• A Cordial Approach to the Duty of Rescue. The Case of EU States’ Moral Obligations in the Mediterranean Crisis of 2014-2016

      Corrales Trillo, Bosco (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
      Abstract: In 2014, the EU States decided not to support Italy’s Mare Nostrum search and rescue operation and neither replace it with an equivalent mission nor take any other effective action to prevent a massive loss of lives in the Mediterranean Sea in 2015. From the perspective of a standard account of the duty of rescue and a conservative notion of humanitarian duties, the EU states did not have a moral obligation to engagein such actions. The reasons for such a lack of obligation would mainly be three: first, the potential rescuers did not physically encounter nor were they in close vicinity of the victims; secondly, the obligation -if any- would have been a collective one, so no individual actor had a specific obligation to search and rescue; thirdly, the cost of the operation was too high. My argument is that, based on Adela Cortina’s notion of cordial reason, which hinges on a compassionate recognition of human dignity, the EU States had a moral obligation to support the Mare Nostrum operation or at least to effectively prevent a more than likely massive loss of lives in the Mediterranean. Cordial reason allows us to respond to the above mentioned three reasons. Firstly, although the potential rescuers did not physically encounter the victims, they had the ability and the skills to save  them if they had wanted to do so; secondly, the collective obligation is not primary, but a result of the obligation that any human being owes to another fellow human being; and thirdly, the duty of rescue -understood in the light of cordial reason- is not subject to cost limitations.
    • A Philosophical Look at Animals (original in Spanish)

      Leyton, Fabiola (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2020)
    • A Phone of My Own. Gender, Religion and Technology

      Díez Bosch, Míriam; Micó, Josep Lluís; Sabaté Gauxachs, Alba (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2018)
      The invisibility of immigrant women has a negative impacton their integration into the host society. This article examines how accessto technology, particularly mobile devices, is an element that can fosterthe empowerment of immigrant women with religious beliefs who livein the Raval neighborhood of Barcelona. A questionnaire was handedout to 238 women from different origins and different religions, whichwe complemented with six in-depth interviews. Women’s empowermentin the public sphere and their resulting visibility will not be possible ifthey do not have their own digital tools to connect with the host society.Although 88% of the women we surveyed own a mobile device, possessionis not everything. Digital competency (59% admit to having none)and sociolinguistic and cultural competencies are also necessary. In addition,social elements – such as an educational, work-related or social activity– are important in motivating them to expand their networks digitally,so that their use of digital tools does not imply shutting them up intheir family’s past: 58% of these women use new technologies to talk tofamily or other people in their home country.
    • A. MacIntyre: Person, Community, and Tradition against Individualism

      Lorenzo, David (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2020)
      Alasdair MacIntyre is one of the most important authors in contemporary Ethics and Political Philosophy. Regarding his political thought, he was a key figure in the Liberalism-Communitarianism debate, one of the most important and fruitful in the field of Moral and Political Philosophy in the second half of the 20th century. An important point of Communitarianism is its critique of the liberal view of the self and of Ethics and Politics, that is to say, a critique of an individualistic view of the human being (an idea maintained by MacIntyre throughout his intellectual evolution). MacIntyre’s thought has been studied from many points of view, but there is no research on his global critique and alternative to Individualism. For that reason, the aim of this paper is to studyand analyze such an alternative. It is worth analyzing it although over the last few years the Liberalism-Communitarianism debate has lost importancein Philosophy. This alternative is based on the concepts of ‘person’, ‘community’ and ‘tradition’.
    • An approach to ethical communication from the point of view of management responsibilities. The importance of communication in organisations

      Moreno, Carlos M. (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2010)
      This article defends the relevance of ethical communication in21st Century leadership. It is argued that leaders will find in ethical communication the means of gaining credibility and the confidence of their most immediate collaborators, their teams, the organizations they lead and the society in which the company operates. Taking the fundamental structure between internal and external communication as a starting point, the article describes the necessary conditions for leadership to develop ethical communication. It establishes the general and common characteristics of people-centered ethical communication, both as individuals and teams. Furthermore, it identifies the conditions that must generate ethical external communication through which leaders can convey messages to their target audience. For this purpose, the article is structured into the following sections: 1. The importance of communication within organizations. 2. Two levels of communication. 3. What is required of a leader-communicator in order to communicate well? 4. The basic Q&A of communication.
    • Are (official) approaches to nanotechnology affected by cultural context and tradition?

      Ruiz Trujillo, Pere; Florensa, Albert; Borrós, Salvador (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2011)
    • Aristotle and spiritual capital

      Bosch, Magdalena; Torralba, Francesc; Gràcia, Carla (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2013)
    • Autonomy, Monomania and free Development of Personality in the clinical Relationship. To What Extent can the Autonomous Person be Protected?

      Vergara, Oscar (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
      Abstract: All competent moral agents have a prima facie right to make their own health decisions. When this competence is lacking, they cease to be autonomous and someone else may justifiably make decisions for them in an act of soft paternalism that is generally admitted. The problem arises when autonomous subjects need to be protected (from themselves). This type of protection only tends to be admitted in very exceptional cases, such as suicide attempts, as a form of hard paternalism. So the question arises as to whether and to what extent this protection can be extended to certain cases in which the autonomous and competent moral agent acts according to an uncommonly singular life plan. To answer this question, we deemed it important to distinguish between freedom and autonomy, for which purpose we have adopted a eudaimonic approach.
    • Behavioral vs. Neural Methods in the Treatment of Acutely Comatose Patients

      Noh, Hyungrae (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
      Abstract: Behaviorally assessing residual consciousness of acutely comatose patients involves a high rate of false-negatives. That is, long-term behavioral assessment shows that 41% of vegetative state patients in fact have residual consciousness. Nonetheless, surrogates need to remove ventilation before the acute-phase passes away if they want to induce medico-legal death due to pragmatic factors, such as financial costs. So, surrogate decision-making regarding behaviorally nonresponsive acutely comatose patients involves a moral dilemma: should we ignore the chance that patients have residual consciousness for the sake of pragmatic factors? This paper examines whether neural methods can resolve the moral dilemma. Neural methods are used to assess residual consciousness of behaviorally nonresponsive postcomatose patients. For instance, by instructing a vegetative state patient to imagine wiggling all of her toes, consciousness is ascribed if brain activities are localized in the supplementary motor area. Since the most extensive application of neural methods has been inchronic population, it is unclear whether such methods can resolve the moral dilemma. I argue that neural methods also involve a high rate of false-negatives because current tasks of neural methods are structurally misguided. Given the argument, there is no significant difference between behavioral and neural methods regarding the moral dilemma.
    • Bioethics and Complexity. An Appraisal of Their Relationships to Other Sciences

      Maldonado, Carlos Eduardo; Garzón, Fabio Alberto (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2022)
      Abstract: By and large, bioethics is concerned with life, i.e. understanding and explaining the living beings both as-they-are and as-they-could-be. The hard core here is global bioethics, which is a wider and richer domain than clinical bioethics. Global bioethics, it is claimed, stands very much along the way of the sciences of complexity – as an understanding of increasingly complex systems and behaviors. This paper explores the relationship between bioethics and complexity science. Thanks to such an appraisal a landscape appears additionally about the relationship with other sciences and disciplines. The hardcore for such interplay is the concern about life, i.e. the living beings. This paper argues that thanks to the interplay between bioethics and complexity theory, science and technology in general can harness from bioethics, and provides arguments about it. Firstly, it is shown that a right understanding of bioethics entails a distance with clinical bioethics. According to its very origins, bioethics is to be viewed as a sincere concern with life in general. Therefore, the developments from bioethics as a bridge on to global bioethics, and even to deep bioethics are shown and highlighted. This understanding impedes any reductionism of bioethics – which can be named here as “normal bioethics”. On this ground, complexity science is depicted in general terms, and a panorama of links and relations among bioethics and other sciences and disciplines is sketched. The main argument then goes that a solid even though basic understanding of life is needed in order to cope with the challenges and opportunities around us all. This, we claim, is both an ethical and an epistemological demand.
    • Business ethics as applied ethics. A discurse ethics approach

      Garcia-Marzá, Domingo (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2012)
    • Business Ethics in emerging markets. Evidence from Mongolia

      Choi, Tae-Hee; Zuzaan, Boldmaa (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2011)
    • Care and justice arguments in the ethical reasoning of medical students

      Sommer, Christina; Boos, Margarete; Conradi, Elisabeth; Biller-Adorno, Nikola; Wiesemann, Claudia (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2011)

      Cols Catasús, Mercè; Ibarz Mellado, Andreu; Jarabo Fidalgo, Ana-Eva; Navarro Guareño, Àngel Jesús (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2021)
    • Climate Change as a Challenge for the Ethical Acting of Companies in the Global Context

      Thomas, Rosamud (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2020)
      First, this paper introduces differing viewpoints about thedangers of Climate Change. Then, the United Nations Sustainable DevelopmentGoals are utilised – notably Goal 13 on ‘taking urgent actionto combat Climate Change and its impacts’ – to steer a clear path throughthe issue of Climate Change. Next, three ethical principles for businesscompanies to adopt to deal with Climate Change challenges are identified:first, the ethical principle of Financial Sacrifice for the Common Good;second, the ethical principle of Solidarity; and, third, the ethical principleof the Rights of, and Concerns for, Future Generations. The ethicalvalues, as distinct from principles, of openness and trust are then examined,including breaches of trust. Finally, Conclusions are drawn about someof the adverse consequences of Climate Change, including its effect onhuman health and migration patterns. Both businesses and ethics are seento have a key role to play in protecting our global environment andmitigating Climate Change impacts both in the present and for futuregenerations.
    • Climate Change, Moral Bioenhancement and the Ultimate Mostropic

      Rueda, Jon (Universitat Ramon Llull, 2020)
      Tackling climate change is one of the most demanding challenges of humanity in the 21st century. Still, the efforts to mitigate the current environmental crisis do not seem enough to deal with the increased existential risks for the human and other species. Persson and Savulescu have proposed that our evolutionarily forged moral psychology is one of the impediments to facing as enormous a problem as global warming. They suggested that if we want to address properly some of the most pressing problems that cause catastrophic harm to our existence, we should enhance our moral behavior by biomedical means. The objective of this paper is, precisely, to reflect on whether a Moral Bio-Enhancement (henceforth MBE) program would be a viable option to confront theclimate emergency. To meet this goal, I will propose the Ultimate Mostropic (hereafter UM) thought experiment, a hypothetical situation wherewe have already discovered the UM, an available, safe (without any deleterious secondary effects), extremely cheap and effective pill to enhanceour cognitive, affective and motivational abilities related to morality. After briefly presenting the main argument of Persson and Savulescuregarding MBE and climate change, I will point out some of the difficulties that make MBE a daunting but exciting philosophical and scientificdebate. In order to overcome these complications, I will describe the UM thought experiment, which involves two scenarios of the MBE program:(a) the state-driven, compulsory and universal enterprise, and (b) the initiative of voluntary individuals. I will show that the shortcomings ofMBE programs through the UM in both scenarios make Persson and Savulescu’s proposal a not appealing pathway to mitigate climate change.In the final section, I will suggest that an inaccurate attribution of responsibilities underlies their proposal and that the collective inaction problemshould be redirected primarily through a reinforcement of the political nature of the solutions.
    • Code of ethics for politicians

      Argandoña, Antonio; Bilbeny, Norbert; Camps, Victòria; Calsina, Miquel; Castiñeira, Àngel; Palazzi, Cristian; Requejo, Ferran; Ribera, Raimon; Román, Begoña; Sàez, Ferran; et al. (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2012)
    • Codes of ethics in catalan organizations

      Buch Ros, Roger; Cegarra Dueñas, Blanca; Comas López, Núria (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2013)
    • Coherence as a source of authority in organizations

      Torralba, Francesc; Palazzi, Cristian; Seguró, Miquel (Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics, 2011)