Now showing items 1-20 of 1063

    • Relaciones entre las actividades de investigación científica, desarrollo tecnológico y producción material desde 1850 hasta la actualidad: implicaciones para el desarrollo humano

      Valdés Castro, Rolando; Tricio Gómez, Verónica; Rodríguez Cano, Luis Román (2015)
      Through the study of scientific publications and patents, we highlighted some statistical trends in the evolution of activities of research and technological development, from 1850 to date. These trends are interpreted on the basis of the analysis of the relationship between scientific research, technology and material production in different phases of history, such as the introduction of the concept of social consumption technology revolution. Our hypothesis is that nowadays the scientific community is creating a knowledge system (involving nature, technology and society), that could be the platform from where a social consumption technology revolution, centered on sustainable human development, could emerge.
    • A questão da técnica e ciência em Jürgen Habermas

      Zatti, Vicente (2016)
      Habermas em seu diagnóstico da sociedade não faz uma crítica à razão técnica como tal, mas elabora uma crítica à sua universalização, à perda de um conceito mais compreensivo de razão em favor da validade excessiva do pensamento científico e tecnológico. Não se trata de preconizar a ruptura radical com a razão técnica, senão situar adequadamente esta dentro de uma teoria da compreensão da racionalidade. Para situar a questão da técnica e ciência dentro da teoria da racionalidade habermasiana, analisamos temas centrais da primeira fase do pensamento do filósofo alemão, como positivismo, tecnocracia, colonização do mundo da vida, suspeita à filosofia da consciência. A delimitação de um espaço legítimo para a técnica e ciência, reconhece sua importância para a reprodução material da sociedade, mas ao mesmo tempo, estabelece o mundo da vida como uma esfera inacessível à razão instrumental, pois legitimamente é regida pela razão comunicativa. A ação não distorcida da razão instrumental está restrita ao sistema. E sua legitimidade ética, política, estética, é estabelecida por algo externo a si, o mundo da vida.
    • Análisis de criterios de evaluación para la calidad de los materiales didácticos digitales

      Aguilar Juárez, Irene; Ayala de la Vega, Joel; Lugo Espinosa, Oziel; Zarco Hidalgo, Alfonso (2014)
      National and international trends about evaluation of education systems indicate the level of consolidation and expansion that has taken place in all areas of the teaching-learning process. This is due to an objective assessment that has facilitated the implementation of mechanisms for the continuous improvement and benefit of educational institutions. This article discusses some of the evaluation criteria used for digital learning materials, in order to analyze the application of different approaches, divergences and convergences -conceptual or methodological-, and especially to identify the current challenges on the subject.
    • Por una revaloración de la filosofía de la técnica. Un argumento a favor del rol cultural de la técnica

      Monterroza Ríos, Álvaro; Escobar Ortiz, Jorge M.; Mejía Escobar, Jorge Antonio (2015)
      This article aims at a positive assessment of Philosophy of Technology, as opposed to a pessimistic stance. We identified these points of view on the basis of the critical analysis of three arguments used in the philosophy of technology: hierarchical order, axiological neutrality and the argument of technology as an instrument of power and dominance. Our position holds that the value of Philosophy of Technology lies on the fact that it studies the ways in which technology facilitates and constitutes a culture, including permanent reflections on ethical and political responsibilities of the participants of such culture on technology uses.
    • Educación en ciencias basada en la indagación

      Nudelman, N. S. (REDES, Centro de Estudios sobre Ciencia, Desarrollo y Educación SuperiorOrganización de Estados Iberoamericanos para la Educación, la Ciencia y la CulturaUniversidad de Salamanca, 2015)
      The teaching of science and technology (S&T) in primary schools has been an official requirement for decades; nevertheless, there are still problems that have never been solved. While teachers complain of their students’ scarce interest in subjects of S&T, students find that S&T lectures are “boring” and have scarce or nule relation with their everyday lives. In order to correct this situation, the Argentine Science Academy has implemented the HaCE Program of Inquiry Based Science education (IBSE), an innovative pedagogy based on research made by students in the classroom. IBSE is more than a simple appropriation of contents and develops many important skills, such as: creativity, imagination, critical thinking, oral and written discussions, team working and solidarity. All of them are highly appreciated abilities in the 21th Century. The Program is developed by young graduate university students and in-service professors of high school level. Its mission is to accomplish equity and social promotion of all children, and to empower young people with qualities that are essential for accessing to a qualified employment.
    • Reacciones de los investigadores de México en diferentes epidemias. Un estudio comparativo de las publicaciones ante H1N1, Zika, Chikungunya y COVID-19

      Bidegain, Evangelina Anahi (2023)
      During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in scientific publications around the world. This paper aims to identify the publications produced by Mexican institutions during the recent pandemic and to compare them with those made on H1N1, Zika and Chikungunya, highlighting the contributions to the knowledge of the social effects of pandemics. A search in several repositories - Web of Science, Redalyc, Lilacs, Scielo, Lit Covid and Google Scholar - yielded 1,132 titles published by Mexican institutions: 791 about COVID-19, 174 about H1N1, 79 about Chikungunya, and 88 about Zika. The bibliometric analysis considered the type of publication, thematic orientations, institution of origin and contributions from the social sciences. Mexican publications increased during COVID-19, mainly in institutions of the health sector. In the second half of 2020 and early 2021, more original researches were published. We identified the decrease in the production of publications on H1N1 in general, and also found out that there was an interest in the social impact of the pandemic. We conclude that problematizing the social impact of diseases and their health management provides heterogeneity and historicity to public health, although biomedical publications focused on epidemiology, diagnosis and therapeutics in epidemics predominate.
    • Abordagem interdisciplinar como necessidade: o caso da produção de erva-mate no estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil

      Luiz, Ricardo Gomes; Silva, Maclovia Correa da (2023)
      The heterogeneous ways of growing yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in family farming are under techno-scientific pressures in Brazil. This statement can be problematized by the theoretical framework of science, technology, and society (STS) studies. Trade and expectations of market expansion strengthen the economic activity that has this plant at its base. With plantations on more than 6,000 farms, municipalities in the South-Central and Southeastern mesoregions of the State of Paraná form the main producing area of yerba mate in Brazil. The crops in these regions are mostly intercropped with native vegetation and favor the conservation of biodiversity. This is reinforced by the knowledge and experience developed by native peoples and current family farmers. However, there are techno-scientific pressures to replace traditional modes of production aiming at higher productivity and profit. This article aims to analyze this reality with an interdisciplinary approach in order to reveal tensions, point out the agenda-setting that configures technoscience, and debate about the integration of experiences and knowledge. Interdisciplinary concepts from STS studies are used to analyze how techno-scientific dynamics and apparatuses put pressure on traditional agriculture. Concepts such as technological determinism and solidary technoscience are useful to explore consensus, contradictions, and conflicts in yerba mate production in the State of Paraná.
    • El fantasma de la piratería: las vías ilegales de acceso a la literatura científica en el CONICET (Argentina)

      Zukerfeld, Mariano; Liaudat, Santiago; Terlizzi, María Sol; Monti, Carolina; Unzurrunzaga, Carolina (2023)
      This article presents the results of a survey carried out among researchers from Argentina on the different types of access to scientific literature, the motivations for using the illegal via, representations on legality and moral correctness in access to scientific articles, and the link between productivity and access vias. It offers empirical evidence of a massive and widespread use of illegal access to scientific literature among respondents. The most notable finding is, on the one hand, that the use of the illegal via of access does not supplant, but rather coexists with the use of legal vias. On the other hand, there is a remarkable disconnection between the representations regarding legality and correctness on the access and dissemination of scientific literature protected by copyright. Thirdly, the motivations that explain the massive use of illegal vias combine practical and evaluative aspects, such as the impossibility of accessing in another way, the ease of use in opposition to legal services and the rejection of the publishing business around scientific literature.
    • Impacto social de un almacén temporal centralizado en España

      Fernández Arias, Pablo; Vergara Rodríguez, Diego; Antón Sancho, Álvaro (2023)
      A Centralized Temporary Storage Facility (ATC, due to its initials in Spanish) is an industrial facility designed to store, in a single location, the spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste generated at Spanish nuclear power plants. Started in 2011, the plan to install the ATC in the Cuenca town of Villar de Cañas was the outcome of a long selection process characterized by political decisions. At present, this infrastructure of national importance has not yet been built, and even a possible cancellation of the project is being considered. However, in view of the planned schedule for the closure of Spanish nuclear power plants, the need for a long-term strategy for the management of nuclear waste is becoming increasingly necessary. This article develops a quantitative research about the social impact that the decision about the ATC site had at the time. For this purpose, the opinion of 86 inhabitants of the areas directly affected in Villar de Cañas and surrounding municipalities is taken into account. The results reflect the absence of social consensus in the region affected by the installation of the ATC regarding its necessity, safety and development perspective.
    • Inteligencia artificial y sesgos. El caso de la predicción del embarazo adolescente en Salta

      Pedace, Karina; Schleider, Tobías Joaquín; Balmaceda, Tomás (2023)
      Faced with the rhetoric of an efficient and free of prejudice artificial intelligence (AI), this article discusses why this popular vision is inadequate and examines some of its shifts in the design of public policies. Firstly, we argue that it is impossible –in principle– to propose a value-neutral AI, based on what has been indicated by some canonical and contemporary philosophical contributions. In the second section we analyze a case that clearly illustrates the value burden that gravitates on AI. This will lead us to investigate, in the third section, the different levels at which biases can have an influence on AI. Our main objective is to unveil the paradox related to how the application of AI in public policies and private spheres, far from being a tool to combat structural inequalities, ends up consolidating harmful scenarios for vulnerable populations.
    • Análisis causal estratificado (CLA) como herramienta para el trabajo inter y transdisciplinario: contribuciones y desafíos de su aplicación en Montevideo, Uruguay

      Iribarne, Patricia; Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro Olaizola, Marila (2023)
      Complex systems are made up of different structures and components that interact with each other, giving rise to emergent properties and patterns that cannot be understood by studying only their parts in isolation. Interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary processes are an alternative approach for overcoming the fragmented and reductionist way of understanding the world. This article presents the Causal Layered Analysis (CLA) methodology as a strategy for inter and transdisciplinary work. Its contributions and challenges are analyzed from its application to address the problem of urban solid waste in Montevideo, Uruguay, in three different contexts: a workshop in which academics from various disciplines participated, another workshop carried out with territorial actors and a masters’ thesis. These experiences show CLA’s versatility and expose the need to implement dialogue facilitation strategies to contemplate more extended action-research processes over time and to imagine new approaches for postgraduate thesis. Based on the CLA experience, its capacity to support teaching and research contexts within the framework of university extension processes is discussed, which could act as a “bridging” strategy between research and action.
    • Infoesfera: socialidad técnica y prácticas mediáticas. Un enfoque desde Cuba

      García Hernández, Rayner (2023)
      With historical evolution, processes of mobilization reappear in countries like Cuba through the direct interventions of the masses in the different spheres of power, culture and economy. In general terms, it could be argued that the resurgence of the "ghost of the Cuban revolution" – from the perspective of various independent social actors – aims to vindicate the practices of political and cultural participation in decision-making processes. In this context, the term "media culture" brings forward the research of new types of sociality, interaction, appropiation, communicative processes, cultural practices and media phenomena, which the use of digital technology materializes in the most diverse social spheres. The search, acquisition and management of all kinds of information through the use of technical devices and digital media influence the behavior of users, as well as their desire to understand themselves as interconnected individuals exercising their citizenship. This article proposes a praxeological approach to technical sociality and media practices in the infosphere, in order to analyze their social and political implications in the Cuban context.
    • El sistema de saneamiento convencional y la escasez global de agua. Uso irracional de los recursos versus sistemas secos y circulares

      Quiñones Triana, Yago (2023)
      The current conventional sewage system, which combines a flushing toilet with a sewage system and eventually treatment plants, is an obsolete and inadequate system that demonstrates an irrational and harmful use of resources, especially water. The prevalence of this system is not explained solely by technical reasons; the motivations that justify its diffusion and permanence are mainly associated with historical and cultural reasons. Currently there are alternatives available that have already competed with the conventional system, and that present clear benefits, such as avoiding water contamination and making efficient use of resources by reintroducing them into production systems as nutrients or raw materials. The scant application of these alternative systems is most likely due to non-technical motivations associated with historically incorporated habits, based on debatable beliefs about human excrement and waste management. Given the current water scarcity crisis, it is urgent to study ways to implement resource-friendly systems and to combine a technical analysis on the adaptations necessary for its massification with an exploration of the cultural barriers that make this implementation difficult.
    • Entrevista. Práticas transdisciplinares no contexto latino-americano: Entrevista com o prof. Danilo streck

      Mazzitelli, María Goñi; Vienni Baptista, Bianca; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Streck, Danilo Romeu (2023)
    • La herencia digital. Apropiación de tecnologías digitales en jóvenes de clases trabajadoras y de servicios en Buenos Aires

      Matozo, Victoria (2023)
      This article analyzes the digital heritage from the trajectories of appropriation of digital technologies in students of public middle schools in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. The question that guides this research is: what modes of appropriation are presented in young people from working and services classes, and what are their characteristics? Based on the concept of appropriation, young people’s trajectories are analyzed from their class of origin, and from the analytical perspective of the third digital divide. By combining both fields of study, not only a comparison between classes is made, but also the meaning of these practices is deepened. The analysis focuses on the social and digital reproduction strategies deployed by young people in the appropriation processes in relation to their individual goals, and on examining to what extent these are constrained (or not) by their chances of life. This article applies a quantitative methodology, based on the “Youth and Technology 2018-2019 Survey”, and a qualitative one, based on the interviews conducted with young students from public schools of Buenos Ares.
    • Fomentando la transdisciplinariedad para la cocreación del conocimiento: el caso de la ReD-IT (Universidad de Talca, Chile)

      Villalobos, Pablo; Chalela Naffah, Salim; Boni, Alejandra (2023)
      Considering the degree of complexity of the problems faced by society, universities are called upon to play a leading role as institutions that generate and disseminate knowledge. This role must be supported by epistemological, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches to promote inclusive solutions that are co-created with stakeholders in the territories, enabling the transition to sustainable socio-technical systems. For this reason, it is necessary to create protected spaces for experimentation aligned with social and environmental challenges that facilitate the generation of learning and reflexivity among its members. The experience of the Transdisciplinary Innovation Network (ReD-IT, due to its initials in Spanish) of the University of Talca, Chile, is presented as an alternative niche to the dominant university regime. The network seeks to transform not only the institutional model of R&D&I, but also to promote a process of directionality and experimentation that encourages the identification and protection of new radical options, following the guidelines given by transformative innovation policies. Using a multilevel perspective, it was possible to establish systemic dynamics between three levels (landscape, regime, and niche). Also, the experimental nature of the niche was evaluated through the recognition criteria for policies with transformative potential, showing important differences between the practices developed within the ReD-IT and those customary for the regime.
    • ¿De qué hablamos cuando hablamos de OGM? Las múltiples y contradictorias maneras de presenta runa controversia sociocientífica en la escuela secundaria

      Rando, Nicolás Vilouta (2023)
      Given the diversity of ways for describing the socio-scientific issues around genetically modified organisms (GMOs), this article studies the different characterizations of this controversy coexisting in the context of the curriculum of a high school in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The research was based on a qualitative approach that investigated the variety of ways for describing the controversy in three different curricular instances: the curriculum design, the official teacher training course offered by the provincial goverment and a teacher training course on biotechnology offered by a private educational program. The results allow us to point out the great flexibility with which the question about GMOs can be interpreted and described in different curricular instances within the same class, as well as the influence that the different actors involved and their stands have on the issue. Thus, the educational field seems to be a battlefield where various actors who participate in socio-scientific issues display their positions and interests, not only through explicit arguments, but also in the subtlest way possible of seeking to impose a certain characterization of the controversy.
    • Tecnologías emergentes asociadas a riesgos ambientales. El fracking en Mendoza y la termo-valorización en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires: coaliciones en controversia

      Saidón, Mariana; Christel, Lucas Gabriel; Levatino, Belén (2023)
      This article studies what notions of environmental risk build different actors on emerging technologies and examines how these notions of risk are used in action strategies by coalitions that face environmental conflicts. We carried out a comparative study of two cases: the thermo-recovery of waste in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and the hydraulic fracture in the province of Mendoza. The results show coalitions that promote and attempt against technologies, and that some of them are made up of different fixed actors, while others oscillate between coalitions. Furthermore, both the detractors of emerging technologies and their promotors are State-society coalitions. Both have a specific and minimal vision of the problem: the detractors perceive high environmental risk, potential dependence on technologies, violation of social rights and limited institutional capacities to address these issues. Promotors have a low perception of risk, based on the possibility of addressing the issue with “good practices” and “clean technologies”, and considering a high benefit of an economic nature and of “modernization and progress”. In terms of actions, both coalitions use both formal and informal strategies.
    • Is there Room for Other-than-Human Agency in Transdisciplinary Research? An Ethnographic Reflection

      Taddei, Renzo (2023)
      The article argues that most of the debates on interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research and co-production focus solely on human actors and human agency and, as a result, fail to acknowledge the role of other-than-human agency in fields where it plays a central role, environmental governance being one of them. Two cases are presented and analyzed. In the first, climate scientists and technicians in South America co-produce solutions for an environmental crisis brought about by a drought. The article argues that the drought was what enabled co-production to happen meaningfully. The second contrasts the thinking of Yanomami Indigenous author and shaman Davi Kopenawa about the environment and the agencies involved in shamanistic action with the ontological basis of the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in which the integration of Indigenous knowledge has been a goal for over a decade. Based on the analysis of these cases, it is argued that other-than-human agencies need to be recognized in environmental governance.