Alterations of White Matter Integrity and Hippocampal Functional Connectivity in Type 2 Diabetes Without Mild Cognitive Impairment
Keywordstype 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
functional connectivity (FC)
resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)
tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)
Neurosciences. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
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AbstractAims: To investigate the white matter (WM) integrity and hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), respectively.Methods: Twelve T2DM patients without MCI and 24 age, sex and education matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. DTI and rs-fMRI data were subsequently acquired on a 3.0T MR scanner. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) combining region of interests (ROIs) analysis was used to investigate the alterations of DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), λ1 and λ23) and FC measurement was performed to calculate hippocampal FC with other brain regions. Cognitive function was evaluated by using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Brain volumes were also evaluated among these participants.Results: There were no difference of MMSE and MoCA scores between two groups. Neither whole brain nor regional brain volume decrease was revealed in T2DM patients without MCI. DTI analysis revealed extensive WM disruptions, especially in the body of corpus callosum (CC). Significant decreases of hippocampal FC with certain brain structures were revealed, especially with the bilateral frontal cortex. Furthermore, the decreased FA in left posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) and increased MD in the splenium of CC were closely related with the decreased hippocampal FC to caudate nucleus and frontal cortex.Conclusions: T2DM patients without MCI showed extensive WM disruptions and abnormal hippocampal FC. Moreover, the WM disruptions and abnormal hippocampal FC were closely associated.Highlights-T2DM patients without MCI demonstrated no obvious brain volume decrease.-Extensive white matter disruptions, especially within the body of corpus callosum, were revealed with DTI analysis among the T2DM patients.-Despite no MCI in T2DM patients, decreased functional connectivity between hippocampal region and some critical brain regions were detected.-The alterations in hippocampal functional connectivity were closely associated with those of the white matter structures in T2DM patients.This trial was registered to ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02420470, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/).