physiology, Auditory Cortex
physiology, Auditory Pathways
physiology, Auditory Perception
physiology, Auditory Threshold
physiology, Brain Mapping, Dominance
physiology, Evoked Potentials
physiology, Female, Humans, Image Processing
Computer-Assisted, Loudness Perception
physiology, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Middle Aged, Oxygen
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AbstractEdges are important cues defining coherent auditory objects. As a model of auditory edges, sound on- and offset are particularly suitable to study their neural underpinnings because they contrast a specific physical input against no physical input. Change from silence to sound, that is onset, has extensively been studied and elicits transient neural responses bilaterally in auditory cortex. However, neural activity associated with sound onset is not only related to edge detection but also to novel afferent inputs. Edges at the change from sound to silence, that is offset, are not confounded by novel physical input and thus allow to examine neural activity associated with sound edges per se. In the first experiment, we used silent acquisition functional magnetic resonance imaging and found that the offset of pulsed sound activates planum temporale, superior temporal sulcus and planum polare of the right hemisphere. In the planum temporale and the superior temporal sulcus, offset response amplitudes were related to the pulse repetition rate of the preceding stimulation. In the second experiment, we found that these offset-responsive regions were also activated by single sound pulses, onset of sound pulse sequences and single sound pulse omissions within sound pulse sequences. However, they were not active during sustained sound presentation. Thus, our data show that circumscribed areas in right temporal cortex are specifically involved in identifying auditory edges. This operation is crucial for translating acoustic signal time series into coherent auditory objects.
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Modality-Specific Perceptual Expectations Selectively Modulate Baseline Activity in Auditory, Somatosensory, and Visual Corticesinfo:eu-repo/classification/ddc/610; Langner, R.; Kellermann, T.; Boers, F.; Sturm, W.; Willmes, K.; Eickhoff, S.B. (Oxford Univ. Press, 2011)Valid expectations are known to improve target detection, but the preparatory attentional mechanisms underlying this perceptual facilitation remain an open issue. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show here that expecting auditory, tactile, or visual targets, in the absence of stimulation, selectively increased baseline activity in corresponding sensory cortices and decreased activity in irrelevant ones. Regardless of sensory modality, expectancy activated bilateral premotor and posterior parietal areas, supplementary motor area as well as right anterior insula and right middle frontal gyrus. The bilateral putamen was sensitive to the modality specificity of expectations during the unexpected omission of targets. Thus, across modalities, detection improvement arising from selectively directing attention to a sensory modality appears mediated through transient changes in pretarget activity. This flexible advance modulation of baseline activity in sensory cortices resolves ambiguities among previous studies unable to discriminate modality-specific preparatory activity from attentional modulation of stimulus processing. Our results agree with predictive-coding models, which suggest that these expectancy-related changes reflect top-down biases--presumably originating from the observed supramodal frontoparietal network--that modulate signal-detection sensitivity by differentially modifying background activity (i.e., noise level) in different input channels. The putamen appears to code omission-related Bayesian "surprise" that depends on the specificity of predictions.
Nerve growth factor stimulates neurite regeneration but not survival of adult auditory neurons in vitro.Lefèbvre, Philippe; Van de Water, T. R.; Staecker, H.; Weber, T.; Galinovic-Schwartz, V.; Moonen, Gustave; Ruben, R. J. (1992)Injury to either the peripheral or central nervous system results in the accumulation of growth factors at the wound site. Some of these growth factors have been shown to participate in the neural repair process. Adult auditory neurons grown in dissociated spiral ganglion cell cultures are injured (i.e. bilateral axotomy) as a result of the initial preparation of these cultures. Therefore, cell cultures of dissociated spiral ganglia provide a model for the study of repair processes of adult auditory neurons (e.g. effects of exogenous growth factors on the process of neuritogenesis by injured neurons). Auditory neurons do not survive in these dissociated ganglion cell cultures when only exogenous NGF is added to the defined culture medium. Previous work has identified substrate bound basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a survival factor for adult auditory neurons in vitro. Auditory neurons cultured on substrate bound bFGF also do not show increased survival in response to the addition of increasing concentrations of nerve growth factor (NGF) to the defined medium. This is in sharp contrast to the pronounced neurite outgrowth-promoting effects (concentration dependent) observed when exogenous NGF is added to adult auditory neurons cultured on substrate bound bFGF. We propose that several neuronotrophic factors (e.g. TGFB1, bFGF, NGF and other neurotrophins) are active in the spiral ganglions' response to injury. Several of these growth factors (i.e. bFGF, NGF) act in cooperation to promote the regeneration or repair of severed or traumatized neuritic processes.
Plastic brain mechanisms for attaining auditory temporal order judgment proficiency.Bernasconi, F.; Grivel, J.; Murray, M.M.; Spierer, L. (2010-04-15)Accurate perception of the order of occurrence of sensory information is critical for the building up of coherent representations of the external world from ongoing flows of sensory inputs. While some psychophysical evidence reports that performance on temporal perception can improve, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unresolved. Using electrical neuroimaging analyses of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), we identified the brain dynamics and mechanism supporting improvements in auditory temporal order judgment (TOJ) during the course of the first vs. latter half of the experiment. Training-induced changes in brain activity were first evident 43-76 ms post stimulus onset and followed from topographic, rather than pure strength, AEP modulations. Improvements in auditory TOJ accuracy thus followed from changes in the configuration of the underlying brain networks during the initial stages of sensory processing. Source estimations revealed an increase in the lateralization of initially bilateral posterior sylvian region (PSR) responses at the beginning of the experiment to left-hemisphere dominance at its end. Further supporting the critical role of left and right PSR in auditory TOJ proficiency, as the experiment progressed, responses in the left and right PSR went from being correlated to un-correlated. These collective findings provide insights on the neurophysiologic mechanism and plasticity of temporal processing of sounds and are consistent with models based on spike timing dependent plasticity.