding and feelings about the whole process. We also tried toimplement a plan in order to see if certain proactive actions will benefitthe understanding of ethical issues among those stakeholders.The investigation presented here explored the need for ethical awarenessamong stakeholders in technology research projects.1 The Project tried to overcome the existing accessibility barriers faced by people unfamiliarwith ICT, people with disabilities and older people when interactingwith Public Digital Terminals, such as ATMs and Ticket VendingMachines. As part of the research an investigation was conducted aboutthe ethical issues that rose on the use of digital technologies and, moreimportantly, about stakeholders ethical issues awareness.In this report the results from the field research carried out on ethicalissues are presented. At the beginning of the project a need for researchinto ethical awareness among project stakeholders was identified. As partof the project´s legal and ethical awareness and compliance, a limitedresearch was carried out on ethical issues. The research carried out encompassedtesting the validity and adequacy of the information providedon a purpose-made guide that also included more ethical awareness questionsto explore.During the testing sessions carried out in the pilot the questionnairewas presented to volunteers. Another questionnaire was presented todevelopers, and to the APSIS4 all project personnel. The expresion ofethical concerns was also encouraged from both the staff working in theproject and volunteers participating in the trials.Results showed that the information provided on the documentationwas adequate and, likewise, that both volunteers and consortium personnelwere aware of volunteers’ rights and personnel obligations.
    • Happiness at work, Business behav iour, And worker Perceptions: a case Study

      Fernández Fernández, José Luis; Fernandez Gamez, Manuel Angel; de Querol Aragón, Nuria; Callejón Gil, Angela (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to identify business behaviours that can create greater worker satisfaction in the performance of their professional activity, and to study their consequent impact on personal happiness. It also attempts to understand employees’ perceptions of their work environment and the influence they have on job satisfaction.Therefore, we applied a mixed research method (Yin, 2013; Crewell, 2013), which combines a theoretical study based on the Sennet (1998) model and a quantitative analysis. We reviewed the theoretical arguments and conducted a survey of 83 workers belonging to an American multinational company in 2013. The company is a leading consulting, branding, and marketing enterprise and has implemented pioneering businessstrategies in Spain. The study identified the actions that should be avoided or enhanced to create organizational models that inspire and promote happiness at work. Without prejudice to the recognition of codes of practice regarding ethics that aspire to justice, the study identified such actions from the understanding that the search for happiness is precisely the objective that most immediately guides the actions of human subjects as moral agents.
    • Motivations and possible decisive factors in employee participat ion in corporate volunteering programmes

      Gómez, Pablo; Fernández Fernández, José Luis (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the motivations andoverarching criteria behind employee participation in corporate volunteering.This participation is extremely limited. It seems appropriate toenhance it, both due to the internal benefits entailed for the companyitself, and the external impact it exhibits. With that being said, we stumbleupon several problems set out in literature that are confirmed throughour research. Ignorance of the precise causes and true decisive factors thatguide employee participation in corporate volunteering programmesprevents the development of suitable strategies that help boost the percentagesof employee participation.We have conducted an empirical and qualitative study with the aimof being able to construct a model to gain greater knowledge of this phenomenonand to grasp the social significance of this problem. Participantobservation was applied as an ethnographic method for data collection.Thus, we have accompanied and interacted with the employees under study. This approach represents a less intrusive method to avoid selfservingand politically-correct responses that do not reflect employees’true stimuli.
    • Ética de los servicios sociales, Begoña Román, Herder 2016.

      Esteban Bara, Francisco (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
    • Ética de los medios de comunicación, María Javiera Aguirre Romero, Herder 2016

      Prieto, Rodrigo (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
    • Credit granting, ponzi scheme and currency exchange rate as ethical issues. A hegelian perspective on the ingredients of an economic crisis

      Domenico, Cortese (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
      This paper is an attempt to found a set of ethical guidelines in respect of specific macroeconomic problems, so that the failure to fulfill these guidelines can be considered both the root of economic crises like the current one, and the reason why such crises are ethically unacceptable. The main topic I will face is the ethical aspect of the instrument of credit. I will do that by means of an examination of what being “ethical” within intersubjective life means for Hegel. Credit would assume the role of a major instrument aimed at putting the material and relational conditions for a full reciprocal recognition and fulfillment of desires among economic agents who originally have imbalanced instruments and discrepant times in their capacity to claim recognition and recognize others’ desires. The development and maximization of reciprocal trust, expectation and “attraction” are established as ethical and teleological categories and their interpretation is also utilized to hint at two other issues, the utilization of credit to set up a Ponzi scheme and the debate about the necessity of a flexible exchange rate between the currencies of different countries – relevant in the Euro area today.
    • Ética en dirección de empresas, Domènec Melé

      Correa, Marc (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
    • Ética del deporte, Guillem Turró, Herder 2016

      Cagigal, Glòria (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
    • Innovative education tools for developing ethical skills in university science lessons. The case of the moral cross dilemma

      Sánchez-Martín, Jesús; Zamora-Polo, Francisco; Moreno-Losada, José; Parejo-Ayuso, Juan P. (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
      This article presents the feasibility of teaching generic competences(such as those related to moral reasoning aspects) through Sciencelessons at university level. The authors have implemented a new instrumentcalled “Moral Cross Dilemma” which involves the use of argumentationand moral reasoning within the students of Primary EducationDegree (prospective primary teachers). This tool seems to be an effectivepedagogical resource in Higher Education Levels. It is a step forward fromthe well-known dilemma, a consolidated strategy for the development ofethical competences based on argumentative and discursive methodologies.This paper is focused on the description of this technique and applies itfor the first time on experimental data.Moral Cross Dilemma is applicable to environmental conflicts andcan be used as a discursive technique for improving the personal ethiclevel. This work shows empirical evidences from the preliminary implementationwithin university students. experience was carried out on a 47-student sample. They wereprospective teachers learning Natural Sciences. The main results revealedno difference and were observed between self-perceived and peer evaluationof the moral status, although the environmental-friendly argumentationposition clearly set out higher scoring in the moral reasoning level.
    • Pope Francis tells accountants to become creative

      Fischer, Dov (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
      In November 2014, Pope Francis addressed the WorldCongress of Accountants in Rome and called on the profession to go beyond accomplishing its duty with competence and wisdom. This study draws insights from Francis’s speech on how spirituality can expand the scope of accounting ethics from mere integrity, honesty, and professionalism to grander aims such as creativity, human development, and social solidarity. Recent studies show that workers and companies with a spiritual orientation perform better than peers and that spirituality fosters creativity. We also discuss how lessons from Francis’s speech can take place in a classroom setting and some real-world applications of those lessons.
    • Ethical deliberation within organizations

      Torralba, Francesc; Rosàs Tosas, Mar (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
      Note: This paper is a version of a chapter of a previous book by Francesc Torralba, titled Destriar el bé del mal. L'art de trobar criteris ètics en la vida diària (Pagès Editors, 2013).Our aim is to identify the conditions of possibility of a successfulprocess of ethical deliberation. To achieve this goal, we turn toAristotle’s definition of ‘deliberation’ as a rational process that seeks tomake decisions (as opposed to other types of rational processes that aimto find out or achieve a truth). We focus also on the need of incorporationof the other’s perspective in what Rawls labels ‘overlapping consensus’;on Lafont’s three requirements of deliberation; and on Ricoeur’s foursteps to fully engage with one’s commitments through action. In orderto complement the picture of deliberation we get when reading theseauthors in conjunction, we add what in our eyes constitute two majorconditions often neglected. We then point out the shortcomings of twomanifestations of the current interest in the successful processes of deliberation.Firstly, we address ethics committees. Given that their primaryconcern is precisely ethics, they should be –and often are– the organizationswhich more enthusiastically embrace and promote ethical processesof deliberation. Yet they tend to fail in some respects, which wepoint out. Secondly, we confront the contradictions surrounding therecent proliferation of codes of ethics and suggest how their value couldbe maximized.
    • Ethics within a Spiritual/ Metaphysical World view towards Integral value-based Education. Western philosophy: Plato, Kant, Rousseau and Hegel

      Ferrer, Albert (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 0)
      It is well-known in Western scholarship that Rousseau hasbeen the forerunner of integral value-based pedagogies; in any case, his name stands as one of the main educationists of the West. However, the pedagogic reflections of two major philosophers of modern Europe, Kant and Hegel, have been largely overlooked, especially in the last decades.Dr. Ferrer shows in this paper that Kant and Hegel can also be regarded as forerunners of holistic value-based pedagogies. Their enlightening contributions to philosophy of education and ethics, deeply complementary with Rousseau, can enrich the educational scenario of the Western world, dramatically impoverished by materialism, utilitarianism and technocracy. Before them, Plato already outlined a profound philosophyof education that can be regarded as integral and value-based; beyond contextual factors and the historical distance, Plato can still inspire Western education in a spiritual, ethical and humanistic horizon, just like Rousseau, Kant and Hegel.
    • Cultural alterity within companies. Overviews regarding the intercultural competences in the workplace

      Marin, Francesc-Xavier; Navarro, Àngel-Jesús (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2010)
      Globalisation has given rise to a new field of debate due tothe growing mobility of the workers and the consequent cultural diversity inside companies. In this sense, a complex world like ours demands a review of the professional profile which should include the so called intercultural competences as a structuring element of companies’ policy and strategic plan. Subsequently it is suggested that, as the intercultural competences affect the cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects, they actually imply a transformation of the person’s identity.
    • Knowledge, responsibility and ethics of sustainability in view of the global change

      Ayestarán, Ignacio (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2010)
      This article explores the interrelationship among scientificknowledge, ethical debates and the question of responsibility through sustainability thinking. In a globalising world which appears to be establishing itself, sustainability should form the basis for achieving a new ethics, shared on both a local and global scale. The sustainability culture should become an integral part in this process, in which the rights of future generations, of non-human species and global shared resources are taken into account. Sustainable culture is, in fact, an inevitable process that will involve changes in many of the established stances of society, science and ethics.
    • Ethics in caregiving services for people with serious intellectual disabilities

      Román, Begoña (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2010)
      This article questions the reason behind ethics in caregiving services for people with serious intellectual disabilities, the reasons changes have taken place in medicine, in the kinds of illnesses, social changes and changes in how hospitality is envisioned, which lead us to reconsider the usual way of doing things, the traditional morals on which their treatment has been based. However, the traditional ways of dealing with those disabled individuals have also become obsolete and are ethically reproachable: based on charity and beneficence, goodwill and paternalism, if not on ignorance and vulnerability.
    • An approach to ethical communication from the point of view of management responsibilities. The importance of communication in organisations

      Moreno, Carlos M. (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2010)
      This article defends the relevance of ethical communication in21st Century leadership. It is argued that leaders will find in ethical communication the means of gaining credibility and the confidence of their most immediate collaborators, their teams, the organizations they lead and the society in which the company operates. Taking the fundamental structure between internal and external communication as a starting point, the article describes the necessary conditions for leadership to develop ethical communication. It establishes the general and common characteristics of people-centered ethical communication, both as individuals and teams. Furthermore, it identifies the conditions that must generate ethical external communication through which leaders can convey messages to their target audience. For this purpose, the article is structured into the following sections: 1. The importance of communication within organizations. 2. Two levels of communication. 3. What is required of a leader-communicator in order to communicate well? 4. The basic Q&A of communication.
    • Intra-organizational social capital in business organizations. A theoretical model with a focus on servant leadership as antecedent

      Ruíz, Pablo; Martínez, Ricardo; Rodrigo, Job (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2010)
      This paper explores the antecedents of intra-organizational social capital from a comprehensive perspective that integrates leadership as the main antecedent. To be precise, we propose that intra-organizational social capital is a direct consequence of an organizational ethical and community context to which leadership in the servant dimension plays a transcendental role. Indeed, since the seminal work of Greenleaf (1977) the servant leadership concept has been widespread among business academics and professionals for the value it brings to the organization not only in ethical but also in excellence terms. Among the recent styles and theories on leadership up to date, servant leadership fits perfectly an organizational ethical context both at the organizational or group level, acting in addition as a main promoter of that context. Furthermore, servant leadership is linked to the cultivation of helpful, altruistic and servant attitudes among the employees which are useful elements in the generation of social capital inside the organization. A model then for understanding the causes of intra-organizational socialcapital with a focus on servant leadership is here elaborated from which conclusions and implications for Management will be delineated.
    • Sustainability assessment in higher education institutions

      Wigmore, Amber; Ruiz, Mercedes (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2010)
      Sustainable development is a concern for countries, businessesand organizations sensitive to excess in terms of utilized resources. This is evident in international initiatives which aim to establish guiding principles for institutions to follow regarding what is considered to be socially responsible behavior, allowing for assessment and the identification of objectives. As higher education institutions, colleges and universities have a public responsibility to generate and transmit knowledge to society as a whole, as well as an economic and social responsibility regarding resource management; hence the importance of specifically analyzing their socially responsible behavior.
    • The circumscribed quadrature of professional ethics

      Nello, Antoni (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2010)
      The circumscribed quadrature of professional ethics aimsto show the necessary shift from deontology to professional ethics, from deontological codes to ethical codes. While deontology and the deontological codes that materialise from it set their sights on professionals’ responsibilities, professional ethics and the ethical codes that should derive from it would set their sights on the professional act, on its successful performance. In this way, the stress comes to be placed not only on the professional’s responsibility, although that too, but also on the necessary orchestration of the responsibilities shared at numerous levels by everyone involved in the performance of the professional act.