Research in Learning Technology publishes papers concerning the use of technology in learning and teaching in all sectors of education, as well as in industry...


The Globethics library contains articles of Research in Learning Technology as of vol. 1(1993) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Analysis of emergency remote teaching in formal education: crosschecking three contemporary techno-pedagogical frameworks

    Ronen Kasperski; Erez Porat; Ina Blau (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-05-01)
    During the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak many countries around the world were forced to turn to Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) and upscale the use of digital technologies for learning, teaching and assessment. The current study analysed field reports from 89 elementary and secondary Hebrew-speaking and Arabic-speaking information and communication technology schools in Israel, representing the cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity of the education system. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was based on three well established contemporary models of technology integration and Digital Competence of Educators (DigCompEdu): the International Society for Technology in Education, Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and DigCompEdu. The analysis (n = 872 statements) yielded aspects in the teachers’ reports that correspond with the theoretical models, alongside aspects that extend these models to ERT and aspects that were missing from the reports. Finally, based on our findings and previous work we suggested a comprehensive framework for ERT that can be used to design teachers’ professional development necessary for effective remote teaching in both emergency and routine times.
  • The effects of interactive mini-lessons on students’ educational experience

    Lindsay D. Richardson (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-04-01)
    With the shift to online learning, many instructors have been forced into course delivery that involves educational lecture videos. There are a number of different elements that impact the quality of educational videos and overall student experience (e.g. instructor eye gaze, audio levels, screen sizing). More specifically, research has demonstrated that segmented videos have educational benefits over the traditional didactic ones. The present experiment aimed to examine whether interspersed interactive content could increase post-secondary students’ retention and engagement above simple segmentation. As such, young adults experienced one of four lesson types: didactic video, segmented videos, segmented videos with interactive content, and a condensed version of the interactive segmented videos. Then, they were asked to complete an engagement scale, an online learning experience questionnaire, and a surprise test. The results demonstrated a performance benefit to segmented videos for post-secondary students who prefer to learn in person as opposed to online.
  • University students’ perceptions of interactive response system in an English language course: a case of Pear Deck

    Kiki Juli Anggoro; Damar Isti Pratiwi (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-04-01)
    Pear Deck is one interactive response system that has gained popularity in recent years. This study addressed the gap in the literature and considered students’ experience of the platform in a Thai university context. This was a mixed-method study in which 320 students completed a survey including closed and open-ended components. Quantitative data measuring students’ perceptions using Likert-scale surveys were collected, while qualitative data were used to get a deeper understanding of students’ experience in learning using Pear Deck in the classroom. The data were analysed based on gender differences and students’ proficiency levels. According to the findings of this study, students’ perceptions were not significantly different based on gender. However, despite the finding that both basic and independent users had good attitudes towards the platforms, the latter group gave a substantially higher score. Furthermore, the study revealed that the students had a favourable impression of Pear Deck. They believed that the platform was engaging, easy to use, and had the potential to aid learning.
  • Adaptive pedagogical strategies responding to emergency remote teaching – immediate responses of Hungarian primary school teachers

    László Horváth (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-04-01)
    Digital disruption is not a new phenomenon in education; however, it has become more prominent during the COVID-19 pandemic due to school closures and the related emergency remote teaching (ERT) period. Our study aims to explore the different pedagogical strategies that primary school teachers adopted during this period and determine how successful these strategies were in involving and engaging students. Altogether, 4028 teachers from 343 primary schools answered our online survey from all the regions of Hungary. The sample adequately represents the Hungarian primary school teacher population in terms of gender and age. We used cluster analysis and identified four clusters of pedagogical strategies; then, we used analysis of variance to explore how teachers’ digital competence and their ability to involve students in online learning varied across different clusters. Our analysis grasps the complexity of the issue, as it shows that two rather distinct strategies were both successful in involving students, and thus, there is no single solution best suited to digital learning. Overall, digitally competent teachers loosened the originally strict structure of education and provided more feedback, which proved to be an important element in successfully involving students in digital learning during ERT. The framework validated in our research can be used by policymakers and school administrators in different national and educational contexts, enabling them to understand the complexity of online teaching and learning. Furthermore, our results can offer some practical pointers for school teachers on how to combine different pedagogical strategies.
  • ‘Give and Take’ – higher education teachers using open educational resources

    Nadine Schroeder; Sophia Donat (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-04-01)
    Open educational resource (OER) as free teaching and learning materials can contribute to the collaborative design and development of teaching. To support higher education teachers in their work with teaching in general and OER in particular and to encourage their use of OER, it is necessary to pay attention to their needs and requirements. This paper presents the results of a research project, identifying the usage behaviour of German-speaking higher education teachers. In an interview study, they were asked about their experience with OER to get detailed insights into their practices concerning their ‘use’ and ‘revise’ of materials. From this, four user types were derived according to different OER activities, such as creating, reusing, editing, and publishing OER, and their scope. Finally, these user types are transferred to considerations when designing OER infrastructures and establishing support options. These are aligned with the specifics of each user type, making the research findings a complementary contribution for application in higher education.
  • The influence of user-perceived benefits on the acceptance of microlearning for librarians’ training

    Irene Shubi Isibika; Chang Zhu; Egbert De Smet; Albogast K. Musabila (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-04-01)
    Microlearning has shifted professional training and development and its acceptance depends on perceived user benefits. This study examines the influence of user-perceived benefits on librarians’ acceptance of the microlearning approach in selected universities in Tanzania. Using a questionnaire informed by the variables of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) model to collect data from a sample of 64 librarians, the results indicated that the perceived ease of use was found to play a more significant role in the acceptance of microlearning than perceived usefulness. However, the lack of in-person/physical interaction with peers during the training deterred the use of microlearning by the librarians. The positive influence of perceived usefulness and ease of use on the acceptance of microlearning strengthens the relevance of adopting microlearning as a didactic technology for librarians’ training. The findings imply that proper implementation of microlearning as a training avenue is key due to the plenteous benefits it affords over the challenges.
  • Achieving online dialogic learning using breakout rooms

    Shonagh Douglas (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-02-01)
    The use of breakout rooms is an increasingly used tool in online teaching. This study uses Laurillard’s (2013) Conversational Framework to evaluate the effectiveness of breakout rooms in achieving learning through peer-to-peer dialogue in large-scale teaching. Data were collected through online surveys, comprising Likert ratings and open questions, to undergraduate students (n = 115) and tutors (n = 9) at Aberdeen Business School (Robert Gordon University) reflecting on Year 1 studies in the 2020–2021 academic year. Key findings indicate that breakout rooms can be successful in achieving effective learning through peer-to-peer dialogue. However, this is highly dependent on the participation by students, which was variable. In order to facilitate effective breakout rooms, tutors need to ensure they set a clear task, with evidence suggesting a perception gap between tutors and students on how effectively this was done, and regularly visit breakout rooms to encourage participation and provide support.
  • Viewing open education within the Technological, Pedagogical, Content Framework: illustrating educator knowledge, skills and dispositions

    Jennifer Van Allen; Stacy Katz (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-03-01)
    Without interrogation, educators may reproduce hegemonic materials and learning opportunities that are simply easier to access in open educational practices (OEP). Thus, we argue that to effectively engage in OEP, educators must not only possess knowledge, skills and dispositions related to their discipline, but also related to open education, CC licensing, open pedagogy, digital tools that facilitate OEP, and intentionality and care in negotiating openness with students. While there are various frameworks for open education, none have been applied to explain what knowledge, skills and dispositions are needed to engage in OEP. In this manuscript, we seek to conceptualise and provide examples of OEP within the Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge Framework (TPACK) through the intersections of content, technology, and pedagogy with equity, intentionality, and care at the forefront.
  • Are teachers ready to immerse? Acceptance of mobile immersive virtual reality in secondary education teachers

    Carl Boel; Tijs Rotsaert; Martin Valcke; Yves Rosseel; Dieter Struyf; Tammy Schellens (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-02-01)
    The increasing mainstream adoption of immersive virtual reality (iVR) in education has triggered research about key variables explaining acceptance of iVR by teachers. In this study we adopted the UTAUT2 acceptance model as a theoretical framework enriched with the variable personal innovativeness. 379 Flemish secondary education teachers watched a video about iVR learning experiences, after which an online survey concerning their perceptions was administered. General linear modeling was performed to test the hypotheses. Results indicate performance expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation and personal innovativeness to be significantly associated with behavioural intention to use. No moderating effect of age, gender or experience was observed. The results account for 54% of the variance in behavioural intention to use. The findings help to understand which factors are key in the acceptance of mobile iVR by secondary education teachers and might help defining successful iVR implementation strategies.
  • Emergency remote CAD teaching using licensed software in apparel during the COVID-19 pandemic: a collaborative learning approach

    Ranapanada Kelum Jayamali De Silva; Anuradha Peramunugamage (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-02-01)
    Computer-Aided Design (CAD) training has become essential in apparel education as it is widely applied in design and development activities in the industry. This study presents how physical CAD teaching converted to remote delivery during the emergency COVID-19 pandemic using online technologies. This study evaluated five distinct methods adopted in this period: online Zoom sessions, pre-recorded practical demonstrations, guided hand-outs, online collaborative learning methods and forum discussions using Moodle. TeamViewer application was utilised for real-time remote access and support during teaching. This study instrumented two online questionnaires intended to assess the effectiveness of online hands-on sessions and collaborative learning in a remote online environment. This study was conducted with 58 participants at a recognised Sri Lankan state university. More importantly, the results confirmed the feasibility of collaborative engagement within the online learning environment. This study discovered students’ preferences for synchronous teaching and learning approaches. Also, it revealed the limitations of remote CAD teaching using online technologies. Finally, this study underlined the success of the collaborative learning approach and students’ perspectives on flipped classroom model for apparel CAD training.
  • Predicting the secondary school students’ intention to use e-learning technologies

    Ekrem Bahçekapılı (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-01-01)
    Technology acceptance studies are interesting because they are practical and theoretically helpful in explaining the adoption and intention to use a particular technology. There is a large amount of research on e-learning and other technologies in the literature, but there is limited evidence to explain why secondary school students’ intention to use e-learning. This study explains secondary school students’ intentions to use e-learning with an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). TAM is a useful theory to explain how people adopt new technologies in different fields. Data were collected from 2739 secondary school students in Turkey (Mage = 11.95). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used to test the conceptual model. The results are consistent with the original TAM model. The most critical variable affecting secondary school students’ intention to use e-learning technologies is enjoyment. The results show that there may be differences in the intention to use e-learning technologies for secondary school students in different cultures and contexts.
  • I do, I understand: engaging distance and campus students in sustainability through active learning

    Sarah J. Wakes; Linda. A. Dunn (Association for Learning Technology, 2023-01-01)
    Distance online learning connects students to education opportunities without having to be present at the institution offering the learning module. This case study involved development of a dual on-campus and distance course into a fully online course. It required a student-focused approach and an innovative application of learning technologies, additional resources and learning frameworks to encourage student engagement, independent learning and growth of critical-thinking skills. Changes to the design of the teaching approach and the use of technology improved the quality and quantity of interaction and communication between staff–students and students–students and facilitated a hands-on learning experience for online students interacting asynchronously. Student engagement with the course material, other students and teachers increased compared to previous years. Additional resource videos, learning and assessment guides (written and video), and online field trips helped develop critical-thinking skills and connectedness of learning to real-world applications. Recommendations are provided of learning approaches that could be used by other educators in different subject courses.
  • Mixed reality results in vocational education: a case study with HoloLens 2

    Jonathan Adams; Fallyn Flavell; Ramari Raureti (Association for Learning Technology, 2022-12-01)
    Pedagogy in vocational education is challenged by the increasing availability of mixed reality (MR) technologies. Wearable technologies such as the Microsoft HoloLens are being embedded in nursing education programmes in Aotearoa New Zealand and Australia and explored in other subject areas such as construction, architecture, and engineering. Empirical research undertaken with staff and students in a nursing programme reinforces and expands on previous research findings about enhanced student motivation, learning and organisational change implications, highlighted in the 2020 special issue of Research in Learning Technology that provided a ‘state of the art’ review of mobile mixed reality (MMR) in education as at 2019. This new research also identifies a number of technical or design constraints that need to be overcome to optimise MR for vocational and higher education use. Importantly, it highlights the need for significant improvement in integration of MR platforms into the learner journey so that use of the technology is not confined to professional users and early adopter student cohorts. Finally, the authors note the portability that MR headsets offer with the potential to deliver training across multiple campus and work-based learning environments to a consistent standard.
  • Technological frames in classroom: a case study for a faculty professional development

    Merve Basdogan; Tracey Birdwell; Tripp Harris (Association for Learning Technology, 2022-10-01)
    Introducing new technologies to faculty members provides opportunities to reconstruct the ways they teach, evaluate, interact, and communicate. Yet, the personal and organisational perceptions regarding the nature of technology can filter, frame, and guide faculty’s interactions with technology. In this case study conducted in a faculty professional development context, we carried out a thematic analysis to explore the technological interpretations in the faculty’s definitions of technology. We analysed 32 definitions through Mitcham’s technological frames categories, and it was observed that faculty attached various meanings to technology in terms of (1) object, (2) knowledge, (3) activity, and (4) volition perspectives. The role of self-interactions and social interactions in higher education has been discussed regarding the formation of technological understanding.
  • University learners’ utilisation of online videos in a general chemistry course

    Gülgün Afacan Adanır; Gulshat Muhametjanova; Bakyt Borkoev; Kalipa Salieva (Association for Learning Technology, 2022-08-01)
    The effectiveness of course videos needs to be analysed, and in doing so, it is important to consider the utilisation behaviours and opinions of learners. In this regard, this study was primarily conducted to analyse Kyrgyz learners’ utilisation of videos in a general chemistry course provided at the university level. This study was conducted during the 2019–2020 spring term at a state university in the Kyrgyz Republic and was structured using a mixed-method approach. The total number of participants was 105 Kyrgyz learners studying at the undergraduate level. Quantitative data were collected through an online survey, which consisted of demographic questions and items related to the utilisation of chemistry videos. Qualitative data were obtained through in-depth interviews with 13 learners. It was demonstrated through the data that learners used chemistry videos for 1–2 h per week. Also, the learners’ utilisation did not change with regard to their success from watching the videos. Learners’ utilisation of the chemistry videos was based on five factors: intrinsic motivation, self-concept of ability, self-perception of conscientiousness, video use and expectations of an online video library. This study also provided results regarding Kyrgyz learners’ problems and suggestions related to their utilisation of the videos.
  • Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the 2020–2021 academic year at Fianarantsoa University: the use of Facebook as a mode to switch to online learning

    Jocelyne Zafitsara; Njaratiana Mario Arthur Velo (Association for Learning Technology, 2022-06-01)
    This study analyses the impacts of the COVID-19 on teaching and learning at Fianarantsoa University (FU) in Madagascar. Interview questionnaires with 50 participants were carried out at the university concerned. Results demonstrate that FU took care of its students during the lockdown by introducing various measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 within the university. Distance learning via Gmail and Facebook, where teachers send course files to the mail group, was only found in certain parts of the colleges. Gmail was implemented to complete unfinished exams to avoid the White year. Controversial arguments were uncovered due to the complete cessation of teaching at the end of the distance exams without introducing alternatives to continue academic activities, though there are still three unfinished academic years. This study recommends the regular use of ‘Facebook’ as a device to shift to online teaching and learning, mainly if incidents occur that lead to academic disruption, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, national epidemic, natural catastrophe or others. Facebook is the most used platform in Madagascar, with 3.05 million users in early 2022.
  • Playing the game: a realist approach to evaluating online student access, retention, progression and attainment initiatives

    Daniel Clark (Association for Learning Technology, 2022-06-01)
    This study presents an evaluation of an online game-based student access, retention, progression and attainment (ARPA) initiative at the University of Kent. The initiative, a narrative-based simulation of a condensed student journey from pre-enrolment to graduation, is designed to prepare and support students in their transition to and participation in Higher Education. Student retention continues to be a perennial issue across the Higher Education sector, and studies have indicated that the more knowledgeable and informed students are about their university environment, the less likely they are to leave before completing their studies. Many institutions have developed interventions with the express purpose of addressing these concerns. Recognising the contextualised and subjective nature of such interventions, a realist evaluative framework was adopted to better understand the initiative under scrutiny, asking what works, for whom and in what circumstances. Participant interviews were utilised to assess the efficacy of the initiative in supporting students and in helping them to navigate often unfamiliar institutional cultures, practices and expectations. A revised programme theory is presented, enabling deeper insight into the merit of the initiative and its overall worth as a mechanism for change within the ARPA paradigm.
  • Integrating MOOCs into traditional higher education modules: a MOOC-based blend framework

    Karla K. de Lima Guedes; Hugh C. Davis; John Schulz (Association for Learning Technology, 2022-05-01)
    Online learning platforms, such as MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses), continue to expand, and some academics are taking advantage of these resources by integrating them into their teaching. The literature shows that there are many different ways that MOOCS are being blended into on-campus university teaching, and it would be helpful to have a framework that demonstrates the relationship between the in-person and MOOC curricula content, and the Blended Learning models used in practice. This study investigated how some UK academics are blending MOOCs into their in-person teaching and whether the blends used had any impact on course design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants with MOOC blending experience, and data were analysed using an inductive approach to Thematic Analysis. Results from this study generated an understanding of (1) what parts of MOOCs lecturers are using and how these resources are being blended into their in-person courses, (2) what kind of impact a MOOC-based blend can have on a course design and (3) the MOOC-based blend framework – a framework to assess the extent to which readily available MOOCs are integrated into lecture-based university modules in terms of curricular alignment and types of blend.
  • Online submission, feedback and grading of assessment: what do academic staff really think?

    Emma Mayhew; Vicki Holmes; Madeleine Davies; Yota Dimitriadi (Association for Learning Technology, 2022-04-01)
    The move to institution-wide adoption of online submission, feedback and grading is increasing significantly within the Higher Education sector. This transition is predominantly driven by the need to improve the student assessment experience, but some institutions now also cite the need to improve the staff assessment experience. Existing studies, however, provide seemingly contradictory evidence surrounding this online marking experience. This article adopts a mixed methods approach to explore academic staff preferences of the assessment experience within a UK-based institution following adoption of online submission, feedback and grading during 2017–2018. It finds that although the majority of colleagues prefer to mark and provide feedback online, the process of marking electronically is highly individual. Online marking is not just a single practice but a set of varied, rich approaches, influenced by individual marker perceptions, preferences and previous experiences, and is often highly emotive. Changes to existing marking practices are seen simultaneously as both challenging and liberating by cohorts of markers. Drawing on the results of a detailed staff survey, this article identifies seven themes that are influential to that experience. These findings have significant implications for how institutions manage change to large-scale adoption of online marking.
  • Providing dementia education with augmented reality: a health sciences and medicine feasibility pilot study

    Cindy Jones; Daniel Khalil; Karanjot Mander; Alexandra Yeoh; Christian Moro (Association for Learning Technology, 2022-05-01)
    Understanding the key physiology and anatomy of the brain, and the mechanisms underlying dementia, represents essential components within a medical curriculum. This study assessed the implementation feasibility of an augmented reality (AR) three-dimensional (3D) brain visualisation learning mode and the knowledge improvements in medical students when compared to a text-based pamphlet. The pamphlet group learnt from a double-sided information pamphlet, while the AR group used an AR app. In AR, participants held a cube in front of the camera on the tablet, rendered on-screen as a 3D brain model, and received a narrated lesson containing the same information as the pamphlet verbatim. Both resources were also evaluated for perceived usefulness via pre-post tests and written survey. A total of 24 students participated in the study. A significant overall difference in knowledge scores (p < 0.001) was found for all participants but without significant differences between groups. Prior education was a significant covariate for pre-post change (p = 0.016) across all participants but had no impact on group outcomes. Positive feedback was received on both resources where the majority perceived them as easy to use, enjoyable, and helped develop their knowledge of dementia. Both the text-based pamphlet and AR delivery modes improved knowledge, although neither was significantly superior to the other. However, the AR lesson was perceived highly for learning, and has the potential for implementation within a medical programme.

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