From dissent to diselief : Gaskell, Hardy, and the development of the English social realist novel
KeywordsPR 13.5 UL 2010
Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, 1810-1865. North and South
Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, 1810-1865. Ruth
Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, 1810-1865 -- Pensée politique et sociale
Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, 1810-1865 -- Religion
Hardy, Thomas, 1840-1928. Tess of the d'Urbervilles
Hardy, Thomas, 1840-1928. Woodlanders
Hardy, Thomas, 1840-1928 -- Pensée politique et sociale
Hardy, Thomas, 1840-1928 -- Religion
Littérature anglaise -- 19e siècle -- Thèmes, motifs
Littérature anglaise -- 19e siècle -- Histoire et critique
Prolétariat dans la littérature
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AbstractL’unitarienne Elizabeth Gaskell rejetait les doctrines anglicanes qui aliéneraient Thomas Hardy de sa religion. Elle était aussi championne de plusieurs penseurs qui exerceraient une forte influence sur les convictions d'Hardy. La continuité de la religion de Gaskell avec la vision du monde d'Hardy est évidente dans leurs écritures personnelles et aussi dans leurs romans. L'authenticité de voix que tant Gaskell que Hardy donnent aux caractères marginalisés, et spécialement aux femmes, provient aussi de leurs valeurs chrétiennes communes. Les convictions religieuses des deux auteurs et l'influence de la religion sur leurs travaux ont été abondamment étudiées, mais une comparaison entre elles doit encore être entreprise. Après avoir examiné les liens entre la foi de Gaskell et les convictions d'Hardy, je compare les attitudes des deux auteurs envers la classe dans North and South et The Woodlanders et leurs sympathies envers la femme tombée dans Ruth et Tess of the d’Urbervilles.
As a progressive Unitarian, Elizabeth Gaskell rejected the Anglican doctrines that would later alienate Thomas Hardy from his religion. She also championed many of the thinkers who would exert a strong influence on Hardy’s beliefs. The connection between Gaskell’s religion and Hardy’s worldview is evident in their personal writings and in their novels. The authenticity of voice that both Gaskell and Hardy give to marginalized characters, specifically to women, also springs from their common Christian-based values. Both authors’ religious convictions and the influence of religion on their works have been extensively studied, but a comparison between them has yet to be undertaken. After examining the links between Gaskell’s Unitarianism and Hardy’s beliefs, I compare the two authors’ attitudes towards class in North and South and The Woodlanders and their sympathies with the fallen woman as expressed in Ruth and Tess of the d’Urbervilles to demonstrate their intellectual and artistic affinities.
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ContentsThe Pennsylvania State University CiteSeerX Archives; Edited Anne Gaskell; Roger Mills; Alan Tait; Cd-rom Isbn; Anne Gaskell; Roger Mills; Alan Tait; M O Adelowotan; J A Adewara; et al. (2012-05-09)in association with The Open University and The Commonwealth of Learning Supporting learning in the digital age: rethinking inclusion, pedagogy and quality
Learning new meanings for old words: effects of semantic relatedness.Rodd, JM; Berriman, R; Landau, M; Lee, T; Ho, C; Gaskell, MG; Davis, MH (2012-10)Changes to our everyday activities mean that adult language users need to learn new meanings for previously unambiguous words. For example, we need to learn that a "tweet" is not only the sound a bird makes, but also a short message on a social networking site. In these experiments, adult participants learned new fictional meanings for words with a single dominant meaning (e.g., "ant") by reading paragraphs that described these novel meanings. Explicit recall of these meanings was significantly better when there was a strong semantic relationship between the novel meaning and the existing meaning. This relatedness effect emerged after relatively brief exposure to the meanings (experiment 1), but it persisted when training was extended across 7 days (experiment 2) and when semantically demanding tasks were used during this extended training (experiment 3). A lexical decision task was used to assess the impact of learning on online recognition. In Experiment 3, participants responded more quickly to words whose new meaning was semantically related than to those with an unrelated meaning. This result is consistent with earlier studies showing an effect of meaning relatedness on lexical decision, and it indicates that these newly acquired meanings become integrated with participants' preexisting knowledge about the meanings of words.
Community care for people with challenging behaviours and mild learning disability: an evaluation of an assessment and treatment unit.Gaskell, G; Dockrell, J; Rehman, H (1995-09)This paper reports a three-year evaluation of the Mental Impairment Evaluation and Treatment Service (MIETS). MIETS, a hospital-based unit, seeks to prepare clients with a mild learning disability and challenging behaviours for resettlement in the community. The evaluation focuses on the progress of 34 clients from preadmission to six months post-discharge. The majority of clients came from hospitals or prisons, were on medication and were referred for serious challenging behaviours. For a subsample of the clients the Vineland and the Adaptive Behaviour Scale, Part II were used to assess changes in behaviour and a general trend of statistically significant decreases in maladaptive behaviour was observed. In contrast to the comprehensive assessment and treatments, behavioural observations on eight clients show that levels of participation and social engagement are not high. Twenty of the 34 clients were resettled in the community and maintained a community placement for a least six months. Some districts were unable to implement the placement recommendations; had they done so the rate of community placement would have been 80 percent. It is concluded that community care is a viable option for people with challenging behaviour; without the specialist inputs of MIETS few of the clients would have achieved community placements, but questions are raised about the length of admission.