• Making sense of fidelity: young Africans’ cross-national and longitudinal representations of fidelity and infidelity in their HIV-related creative narratives, 1997–2014

      Robyn Singleton; Manon Billaud; Haley McLeod; Georges Tiendrebeogo; Fatim Dia; Chris Obong’o; Siphiwe Nkambule-Vilakati; Benjamin Mbakwem; Gaelle Sabben; Kate Winskell (Taylor & Francis Group, 2021-01-01)
      Mutual fidelity and partner reduction have been identified as key behavioural strategies to prevent HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly following recognition of the role that multiple concurrent sexual partnerships play in driving generalised HIV epidemics. We analysed social representations of fidelity and infidelity in a sample of 1,343 narratives about HIV written by young Africans between 1997 and 2014. The narratives were written at four different time points (1997, 2005, 2008, 2014) by authors aged 10–24 in urban and rural areas of Senegal, Burkina Faso, South-east Nigeria, Kenya and Eswatini. We combined three analytical approaches: descriptive statistics of quantifiable characteristics of the narratives, thematic data analysis and a narrative-based approach. In the sample, fidelity is often promoted as the ideal by narrators, peers and romantic partners, in line with broader discourses around HIV prevention, romantic relationships, familial obligations, and religious and moral imperatives. However, mutual fidelity is rarely modelled in the narratives and representations of combining methods to prevent HIV from entering relationships via infidelity are uncommon. Representations of fidelity reflect loss-framed fear arousal techniques that perpetuate HIV-related stigma. Narrative-based approaches that facilitate skills-building, critical reflection and address stigma can better address fidelity and partner reduction.
    • Male circumcision and its association with HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases: evidence from 18 demographic and health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa

      Samson Gebremedhin (Taylor & Francis Group, 2011-04-01)
      The study aimed to assess the association between male circumcision and HIV infection and STDs. The issue is controversial as various studies reported conflicting findings. A cross-sectional comparative study based on the secondary data of 18 Demographic Health Surveys (DHS), carried out in Sub-Saharan Africa starting from 2003, was conducted. From all surveys, information on 70 554 males aged 15 – 59 years was extracted. The association between male circumcision and HIV infection and STD symptoms (genital discharge or genital ulcer/sore) was assessed using binary logistic regression. Adjustment was made for sexual history and basic socio-demographic variables. The weighted prevalence of HIV among men 15 – 59 years was 3.1%. In the bivariate analysis uncircumcised status was significantly associated with risk of HIV, with odds ratio (OR) of 4.12 (95% CI: 3.85 – 4.42). The association was even more significant (4.95 (95% CI: 4.57–5.36)) after adjustment for number of lifetime sexual partners and socio-demographic variables. The risk associated with uncircumcised status is significantly lower among younger men aged 15 – 29 years than those in 30 – 59-year age category. About 5.5% of the study subjects reported either genital discharge or genital sore/ulcer in the preceding 12 months of the surveys. Circumcision status was not significantly associated with either of the symptoms, with adjusted OR of 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99 – 1.15). The study concludes that there is a strong association between uncircumcised status and HIV infection. Hence, male circumcision can be considered as a possible way of reducing the spread of HIV infection in areas where the practice is rare. A comprehensive study to assess the association between circumcision and different types of STDs is recommended.
    • Managing AIDS stigma

      WL Holzemer; University of California, San Francisco; LR Uys; College of Health Sciences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2005-05-06)
      ccording to anecdotal reports, AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to influence people living with and affected by HIV disease as well as their health care providers, particularly in southern Africa where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma is perceived as a major limiting factor in primary and secondary HIV/AIDS prevention and care. It reportedly interferes with voluntary testing and counselling, and with accessing care and treatments, thereby increasing suffering and shortening lives. Many health care workers in southern Africa have come to the conclusion that unless stigma is conquered, the illness will not be defeated. While there is substantial anecdotal evidence of the impact of stigma on AIDS care, very little rigorous research has been conducted. This article explores three questions: What is AIDS stigma? What is the impact of AIDS stigma? How can health care providers help to manage AIDS stigma? Key words: HIV/AIDS stigma, management, measurement. La gestion de la stigmatisation liée au SIDA RÉSUMÉ D'après des rapports anecdotiques, la stigmatisation et la discrimination liées au SIDA continuent à influencer les personnes vivant avec la maladie du VIH, ceux qui en sont affectés ainsi que leurs fournisseurs de soins particulièrement en Afrique Australe où le fardeau du SIDA est très prononcé. La stigmatisation est perçue comme un facteur majeur qui restreint la prévention et les soins primaires et secondaires du VIH/SIDA. Il est dit que la stigmatisation entrave la Consultation et le Dépistage Volontaires (VCT) et l'accès au soin et au traitement. Pour cette raison, la stigmatisation augmente la souffrance et raccourcit la vie. Beaucoup de personnel de soin, en Afrique Australe, ont tiré la conclusion qu'à moins que la stigmatisation soit conquise, la maladie ne sera jamais vaincue. Pendant qu'il y a une évidence anecdotique importante de l'impact de la stigmatisation sur le soin du SIDA, très peu de recherche rigoureuse a été faite. Cette présente communication étudie trois questions: Qu'est-ce que la stigmatisation? Quel est l'impact de la stigmatisation liée au SIDA? Comment est-ce que les fournisseurs de soin peuvent aider dans la gestion de la stigmatisation associée au SIDA? Mots clés: VIH/SIDA, soigner, stigmatisation. Sahara J Vol.1(3) 2004: 165-174
    • Managing AIDS stigma

      William L. Holzemer; Leana R. Uys (Taylor & Francis Group, 2004-11-01)
      According to anecdotal reports, AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to influence people living with and affected by HIV disease as well as their health care providers, particularly in southern Africa where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma is perceived as a major limiting factor in primary and secondary HIV/AIDS prevention and care. It reportedly interferes with voluntary testing and counselling, and with accessing care and treatments, thereby increasing suffering and shortening lives. Many health care workers in southern Africa have come to the conclusion that unless stigma is conquered, the illness will not be defeated. While there is substantial anecdotal evidence of the impact of stigma on AIDS care, very little rigorous research has been conducted. This article explores three questions: What is AIDS stigma? What is the impact of AIDS stigma? How can health care providers help to manage AIDS stigma?
    • Maternal and infant antiretroviral therapy adherence among women living with HIV in rural South Africa: a cluster randomised trial of the role of male partner participation on adherence and PMTCT uptake

      Deborah L. Jones; Violeta J. Rodriguez; Manasi Soni Parrish; Tae Kyoung Lee; Stephen M. Weiss; Shandir Ramlagan; Karl Peltzer (Taylor & Francis Group, 2021-01-01)
      ‘Mother-to-child transmission of HIV’ can occur during the period of pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. ‘Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV’ (PMTCT) in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, is especially vital as the prevalence of HIV is 28.2% in women aged 15–49. PMTCT interventions resulted in a drop of MTCT rates in Mpumalanga from ∼2% in 2015 to 1.3% in 2016. This randomised controlled trial in Mpumalanga examined the potential impact of a lay healthcare worker administered intervention, ‘Protect Your Family’, on maternal and infant adherence, and to assess the relative influence of male partner involvement on infant and maternal adherence. This cluster randomised controlled trial used a two-phase and two-condition (experimental or control) study design where participants (n = 1399) did assessments both during pregnancy and post-postpartum. Only women participated in Phase 1, and both female and male partners participated in Phase 2. Results indicated that male involvement was associated with self-reported maternal or infant antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but the intervention was not associated with ART adherence. Self-reported adherence was associated with depression, age, and partner HIV status. The study results provide support for the involvement of men in the antenatal clinic setting during pregnancy. Results also support further research on the meaning and assessment of male involvement and clarification of the constructs underlying the concept in the sub-Saharan African context. Outcomes provide support for male involvement and treatment of depression as adjuncts to improve uptake of both maternal and infant medication as part of the PMTCT protocol.
    • Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan women

      Okong, P; Namaganda, PK; Bassani, L; Tabaro, MM; Zanetto, F; Mwebaze, EB; Weimer, L; Tomasoni, L; Castelli, F; Giuliano, M (Taylor & Francis, 2011-07-07)
      To describe the infant feeding practices in the general population in Uganda, and to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on these practices, a questionnaire was administered to women attending the follow-up clinics for child vaccination. Among the mothers who were still breastfeeding at the time of interview (N=838), 61.4% of the HIV-infected women had planned to breastfeed for a maximum of 6 months, compared with 12.1% of the HIV-uninfected women (p
    • Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan women

      Pius Okong; Praxedes Kituuka Namaganda; Luciana Bassani; Mary Mbidde Tabaro; Francesca Zanetto; Edith Birungi Mwebaze; Liliana Weimer; Lina Tomasoni; Francesco Castelli; Marina Giuliano (Taylor & Francis Group, 2010-07-01)
      To describe the infant feeding practices in the general population in Uganda, and to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on these practices, a questionnaire was administered to women attending the follow-up clinics for child vaccination. Among the mothers who were still breastfeeding at the time of interview (N=838), 61.4% of the HIV-infected women had planned to breastfeed for a maximum of 6 months, compared with 12.1% of the HIV-uninfected women (p<0.001). Among the women who were not breastfeeding at the time of interview (N=108), 82.5% of the HIV-infected women had stopped breastfeeding within 3 months, compared with 23.5% of the HIV-uninfected women (p<0.001). Only 2.1% of HIV-infected women seen up to 14 weeks postnatally practised mixed feeding, compared with 23.6% of HIV-uninfected women (p<0.001). After 6 months, however, 30% of the HIV-infected women and 55% of the HIV-uninfected mothers were using mixed feeding, with no significant differences. Programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV should re-enforce counselling activities to address the issue of early weaning by HIV-infected women, and to support safe breastfeeding up to 6 months.
    • Measuring HIV stigma for PLHAs and nurses over time in five African countries

      JR Naidoo; TQ Kohi; Y Cuca; PS Dlamini; LN Makoae; ML Chirwa; M Greeff; WL Holzemer; LR Uys; K Durrheim (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2010-01-20)
      The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a 1-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to negatively affect the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a 1-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) (N=948) was 36.15 years (SD=8.69), and 67.1% (N=617) were female. The average age of nurses (N=887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (N=784) were females. Eighty-four per cent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV-stigma events at baseline. This declined, but was still significant 1 year later, when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV-stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV-stigma events and this increased to 83.7% 1 year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association.
    • Measuring HIV stigma for PLHAs and nurses over time in five African countries

      William L Holzemer; Lucy N Makoae; Minrie Greeff; Priscilla S Dlamini; Thecla W Kohi; Maureen L Chirwa; Joanne R Naidoo; Kevin Durrheim; Yvette Cuca; Leana R Uys (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2009-09-01)
      The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a 1-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to negatively affect the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a 1-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) (N=948) was 36.15 years (SD=8.69), and 67.1% (N=617) were female. The average age of nurses (N=887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (N=784) were females. Eighty-four per cent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV-stigma events at baseline. This declined, but was still significant 1 year later, when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV-stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV-stigma events and this increased to 83.7% 1 year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association.
    • Met and unmet palliative care needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda

      P Struthers; J Uwimana (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2007-11-19)
      The rising number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) worldwide has made health care professionals and policy makers search for accessible health care that will meet the needs of people who are suffering from the disease and enhance their quality of life (QoL).This study investigated met and unmet palliative care needs of PLWHA in selected areas in Rwanda.The study sample included 306 participants: PLWHA, health care professionals and coordinators of HIV/AIDS units. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used.The data were analysed separately and then triangulated. In the findings, over 50% of PLWHA had symptoms related to HIV/AIDS most of the time, with the most common symptom being pain. Participation in activities of daily living was significantly associated with the health status of PLWHA (p
    • Microbicide trials for preventing HIV/AIDS in South Africa: Phase II trial participants' experiences and psychological needs

      E Nagel; Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA); A A Hoosen; Department of Microbiological Pathology at MEDUNSA; M Sebola; Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA); B Friedland; International Programs Division at the Population Council; A G Pistorius; Department of Psychology at the Medical University of Southern Africa (MEDUNSA); J H van de Wijgert; Director Prevention Research at the International Antiviral Therapy Evaluation Centre, Amsterdam,The Netherlands.; C Bokaba; Department of Clinical Psychology at MEDUNSA (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2004-10-01)
      The Microbicide Division of the Department of Medical Microbiology at MEDUNSA, South Africa, recently completed a phase II expanded safety trial of the candidate microbicide Carraguard. A microbicide is a vaginal product that women might use, if proven safe and effective, to protect themselves from HIV and possibly other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The study participants were from Ga-Rankuwa and its neighbouring areas, an historically disadvantaged residential township near Pretoria. We conducted six focus group discussions with phase II trial participants to evaluate their experiences with trial participation and their psychological needs. Participants spontaneously talked about their experiences with the study gel and speculum examinations. They felt that they had received high quality medical care. They indicated that their personal hygiene and knowledge of the female reproductive system, HIV and other STIs had improved, which helped their families and empowered them as women. Participants valued being able to discuss their anxiety about HIV/AIDS with study staff. They felt that the study provided them with a supportive environment in which their personal problems (not necessarily restricted to HIV/AIDS) could be addressed. Some recommended that the study staff improve their professionalism and punctuality. They suggested the formation of participant support groups, and expressed a preference to remain involved in the trial. Some participants appeared to have become dependent on services provided during the trial. We have taken the results of these focus group discussions into account during planning for a phase III efficacy trial of Carraguard to be conducted in the same and other similar communities. SAHARA-J (2004) 1(2): 78-86 Keywords: HIV prevention, South Africa, microbicide, ethical challenges in microbicide trials. RÉSUMÉ La Division de Microbicide du Département de Microbiologie Médicale de l'Université Médicale d'Afrique Australe, MEDUNSA, Afrique du Sud, a récemment accompli la phase II de l' épreuve de sûreté renforcée du candidat microbicide Carraguard. Un microbicide est un produit vaginal que les femmes pourraient employer, s'il est prouvé sûr et efficace, pour se protéger elles-mêmes contre le VIH et probablement d'autres infections sexuellement transmises (STIs). Les participantes à l'étude étaient de Ga-Rankuwa et de ses environs, une banlieue noire résidentielle historiquement désavantagée près de Pretoria.Nous avons conduit des discussions en six groupes d'étude avec les participants à la phase II de l'épreuve pour évaluer leurs expériences concernant la participation à l'épreuve et leurs besoins psychologiques. Les participantes ont spontanément parlé de leurs expériences relatives aux études du gel et aux examens du speculum. Elles ont estimé qu'elles avaient reçu le soin médical de haute qualité. Elles ont indiqué que leur hygiène et connaissance personnelles du système reproducteur femelle, de VIH et de tout autre STIs s'étaient améliorées, qui ont aidé leurs familles et les ont émancipées comme femmes. Les participantes ont estimé qu'elles étaient en mesure de discuter leur inquiétude au sujet de VIH/SIDA avec le personnel de l'étude. Ils ont estimé que l'étude leur a fourni un environnement de soutien dans lequel leurs problèmes personnels (pas nécessairement limités au VIH/SIDA) pourraient être adressés. Certaines ont recommandé que le personnel d'étude améliore son professionnalisme et ponctualité. Elles ont suggéré la formation des groupes de soutien de participantes, et ont exprimé leur préférence de rester impliquées dans l'épreuve. Quelques participantes ont semblé être devenues dépendantes des services fournis pendant l'épreuve. Nous avons tenu compte des résultats de ces discussions de groupe d'étude pour la planification de la phase III de l'épreuve d'efficacité du Carraguard qui devra être conduite dans la même communauté et d'autres communautés semblables. SAHARA-J (2004) 1(2): 78-86 Mots clés: Prévention de VIH, Afrique du Sud, microbicide, défis éthiques dans des épreuves de microbicide
    • Microbicide trials for preventing HIV/AIDS in South Africa: Phase II trial participants' experiences and psychological needs

      Annalie Pistorius; Janneke van de Wijgert; Mohlatlego Sebola; Barbara Friedland; Evelyn Nagel; Cathleen Bokaba; Anwar Hoosen (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2004-08-01)
      The Microbicide Division of the Department of Medical Microbiology at MEDUNSA, South Africa, recently completed a phase II expanded safety trial of the candidate microbicide Carraguard. A microbicide is a vaginal product that women might use, if proven safe and effective, to protect themselves from HIV and possibly other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The study participants were from Ga-Rankuwa and its neighbouring areas, an historically disadvantaged residential township near Pretoria. We conducted six focus group discussions with phase II trial participants to evaluate their experiences with trial participation and their psychological needs. Participants spontaneously talked about their experiences with the study gel and speculum examinations. They felt that they had received high quality medical care. They indicated that their personal hygiene and knowledge of the female reproductive system, HIV and other STIs had improved, which helped their families and empowered them as women. Participants valued being able to discuss their anxiety about HIV/AIDS with study staff. They felt that the study provided them with a supportive environment in which their personal problems (not necessarily restricted to HIV/AIDS) could be addressed. Some recommended that the study staff improve their professionalism and punctuality. They suggested the formation of participant support groups, and expressed a preference to remain involved in the trial. Some participants appeared to have become dependent on services provided during the trial.We have taken the results of these focus group discussions into account during planning for a phase III efficacy trial of Carraguard to be conducted in the same and other similar communities.
    • Microcredit for people affected by HIV and AIDS: Insights from Kenya

      D Njuguna; D Datta (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2008-08-14)
      Consequences of HIV and AIDS are exponential in Kenya, touching not only the health of those infected, but also depleting socioeconomic resources of entire families. Access to financial services is one of the important ways to protect and build economic resources. Unfortunately, the norm of financial viability discourages microfinance institutions from targeting people severely impacted by HIV and AIDS. Thus, HIV and AIDS service NGOs have been increasingly getting involved in microcredit activity in recent years for economic empowerment of their clients. Despite limited human resources and funding in the area of microcredit activity, these NGOs have demonstrated that nearly 50% of their microcredit beneficiaries invested money in income-generating activities, resulting in enhancement to their livelihood security. In the short term these NGOs need to improve their current practices. However, this does not mean launching microfinance initiatives within their AIDS-focused programmes, as financial services are best provided by specialised institutions. Longer-term cooperation between microfinance institutions and other AIDS service organisations and donors is necessary to muster appropriate and rapid responses in areas experiencing severe impacts of HIV and AIDS. Keywords: Microcredit, HIV and AIDS, Kenya.SAHARA J Vol. 5 (2) 2008: pp.94-102
    • Microcredit for people affected by HIV and AIDS: Insights from Kenya

      Dipankar Datta; James Njuguna (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2008-07-01)
      Consequences of HIV and AIDS are exponential in Kenya, touching not only the health of those infected, but also depleting socioeconomic resources of entire families. Access to financial services is one of the important ways to protect and build economic resources. Unfortunately, the norm of financial viability discourages microfinance institutions from targeting people severely impacted by HIV and AIDS. Thus, HIV and AIDS service NGOs have been increasingly getting involved in microcredit activity in recent years for economic empowerment of their clients. Despite limited human resources and funding in the area of microcredit activity, these NGOs have demonstrated that nearly 50% of their microcredit beneficiaries invested money in income-generating activities, resulting in enhancement to their livelihood security. In the short term these NGOs need to improve their current practices. However, this does not mean launching microfinance initiatives within their AIDS-focused programmes, as financial services are best provided by specialised institutions. Longer-term cooperation between microfinance institutions and other AIDS service organisations and donors is necessary to muster appropriate and rapid responses in areas experiencing severe impacts of HIV and AIDS.
    • Military men and sexual practices: Discourses of ‘othering’ in safer sex in the light of HIV/AIDS

      N Mankayi (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2010-01-20)
      Despite recent reports that there is increasing condom use, generally resistance to condom use is still high. This paper focuses on factors inhibiting condom use and explores issues of responsibility for safe sex practices to prevent infection among a group of 14 South African male soldiers. Military men are particularly vulnerable to HIV because of their working conditions; for example, working far from home and being among communities where they have greater economic and political power, as well as in relation to their identities and sexualities as men, and how that is exaggerated by the institutional framework of the military. The data in this paper were drawn from a larger qualitative study exploring a group of military men’s narratives on their masculinity, sexuality, sexual relationships and HIV/AIDS. Semi-structured interviews were the main data collection method, and the interview transcripts were analysed primarily through interpretive discourse analysis. Findings of this study show that most participants used the socially desirable discourse that safe sex practices (specifically condom use) should be everybody’s responsibility. However, there was also the discourse of the ‘other’ responsible person, which was linked to gender, race, ethnicity, education and rank. The paper concludes with a recommendation that tackling HIV in the military needs to involve the rigorous examination of social factors such as gender, race and ethnicity.
    • Military men and sexual practices: Discourses of ‘othering’ in safer sex in the light of HIV/AIDS

      Nyameka Mankayi (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2009-03-01)
      Despite recent reports that there is increasing condom use, generally resistance to condom use is still high. This paper focuses on factors inhibiting condom use and explores issues of responsibility for safe sex practices to prevent infection among a group of 14 South African male soldiers. Military men are particularly vulnerable to HIV because of their working conditions; for example, working far from home and being among communities where they have greater economic and political power, as well as in relation to their identities and sexualities as men, and how that is exaggerated by the institutional framework of the military. The data in this paper were drawn from a larger qualitative study exploring a group of military men's narratives on their masculinity, sexuality, sexual relationships and HIV/AIDS. Semi-structured interviews were the main data collection method, and the interview transcripts were analysed primarily through interpretive discourse analysis. Findings of this study show that most participants used the socially desirable discourse that safe sex practices (specifically condom use) should be everybody's responsibility. However, there was also the discourse of the ‘other’ responsible person, which was linked to gender, race, ethnicity, education and rank. The paper concludes with a recommendation that tackling HIV in the military needs to involve the rigorous examination of social factors such as gender, race and ethnicity.
    • Modelling level, trend and geographical variations in stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

      Samson B Adebayo; Richard Fakolade; Jennifer Anyanti; Bright Ekweremadu; Olaronke Ladipo; Augustine Ankomah (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2011-09-01)
      People living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA) often face stigma and discrimination. Stigma is a powerful tool for social control and PLHA are to varying degrees stigmatised against. Consequences of stigma and discrimination against PLHA may result in low turn-out for HIV counselling and testing, identity crises, isolation, loneliness, low self-esteem and lack of interest in containing the disease. To achieve the millennium development goal on HIV reduction, efforts should be targeted at measuring impact of HIV preventive interventions. In this paper, effort was made to explore geographical variations in addition to level and trend of accepting attitude towards PLHA using 2003 – 2007 population-based household survey data. Inferences are based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques, while model selection was based on Deviance Information Criteria. Findings revealed significant positive trend and spatial variations on level of accepting attitude towards PLHA. Level of exposure to HIV prevention interventions and perceptions about social support received on HIV are significantly associated with accepting attitude towards PLHA. Findings provide policy makers with tools to discern states where prevention efforts on HIV-related stigma and discrimination should be intensified. This in turn, can enhance an effective utilization of scarce resources that is paramount in developing countries.
    • Modelling self-assessed vulnerability to HIV and its associated factors in a HIV-burdened country

      A. F. Fagbamigbe; A. M. Lawal; E. S. Idemudia (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2017-01-01)
      Background: Globally, individuals’ self-assessment of vulnerability to HIV infection is important to maintain safer sexual behaviour and reduce risky behaviours. However, determinants of self-perceived risk of HIV infection are not well documented and differ. We assessed the level of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV infection in Nigeria and also identified its risk factors. Methods: We explored a recent nationally representative data with self-reported vulnerability (‘high’, ‘low’ and ‘no risk at all’) to HIV infection as the outcome of interest. Data were weighted and association between the outcomes and the risk factors determined. We used simple ordered logit regression to model relationship between the outcome variable and risk factors, and controlled for the significant variables in multiple ordered logistic regression at 5% significance level. Results: About 74% had good knowledge of HIV transmission and 6% had experienced STI recently. The likelihood of assessing oneself as having ‘no risk at all’ was 50% and for ‘high chances’ was 1.6%. Self-perceived high risk of HIV was higher among those who recently experienced STI (5.6%) than those who did not (1.7%), and also higher among those who recently engaged in transactional sex and had multiple sexual partners. The odds of good knowledge of HIV transmission on high self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was 19% higher than poor knowledge (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.12–1.27). Also, respondents who recently had multiple sexual partners were 72% (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.60–1.86) more likely to report self as having high risk. Younger respondents aged 14–19 years had higher odds of 41% (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.29–1.55) to perceive self as having high vulnerability to HIV than older respondents. Conclusion: High vulnerability to HIV infection was reported among younger respondents, those with history of STIS and those who engage in multiple sexual relations. Despite high level of risky sexual behaviour and good knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention found in this study, self-perceived vulnerability to HIV generally is low. For the low perception found in this study to translate to low chance of HIV infection, there is need for all stakeholders to embark on risk reduction initiatives through sexual education that would minimise risky sexual practices and ensuring availability and affordability of HIV prevention methods.
    • Monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/ AIDS awareness programmes: Strengthening outcome indicators

      Maleka, Elma Nelisiwe (SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 2017-06-26)
      There are number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in South Africa that use sport as a tool to respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), however, little is reported about the outcomes and impact of these programmes. The aim of this study is to contribute to a generic monitoring and evaluation framework by improving the options for the use of outcome indicators of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of selected NGOs in South Africa. A qualitative method study was carried out with seven employees of five selected NGOs that integrate sport to deliver HIV/AIDS programmes in South Africa. The study further involved six specialists/experts involved in the field of HIV/ AIDS and an official from Sport Recreation South Africa (SRSA). Multiple data collection instruments including desktop review, narrative systematic review, document analysis, one-on-one interviews and focus group interview were used to collect information on outcomes and indicators for sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. The information was classified according to the determinants of HIV/AIDS. The overall findings revealed that the sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes of five selected NGOs examined in this study focus on similar HIV prevention messages within the key priorities highlighted in the current National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB of South Africa. However, monitoring and evaluating outcomes of sport-based HIV/AIDS programmes of the selected NGOs remains a challenge. A need exists for the improvement of the outcome statements and indicators for their sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes. This study proposed a total of 51 generic outcome indicators focusing on measuring change in the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and change in attitude and intention towards HIV risk behaviours. In addition, this study further proposed a total of eight generic outcome indicators to measure predictors of HIV risk behaviour. The selected NGOs can adapt the proposed generic outcomes and indicators based on the settings of their programmes. A collaborative approach by all stakeholders is required, from international organisations, funders, governments, NGOs and communities to strengthening monitoring and evaluation of sport-based HIV/AIDS awareness programmes including other development programmes. This will assist the NGOs that use sport for development to be able to reflect accurately the information about their HIV/AIDS activities and also be able to contribute to on-going monitoring activities at a national and global level as well as to the Sustainable Development Goals.Keywords: HIV/AIDS, indicator, non-governmental organisations, outcome, performance assessment, sport-for-development
    • Mother-to-child transmission of HIV and its prevention: awareness and knowledge in Uganda and Tanzania

      G Poggensee; Epidemiologist in the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin and a senior lecturer at the Charité-University Medicine Berlin.; I Moneta; Physician in the Master Programme in International Health of the Charité-University Medicine Berlin.; G Harms; Professor at the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the Charité-University Medicine Berlin; Institut für Tropenmedizin, Spandauer Damm 130, 14050 Berlin, Germany; C Baryomunsi; HIV/AIDS specialist with UNDP in Kampala; K Schulze; Physician who worked as a researcher in the GTZ-supported PMTCT project in western Uganda in 2001 and 2002; P Mbezi; Physician and the local coordinator of the GTZ-supported PMTCT project in Mbeya region,Tanzania (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2005-10-13)
      Awareness and knowledge about HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and preventive measures in different population groups and health personnel were analysed in future intervention areas in western Uganda and southwestern Tanzania. In Uganda, a total of 751 persons (440 clients of antenatal and outpatient clinics, 43 health workers, 239 villagers, 29 traditional birth attendants) and in Tanzania, 574 persons (410 clients, 49 health workers, 93 villagers, 18 traditional birth attendants) were interviewed.When given options, knowledge on transmission during pregnancy and delivery in women was 93% and 67% in Uganda and Tanzania respectively, and 86% and 78% for transmission during breastfeeding. In Uganda 59% of male interviewees did not believe that HIV is transmitted during breastfeeding. Expressed acceptance of HIV testing was above 90% in men and women in both countries, but only 10% of the clients in Uganda and 14% in Tanzania had been tested for HIV infection. Health workers´ knowledge regarding MTCT was acceptable, while traditional birth attendants´ knowledge on both MTCT and preventive measures was extremely poor. Recommendations on infant feeding were not compatible with WHO recommendations for HIV-infected women. If prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) interventions are to be accepted by the population and promoted by health personnel, thorough orientation and training are mandatory. Key Words:PMTCT, HIV, awareness, knowledge, western Uganda, western TanzaniaRÉSUMÉLa prise de conscience et la connaissance de la transmission mère-enfant du VIH (MTCT) et les mesures préventives parmi les différents groupes de la population et le personnel de santé ont été analysées dans des régions de l\'ouest de l\'Ouganda et le sud-ouest de la Tanzanie où les interventions auront lieu dans l\'avenir. En Ouganda, 751 personnes en tout (440 clients de centres médicaux prénatals et de services de consultation, 43 ouvriers de santé, 239 villageois, 29 préposés traditionnels de naissance) et en Tanzanie, 574 personnes (410 clients, 49 ouvriers de santé, 93 villageois et 18 préposés traditionnels de naissance) furent objet des entretiens. Lorsqu\'on leur a donné des options au choix, la connaissance de la transmission pendant la grossesse et à la naissance chez les femmes était de 93% et 67% en Ouganda et en Tanzanie respectivement et de 86% et 78% pour la transmission à l\'allaitement. En Ouganda, 59% des hommes interviewés ont eu du mal à croire que le virus peut être communiqué à l\'enfant lors de l\'allaitement. Plus de 90% des hommes et des femmes dans les deux pays ont exprimé une acceptation de dépistage du VIH. Cependant, seulement 10% de clients en Ouganda et 14% en Tanzanie ont fait le dépistage. La connaissance des ouvriers de santé concernant le MTCT était acceptable, tandis que la connaissance du MTCT et les mesures préventives chez les préposés traditionnels de naissance fut extrêmement faible. Les recommandations de l\'allaitement de l\'enfant n\'étaient pas compatibles avec les recommandations de l\'OMS pour des femmes infectées. Afin que les interventions PMTCT soient acceptées par la population et promues par le personnel de santé, une orientation et une formation approfondies sont obligatoires. Mots clés: PMTCT,VIH, prise de conscience, connaissance, l\'ouest de l\'Ouganda, l\'ouest de la Tanzanie. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Vol 2(2) 2005:258-266