• Managing AIDS stigma

      WL Holzemer; University of California, San Francisco; LR Uys; College of Health Sciences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2005-05-06)
      ccording to anecdotal reports, AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to influence people living with and affected by HIV disease as well as their health care providers, particularly in southern Africa where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma is perceived as a major limiting factor in primary and secondary HIV/AIDS prevention and care. It reportedly interferes with voluntary testing and counselling, and with accessing care and treatments, thereby increasing suffering and shortening lives. Many health care workers in southern Africa have come to the conclusion that unless stigma is conquered, the illness will not be defeated. While there is substantial anecdotal evidence of the impact of stigma on AIDS care, very little rigorous research has been conducted. This article explores three questions: What is AIDS stigma? What is the impact of AIDS stigma? How can health care providers help to manage AIDS stigma? Key words: HIV/AIDS stigma, management, measurement. La gestion de la stigmatisation liée au SIDA RÉSUMÉ D'après des rapports anecdotiques, la stigmatisation et la discrimination liées au SIDA continuent à influencer les personnes vivant avec la maladie du VIH, ceux qui en sont affectés ainsi que leurs fournisseurs de soins particulièrement en Afrique Australe où le fardeau du SIDA est très prononcé. La stigmatisation est perçue comme un facteur majeur qui restreint la prévention et les soins primaires et secondaires du VIH/SIDA. Il est dit que la stigmatisation entrave la Consultation et le Dépistage Volontaires (VCT) et l'accès au soin et au traitement. Pour cette raison, la stigmatisation augmente la souffrance et raccourcit la vie. Beaucoup de personnel de soin, en Afrique Australe, ont tiré la conclusion qu'à moins que la stigmatisation soit conquise, la maladie ne sera jamais vaincue. Pendant qu'il y a une évidence anecdotique importante de l'impact de la stigmatisation sur le soin du SIDA, très peu de recherche rigoureuse a été faite. Cette présente communication étudie trois questions: Qu'est-ce que la stigmatisation? Quel est l'impact de la stigmatisation liée au SIDA? Comment est-ce que les fournisseurs de soin peuvent aider dans la gestion de la stigmatisation associée au SIDA? Mots clés: VIH/SIDA, soigner, stigmatisation. Sahara J Vol.1(3) 2004: 165-174
    • Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan women

      Okong, P; Namaganda, PK; Bassani, L; Tabaro, MM; Zanetto, F; Mwebaze, EB; Weimer, L; Tomasoni, L; Castelli, F; Giuliano, M (Taylor & Francis, 2011-07-07)
      To describe the infant feeding practices in the general population in Uganda, and to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on these practices, a questionnaire was administered to women attending the follow-up clinics for child vaccination. Among the mothers who were still breastfeeding at the time of interview (N=838), 61.4% of the HIV-infected women had planned to breastfeed for a maximum of 6 months, compared with 12.1% of the HIV-uninfected women (p
    • Measuring HIV stigma for PLHAs and nurses over time in five African countries

      JR Naidoo; TQ Kohi; Y Cuca; PS Dlamini; LN Makoae; ML Chirwa; M Greeff; WL Holzemer; LR Uys; K Durrheim (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2010-01-20)
      The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a 1-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to negatively affect the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a 1-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) (N=948) was 36.15 years (SD=8.69), and 67.1% (N=617) were female. The average age of nurses (N=887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (N=784) were females. Eighty-four per cent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV-stigma events at baseline. This declined, but was still significant 1 year later, when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV-stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV-stigma events and this increased to 83.7% 1 year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association.
    • Met and unmet palliative care needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda

      P Struthers; J Uwimana (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2007-11-19)
      The rising number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) worldwide has made health care professionals and policy makers search for accessible health care that will meet the needs of people who are suffering from the disease and enhance their quality of life (QoL).This study investigated met and unmet palliative care needs of PLWHA in selected areas in Rwanda.The study sample included 306 participants: PLWHA, health care professionals and coordinators of HIV/AIDS units. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used.The data were analysed separately and then triangulated. In the findings, over 50% of PLWHA had symptoms related to HIV/AIDS most of the time, with the most common symptom being pain. Participation in activities of daily living was significantly associated with the health status of PLWHA (p
    • Microbicide trials for preventing HIV/AIDS in South Africa: Phase II trial participants' experiences and psychological needs

      E Nagel; Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA); A A Hoosen; Department of Microbiological Pathology at MEDUNSA; M Sebola; Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA); B Friedland; International Programs Division at the Population Council; A G Pistorius; Department of Psychology at the Medical University of Southern Africa (MEDUNSA); J H van de Wijgert; Director Prevention Research at the International Antiviral Therapy Evaluation Centre, Amsterdam,The Netherlands.; C Bokaba; Department of Clinical Psychology at MEDUNSA (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2004-10-01)
      The Microbicide Division of the Department of Medical Microbiology at MEDUNSA, South Africa, recently completed a phase II expanded safety trial of the candidate microbicide Carraguard. A microbicide is a vaginal product that women might use, if proven safe and effective, to protect themselves from HIV and possibly other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The study participants were from Ga-Rankuwa and its neighbouring areas, an historically disadvantaged residential township near Pretoria. We conducted six focus group discussions with phase II trial participants to evaluate their experiences with trial participation and their psychological needs. Participants spontaneously talked about their experiences with the study gel and speculum examinations. They felt that they had received high quality medical care. They indicated that their personal hygiene and knowledge of the female reproductive system, HIV and other STIs had improved, which helped their families and empowered them as women. Participants valued being able to discuss their anxiety about HIV/AIDS with study staff. They felt that the study provided them with a supportive environment in which their personal problems (not necessarily restricted to HIV/AIDS) could be addressed. Some recommended that the study staff improve their professionalism and punctuality. They suggested the formation of participant support groups, and expressed a preference to remain involved in the trial. Some participants appeared to have become dependent on services provided during the trial. We have taken the results of these focus group discussions into account during planning for a phase III efficacy trial of Carraguard to be conducted in the same and other similar communities. SAHARA-J (2004) 1(2): 78-86 Keywords: HIV prevention, South Africa, microbicide, ethical challenges in microbicide trials. RÉSUMÉ La Division de Microbicide du Département de Microbiologie Médicale de l'Université Médicale d'Afrique Australe, MEDUNSA, Afrique du Sud, a récemment accompli la phase II de l' épreuve de sûreté renforcée du candidat microbicide Carraguard. Un microbicide est un produit vaginal que les femmes pourraient employer, s'il est prouvé sûr et efficace, pour se protéger elles-mêmes contre le VIH et probablement d'autres infections sexuellement transmises (STIs). Les participantes à l'étude étaient de Ga-Rankuwa et de ses environs, une banlieue noire résidentielle historiquement désavantagée près de Pretoria.Nous avons conduit des discussions en six groupes d'étude avec les participants à la phase II de l'épreuve pour évaluer leurs expériences concernant la participation à l'épreuve et leurs besoins psychologiques. Les participantes ont spontanément parlé de leurs expériences relatives aux études du gel et aux examens du speculum. Elles ont estimé qu'elles avaient reçu le soin médical de haute qualité. Elles ont indiqué que leur hygiène et connaissance personnelles du système reproducteur femelle, de VIH et de tout autre STIs s'étaient améliorées, qui ont aidé leurs familles et les ont émancipées comme femmes. Les participantes ont estimé qu'elles étaient en mesure de discuter leur inquiétude au sujet de VIH/SIDA avec le personnel de l'étude. Ils ont estimé que l'étude leur a fourni un environnement de soutien dans lequel leurs problèmes personnels (pas nécessairement limités au VIH/SIDA) pourraient être adressés. Certaines ont recommandé que le personnel d'étude améliore son professionnalisme et ponctualité. Elles ont suggéré la formation des groupes de soutien de participantes, et ont exprimé leur préférence de rester impliquées dans l'épreuve. Quelques participantes ont semblé être devenues dépendantes des services fournis pendant l'épreuve. Nous avons tenu compte des résultats de ces discussions de groupe d'étude pour la planification de la phase III de l'épreuve d'efficacité du Carraguard qui devra être conduite dans la même communauté et d'autres communautés semblables. SAHARA-J (2004) 1(2): 78-86 Mots clés: Prévention de VIH, Afrique du Sud, microbicide, défis éthiques dans des épreuves de microbicide
    • Microcredit for people affected by HIV and AIDS: Insights from Kenya

      D Njuguna; D Datta (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2008-08-14)
      Consequences of HIV and AIDS are exponential in Kenya, touching not only the health of those infected, but also depleting socioeconomic resources of entire families. Access to financial services is one of the important ways to protect and build economic resources. Unfortunately, the norm of financial viability discourages microfinance institutions from targeting people severely impacted by HIV and AIDS. Thus, HIV and AIDS service NGOs have been increasingly getting involved in microcredit activity in recent years for economic empowerment of their clients. Despite limited human resources and funding in the area of microcredit activity, these NGOs have demonstrated that nearly 50% of their microcredit beneficiaries invested money in income-generating activities, resulting in enhancement to their livelihood security. In the short term these NGOs need to improve their current practices. However, this does not mean launching microfinance initiatives within their AIDS-focused programmes, as financial services are best provided by specialised institutions. Longer-term cooperation between microfinance institutions and other AIDS service organisations and donors is necessary to muster appropriate and rapid responses in areas experiencing severe impacts of HIV and AIDS. Keywords: Microcredit, HIV and AIDS, Kenya.SAHARA J Vol. 5 (2) 2008: pp.94-102
    • Military men and sexual practices: Discourses of ‘othering’ in safer sex in the light of HIV/AIDS

      N Mankayi (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2010-01-20)
      Despite recent reports that there is increasing condom use, generally resistance to condom use is still high. This paper focuses on factors inhibiting condom use and explores issues of responsibility for safe sex practices to prevent infection among a group of 14 South African male soldiers. Military men are particularly vulnerable to HIV because of their working conditions; for example, working far from home and being among communities where they have greater economic and political power, as well as in relation to their identities and sexualities as men, and how that is exaggerated by the institutional framework of the military. The data in this paper were drawn from a larger qualitative study exploring a group of military men’s narratives on their masculinity, sexuality, sexual relationships and HIV/AIDS. Semi-structured interviews were the main data collection method, and the interview transcripts were analysed primarily through interpretive discourse analysis. Findings of this study show that most participants used the socially desirable discourse that safe sex practices (specifically condom use) should be everybody’s responsibility. However, there was also the discourse of the ‘other’ responsible person, which was linked to gender, race, ethnicity, education and rank. The paper concludes with a recommendation that tackling HIV in the military needs to involve the rigorous examination of social factors such as gender, race and ethnicity.
    • Modelling self-assessed vulnerability to HIV and its associated factors in a HIV-burdened country

      A. F. Fagbamigbe; A. M. Lawal; E. S. Idemudia (Taylor & Francis Group, 2017-01-01)
      Background: Globally, individuals’ self-assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection is important to maintain safer sexual behaviour and reduce risky behaviours. However, determinants of self-perceived risk of HIV infection are not well documented and differ. We assessed the level of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV infection in Nigeria and also identified its risk factors. Methods: We explored a recent nationally representative data with self-reported vulnerability (‘high’, ‘low’ and ‘no risk at all’) to HIV infection as the outcome of interest. Data were weighted and association between the outcomes and the risk factors determined. We used simple ordered logit regression to model relationship between the outcome variable and risk factors, and controlled for the significant variables in multiple ordered logistic regression at 5% significance level. Results: About 74% had good knowledge of HIV transmission and 6% had experienced STI recently. The likelihood of assessing oneself as having ‘no risk at all’ was 50% and for ‘high chances’ was 1.6%. Self-perceived high risk of HIV was higher among those who recently experienced STI (5.6%) than those who did not (1.7%), and also higher among those who recently engaged in transactional sex and had multiple sexual partners. The odds of good knowledge of HIV transmission on high self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was 19% higher than poor knowledge (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.12–1.27). Also, respondents who recently had multiple sexual partners were 72% (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.60–1.86) more likely to report self as having high risk. Younger respondents aged 14–19 years had higher odds of 41% (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.29–1.55) to perceive self as having high vulnerability to HIV than older respondents. Conclusion: High vulnerability to HIV infection was reported among younger respondents, those with history of STIS and those who engage in multiple sexual relations. Despite high level of risky sexual behaviour and good knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention found in this study, self-perceived vulnerability to HIV generally is low. For the low perception found in this study to translate to low chance of HIV infection, there is need for all stakeholders to embark on risk reduction initiatives through sexual education that would minimise risky sexual practices and ensuring availability and affordability of HIV prevention methods.
    • Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/ AIDS awareness programmes: Strengthening outcome indicators

      Maleka, Elma Nelisiwe (SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 2017-06-26)
      There are number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in South Africa that use sport as a tool to respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), however, little is reported about the outcomes and impact of these programmes. The aim of this study is to contribute to a generic monitoring and evaluation framework by improving the options for the use of outcome indicators of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of selected NGOs in South Africa. A qualitative method study was carried out with seven employees of five selected NGOs that integrate sport to deliver HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa. The study further involved six specialists/experts involved in the field of HIV/ AIDS and an official from Sport Recreation South Africa (SRSA). Multiple data collection instruments including desktop review, narrative systematic review, document analysis, one-on-one interviews and focus group interview were used to collect information on outcomes and indicators for sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. The information was classified according to the determinants of HIV/AIDS. The overall findings revealed that the sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of five selected NGOs examined in this study focus on similar HIV prevention messages within the key priorities highlighted in the current National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB of South Africa. However, monitoring and evaluating outcomes of sport-based HIV/AIDS programmes of the selected NGOs remains a challenge. A need exists for the improvement of the outcome statements and indicators for their sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. This study proposed a total of 51 generic outcome indicators focusing on measuring change in the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and change in attitude and intention towards HIV risk behaviours. In addition, this study further proposed a total of eight generic outcome indicators to measure predictors of HIV risk behaviour. The selected NGOs can adapt the proposed generic outcomes and indicators based on the settings of their programmes. A collaborative approach by all stakeholders is required, from international organisations, funders, governments, NGOs and communities to strengthening monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes including other development programmes. This will assist the NGOs that use sport for development to be able to reflect accurately the information about their HIV/AIDS activities and also be able to contribute to on-going monitoring activities at a national and global level as well as to the Sustainable Development Goals.Keywords: HIV/AIDS, indicator, non-governmental organisations, outcome, performance assessment, sport-for-development
    • Mother-to-child transmission of HIV and its prevention: awareness and knowledge in Uganda and Tanzania

      G Poggensee; Epidemiologist in the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin and a senior lecturer at the Charité-University Medicine Berlin.; I Moneta; Physician in the Master Programme in International Health of the Charité-University Medicine Berlin.; G Harms; Professor at the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the Charité-University Medicine Berlin; Institut für Tropenmedizin, Spandauer Damm 130, 14050 Berlin, Germany; C Baryomunsi; HIV/AIDS specialist with UNDP in Kampala; K Schulze; Physician who worked as a researcher in the GTZ-supported PMTCT project in western Uganda in 2001 and 2002; P Mbezi; Physician and the local coordinator of the GTZ-supported PMTCT project in Mbeya region,Tanzania (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2005-10-13)
      Awareness and knowledge about HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and preventive measures in different population groups and health personnel were analysed in future intervention areas in western Uganda and southwestern Tanzania. In Uganda, a total of 751 persons (440 clients of antenatal and outpatient clinics, 43 health workers, 239 villagers, 29 traditional birth attendants) and in Tanzania, 574 persons (410 clients, 49 health workers, 93 villagers, 18 traditional birth attendants) were interviewed.When given options, knowledge on transmission during pregnancy and delivery in women was 93% and 67% in Uganda and Tanzania respectively, and 86% and 78% for transmission during breastfeeding. In Uganda 59% of male interviewees did not believe that HIV is transmitted during breastfeeding. Expressed acceptance of HIV testing was above 90% in men and women in both countries, but only 10% of the clients in Uganda and 14% in Tanzania had been tested for HIV infection. Health workers´ knowledge regarding MTCT was acceptable, while traditional birth attendants´ knowledge on both MTCT and preventive measures was extremely poor. Recommendations on infant feeding were not compatible with WHO recommendations for HIV-infected women. If prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) interventions are to be accepted by the population and promoted by health personnel, thorough orientation and training are mandatory. Key Words:PMTCT, HIV, awareness, knowledge, western Uganda, western TanzaniaRÉSUMÉLa prise de conscience et la connaissance de la transmission mère-enfant du VIH (MTCT) et les mesures préventives parmi les différents groupes de la population et le personnel de santé ont été analysées dans des régions de l\'ouest de l\'Ouganda et le sud-ouest de la Tanzanie où les interventions auront lieu dans l\'avenir. En Ouganda, 751 personnes en tout (440 clients de centres médicaux prénatals et de services de consultation, 43 ouvriers de santé, 239 villageois, 29 préposés traditionnels de naissance) et en Tanzanie, 574 personnes (410 clients, 49 ouvriers de santé, 93 villageois et 18 préposés traditionnels de naissance) furent objet des entretiens. Lorsqu\'on leur a donné des options au choix, la connaissance de la transmission pendant la grossesse et à la naissance chez les femmes était de 93% et 67% en Ouganda et en Tanzanie respectivement et de 86% et 78% pour la transmission à l\'allaitement. En Ouganda, 59% des hommes interviewés ont eu du mal à croire que le virus peut être communiqué à l\'enfant lors de l\'allaitement. Plus de 90% des hommes et des femmes dans les deux pays ont exprimé une acceptation de dépistage du VIH. Cependant, seulement 10% de clients en Ouganda et 14% en Tanzanie ont fait le dépistage. La connaissance des ouvriers de santé concernant le MTCT était acceptable, tandis que la connaissance du MTCT et les mesures préventives chez les préposés traditionnels de naissance fut extrêmement faible. Les recommandations de l\'allaitement de l\'enfant n\'étaient pas compatibles avec les recommandations de l\'OMS pour des femmes infectées. Afin que les interventions PMTCT soient acceptées par la population et promues par le personnel de santé, une orientation et une formation approfondies sont obligatoires. Mots clés: PMTCT,VIH, prise de conscience, connaissance, l\'ouest de l\'Ouganda, l\'ouest de la Tanzanie. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Vol 2(2) 2005:258-266
    • Moving Mountains, the Race to Treat Global AIDS

      Nkululeko Nkomo; Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2007-02-08)
      By Anne-Christine D'Adesky Moving Mountains, the Race to Treat Global AIDS provides a lucid account of global efforts to scale up treatment for HIV/AIDS. As shown in the book, these efforts confront a number of critical challenges at a political, social, cultural and economic level.The book attempts to provide accounts of these challenges by looking at progress made in nine countries – Brazil, India, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Morocco, Uganda, South Africa and Russia.These accounts are formulated through interviews with people living with HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS activists and health officials. The book is divided into four parts.The first part has three chapters. Chapter 1 outlines what the book is about. Chapter 2 provides a chronology of recent events in the fights against HIV/AIDS. In Chapter 3 Brazil's success in its AIDS treatment programme and in curbing the rate of new HIV infections is presented as a good model for other developing countries with high HIV prevalence to follow. Brazil has implemented a successful and sustainable treatment programme by initially importing generic medicines from India, and currently through its state-run generic manufacturing programme. In the second part the author takes the reader around the world by describing the fight against HIV/AIDS in nine countries. Chapter 4 describes India's role in the production of generic medicines. Chapter 5 provides a description of Cuba's unique yet controversial fight against HIV/AIDS.According to the author, the country's policy of keeping HIV-positive people quarantined in sanitoriums raises ethical questions. Chapters 6 and 7 highlight the rural and urban differences when it comes to access to treatment or testing in Mexico and Haiti.The author points out that rural communities tend to fare worse with regards to access to health care. Chapter 8 looks at Uganda's efforts at preventing mother-to-child transmission through community mobilisation.The book also draws attention to Uganda's orphan crisis – one in every ten people in the country is reported to be an orphan of AIDS. Chapter 9 describes how in Morocco HIV/AIDS is still perceived to be a disease of homosexuals and drug users but, as the author notes, heterosexual transmission is very high. In the chapter on Morocco the author highlights the concern expressed among HIV/AIDS activists that the numbers of people living and dying from HIV/AIDS may be higher than what is reported. Chapter 10 looks at the role that the mining industry in Carltonville, South Africa, is playing in providing testing and treatment to its employees. Carltonville is presented as an example of the business sector joining the fight on HIV/AIDS. Chapter 11 deals with Russia's post-perestroika HIV/AIDS pandemic.The author points out that the high number of injecting drug users in the country fuels this pandemic. In Chapter 13 the author looks at the opportunity that AIDS presents for improving infrastructure and introducing new models of care that could impact on other killer diseases. After having gone through some of the challenges and obstacles in the quest to increase access to AIDS treatment globally, the author takes the reader through the progress made thus far, as well as some of the challenges that still need to be overcome (Chapter Fourteen). Throughout the book the author uses quotes to enhance the perceptions and experiences of the interviewees.The author has done well in each instance not to examine the treatment issue in isolation from the social, cultural, political and even economic issues pertaining to each country.The author demonstrates convincingly that the issue of access to drugs is one that is embedded in the market-driven global economic system. It is a system that she describes as one that emphasises profit gain over equity or corporate social responsibility. She argues that the debate over patents and generic medicines for HIV/AIDS could potentially spill over to other medicines. The book provides accounts of global prevention, care and support, as well as treatment efforts in selected countries. It is a good introduction to the abovementioned content areas, with specific focus on the area of treatment.The author succeeds in educating the reader about antiretroviral drugs.The appendices also provide useful information on a number of subjects, such as HIV-related metabolic side-effects, studies on factors affecting adherence, and reports on the vulnerability of women to infection.Apart from a few, sometimes irritating, instances in the book where conjunctions were missing, it was well written.The book could be of benefit to a variety of readers, including researchers in the social aspects of HIV/AIDS treatment, public health researchers, scholars in public health and HIV/AIDS activists.
    • My secret: The social meaning of HIV/AIDS stigma

      Jugeo, N; Moalusi, KP (Taylor & Francis, 2014-10-08)
      This study uses Goffman’s [1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall] theory of stigma as an intellectual scaffold to help understand the social meaning of HIV/AIDS  stigma from People Living with HIV/AIDS. The study adopts a qualitative approach because of its appropriateness for unravelling subjective phenomena such as the experiences of HIV/ AIDS stigma. In-depth interviews were  conducted with 10 HIV-positive employees of a retailing company located in the Western Cape province of South Africa who volunteered to participate in the study. The participants with the discreditable stigma internalised society’s prejudice towards those living with the virus. As a result, the participants relied on self-isolation and  social withdrawal to cope with enacted stigma. Managing information about one’s status and deciding whether, who, when, etc., to tell are crucial questions. The participants feared being devalued by family, friends, co-workers and the community. In concurrence with Goffman [1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall] the HIV/AIDS stigma is seen as about relationships.Keywords: stigma, HIV/AIDS, people living with HIV/AIDS, qualitative researchDans cette e´tude, la the´orie de la stigmatisation de Goffman (1963) sert d’e´chafaudage intellectuel pour contribuer a` la compre´hension de la signification sociale des tares associe´es au VIH/SIDA chez les personnes vivant avec le VIH/SIDA (PVVIH). Une approche qualitative a e´te´ adopte´e car elle permet d’e´claircir les phe´nome`nes subjectifs tels que les expe´riences de stigmatisation lie´es au VIH/SIDA. Des interviews en profondeur ont e´te´ mene´s aupre`s de dix employe´s se´ropositifs d’une compagnie de distribution situe´e dans la province du Cap occidental en Afrique du Sud. Ceux-ci se sont porte´s volontaires pour participer a` cette e´tude. Les participants victimes d’une stigmatisation de´shonorante ont inte´riorise´ les pre´juge´s sociaux  envers les personnes vivant avec le virus. En conse´quence, les participants se sont tourne´s vers l’auto- isolement et le retrait social pour affronter cette stigmatisation. Ge´rer les informations relatives au statut se´rologique et de´cider s’il faut le communiquer, a` qui et quand etc. sont de questions cruciales. Les participants craignent d’eˆtre de´valorise´s par leurs familles, amis, colle`gues et par leur communaute´. En accord avec Goffman (1963), la stigmatisation du VIH/SIDA est perc¸ue comme lie´e aux relations.Mots cle´s: Stigmatisation, VIH/SIDA, personnes vivant avec le VIH/SIDA, recherche qualitative
    • Navigating intimate sexual partnerships in an era of HIV: dimensions of couple relationship quality and satisfaction among adults in Eswatini and linkages to HIV risk

      Allison Ruark; Edward C. Green; Amy Nunn; Caitlin Kennedy; Alfred Adams; Thandeka Dlamini-Simelane; Pamela Surkan (Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-01-01)
      Couple relationship functioning impacts individual health and well-being, including HIV risk, but scant research has focused on emic understandings of relationship quality in African populations. We explored relationship quality and satisfaction in Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) using data from 148 in-depth interviews (117 life-course interviews with 28 adults and 31 interviews with 29 marriage counselors and their clients) and 4 focus group discussions. Love, respect, honesty, trust, communication, sexual satisfaction, and sexual faithfulness emerged as the most salient characteristics of good relationships, with both men and women emphasising love and respect as being most important. Participants desired relationships characterised by such qualities but reported relationship threats in the areas of trust, honesty, and sexual faithfulness. The dimensions of relationship quality identified by this study are consistent with research from other contexts, suggesting cross-cultural similarities in conceptions of a good relationship. Some relationship constructs, particularly respect, may be more salient in a Swazi context.
    • Negative stereotypes examined through the HIV and AIDS discourse: qualitative findings from white young people in Johannesburg, South Africa

      Nduna, M; Mendes, J (Taylor & Francis, 2011-07-08)
      Previous studies reporting perceptions of HIV and AIDS by white youth in South Africa suggest both explicit and implicit racial stereotypes and negative attitudes. This paper contributes to the literature on the discourse of racial stereotypes found in discussions about HIV and AIDS. The study was conducted in the suburb of Edenvale, north-east of Johannesburg, South Africa. Three focus group discussions were held with mixed-sex, white middle-class participants aged 16 to 24. Key findings show stereotypes related to cultural knowledge and group character of black youth. Participants spoke negatively of ignorance, illiteracy, traditionalism, backwardness and lack of civilisation among black youth. Black youth were negatively represented as relying on ancestors and traditional healers for guidance. Participants reasoned that black young males were sexually irresponsible and promiscuous, and were spreading HIV intentionally. Thus it is imperative that contemporary HIV prevention interventions in South Africa address anddispel stereotypes reproducing racist discourses.
    • New approaches, new activities and new outcomes in international conferences on HIV/AIDS in Africa – Report of the 3rd African Conference on the social aspects of HIV/AIDS, Dakar, 10 - 14 October 2005

      G Andrews; L Simbayi; D Kaseje; CI Niang; Y Toefy; O Shisana; K Peltzer; Human Sciences Research Council, 69-83 Plein Street, Cape Town, South Africa (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2007-01-18)
      Africa's HIV/AIDS situation remains cause for concern. The impact of HIV is considerable and threatens the survival and development of African societies. Although much has been attempted, the results still leave much to be desired. AIDS is an epidemic that needs to be addressed with much creativity and spirit of initiative. It is against this background that the 3rd African conference on the social aspects of HIV/AIDS brought innovations in the way international conferences are designed, activities implemented and results obtained. The innovations concerned the approach to international conferences and take into account reconceptualising HIV/AIDS so as to encourage holistic approaches and better visibility of vulnerable groups.The activities of the conference were organised in such a way as to get people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), grassroots communities and marginalised groups to play a focal role.The conference offered an opportunity for developing cultural activities that would translate the African cultural concepts that had been identified as important in the HIV situation and response analysis. Interaction at the conference created an opportunity to analyse the various dimensions of the political, cultural and economic determinants. The conference offered food for thought around response construction while singling out the themes of urgency and acceleration of response, synergy construction, and coordination and conception of political responses. Keywords: conference, policies, HIV/AIDS, cultural aspects, responses, determinants Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Vol. 3 (2) August 2006: 424-449
    • Obituary: Dr Dimitri Tassiopoulos

      Soudien, Crain (SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 2017-06-26)
      No Abstract
    • Obituary: Dr Dimitri Tassiopoulos

      Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy (SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 2017-06-26)
      No Abstract
    • Obituary: Dr Dimitri Tassiopoulos

      Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya (Taylor & Francis Group, 2017-01-01)
    • Obituary: Dr Dimitri Tassiopoulos

      Crain Soudien (Taylor & Francis Group, 2017-01-01)
    • Occupational exposure, attitude to HIV-positive patients and uptake of HIV counselling and testing among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

      Modupe O. Onadeko; Mary O. Balogun; Olanrewaju O. Onigbogi; Folashade O. Omokhodion (Taylor & Francis Group, 2017-01-01)
      Health care workers (HCWs) are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV. Their attitude to HIV-positive patients influences patients’ willingness and ability to access quality care. HIV counselling and testing (HCT) services are available to inform HCWs and patients about their status. There is little information about HCT uptake and attitude to HIV-positive patients among HCWs in tertiary health facilities in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine occupational exposure and attitude to HIV-positive patients and level of uptake of HCT services among HCWs in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. A cross-sectional design was utilized. A total of 977 HCWs were surveyed using semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires. Nurses and doctors comprised 78.2% of the respondents. Their mean age was 35 ± 8.4 years. Almost half, 47.0%, reported accidental exposure to blood and body fluids (BBFs) in the preceding year. The main predictor of accidental exposure to BBFs in the last year was working in a surgical department, OR = 1.7, 95% CI (1.1–2.6). HCWs aged <40 years, OR = 5.5, 95% CI (1.9–15.9), who had worked for >5 years, OR = 3.6, 95% CI (1.4–9.3) and who work in nursing department, OR = 6.8, 95% CI (1.7–27.1) were more likely to be exposed to BBFs. Almost half, 52.9%, had accessed HCT services. Predictors for HCT uptake were age <40 years OR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1–2.4), having worked for >5 years OR = 1.5, 95% CI (1.03–2.2) and working in medical department OR = 1.7, 95% CI (1.1–2.8). Respondents in nursing departments were more likely to require routine HIV test for all patients, OR = 3.9, 95% CI (2.4–6.2). HCWs in the laboratory departments were more likely to believe that HIV patients should be on separate wards, OR = 3.6, 95% CI (1.9–7.0). HCWs should be protected and encouraged to access HCT services in order to be effective role models in the prevention of HIV/AIDS.