• Navigating intimate sexual partnerships in an era of HIV: dimensions of couple relationship quality and satisfaction among adults in Eswatini and linkages to HIV risk

      Allison Ruark; Edward C. Green; Amy Nunn; Caitlin Kennedy; Alfred Adams; Thandeka Dlamini-Simelane; Pamela Surkan (Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-01-01)
      Couple relationship functioning impacts individual health and well-being, including HIV risk, but scant research has focused on emic understandings of relationship quality in African populations. We explored relationship quality and satisfaction in Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) using data from 148 in-depth interviews (117 life-course interviews with 28 adults and 31 interviews with 29 marriage counselors and their clients) and 4 focus group discussions. Love, respect, honesty, trust, communication, sexual satisfaction, and sexual faithfulness emerged as the most salient characteristics of good relationships, with both men and women emphasising love and respect as being most important. Participants desired relationships characterised by such qualities but reported relationship threats in the areas of trust, honesty, and sexual faithfulness. The dimensions of relationship quality identified by this study are consistent with research from other contexts, suggesting cross-cultural similarities in conceptions of a good relationship. Some relationship constructs, particularly respect, may be more salient in a Swazi context.
    • Negative stereotypes examined through the HIV and AIDS discourse: qualitative findings from white young people in Johannesburg, South Africa

      Nduna, M; Mendes, J (Taylor & Francis, 2011-07-08)
      Previous studies reporting perceptions of HIV and AIDS by white youth in South Africa suggest both explicit and implicit racial stereotypes and negative attitudes. This paper contributes to the literature on the discourse of racial stereotypes found in discussions about HIV and AIDS. The study was conducted in the suburb of Edenvale, north-east of Johannesburg, South Africa. Three focus group discussions were held with mixed-sex, white middle-class participants aged 16 to 24. Key findings show stereotypes related to cultural knowledge and group character of black youth. Participants spoke negatively of ignorance, illiteracy, traditionalism, backwardness and lack of civilisation among black youth. Black youth were negatively represented as relying on ancestors and traditional healers for guidance. Participants reasoned that black young males were sexually irresponsible and promiscuous, and were spreading HIV intentionally. Thus it is imperative that contemporary HIV prevention interventions in South Africa address anddispel stereotypes reproducing racist discourses.
    • New approaches, new activities and new outcomes in international conferences on HIV/AIDS in Africa – Report of the 3rd African Conference on the social aspects of HIV/AIDS, Dakar, 10 - 14 October 2005

      G Andrews; L Simbayi; D Kaseje; CI Niang; Y Toefy; O Shisana; K Peltzer; Human Sciences Research Council, 69-83 Plein Street, Cape Town, South Africa (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2007-01-18)
      Africa's HIV/AIDS situation remains cause for concern. The impact of HIV is considerable and threatens the survival and development of African societies. Although much has been attempted, the results still leave much to be desired. AIDS is an epidemic that needs to be addressed with much creativity and spirit of initiative. It is against this background that the 3rd African conference on the social aspects of HIV/AIDS brought innovations in the way international conferences are designed, activities implemented and results obtained. The innovations concerned the approach to international conferences and take into account reconceptualising HIV/AIDS so as to encourage holistic approaches and better visibility of vulnerable groups.The activities of the conference were organised in such a way as to get people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), grassroots communities and marginalised groups to play a focal role.The conference offered an opportunity for developing cultural activities that would translate the African cultural concepts that had been identified as important in the HIV situation and response analysis. Interaction at the conference created an opportunity to analyse the various dimensions of the political, cultural and economic determinants. The conference offered food for thought around response construction while singling out the themes of urgency and acceleration of response, synergy construction, and coordination and conception of political responses. Keywords: conference, policies, HIV/AIDS, cultural aspects, responses, determinants Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Vol. 3 (2) August 2006: 424-449
    • Obituary: Dr Dimitri Tassiopoulos

      Soudien, Crain (SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 2017-06-26)
      No Abstract
    • Obituary: Dr Dimitri Tassiopoulos

      Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy (SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 2017-06-26)
      No Abstract
    • Obituary: Dr Dimitri Tassiopoulos

      Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya (Taylor & Francis Group, 2017-01-01)
    • Obituary: Dr Dimitri Tassiopoulos

      Crain Soudien (Taylor & Francis Group, 2017-01-01)
    • Occupational exposure, attitude to HIV-positive patients and uptake of HIV counselling and testing among health care workers in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

      Modupe O. Onadeko; Mary O. Balogun; Olanrewaju O. Onigbogi; Folashade O. Omokhodion (Taylor & Francis Group, 2017-01-01)
      Health care workers (HCWs) are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV. Their attitude to HIV-positive patients influences patients’ willingness and ability to access quality care. HIV counselling and testing (HCT) services are available to inform HCWs and patients about their status. There is little information about HCT uptake and attitude to HIV-positive patients among HCWs in tertiary health facilities in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine occupational exposure and attitude to HIV-positive patients and level of uptake of HCT services among HCWs in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. A cross-sectional design was utilized. A total of 977 HCWs were surveyed using semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires. Nurses and doctors comprised 78.2% of the respondents. Their mean age was 35 ± 8.4 years. Almost half, 47.0%, reported accidental exposure to blood and body fluids (BBFs) in the preceding year. The main predictor of accidental exposure to BBFs in the last year was working in a surgical department, OR = 1.7, 95% CI (1.1–2.6). HCWs aged <40 years, OR = 5.5, 95% CI (1.9–15.9), who had worked for >5 years, OR = 3.6, 95% CI (1.4–9.3) and who work in nursing department, OR = 6.8, 95% CI (1.7–27.1) were more likely to be exposed to BBFs. Almost half, 52.9%, had accessed HCT services. Predictors for HCT uptake were age <40 years OR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1–2.4), having worked for >5 years OR = 1.5, 95% CI (1.03–2.2) and working in medical department OR = 1.7, 95% CI (1.1–2.8). Respondents in nursing departments were more likely to require routine HIV test for all patients, OR = 3.9, 95% CI (2.4–6.2). HCWs in the laboratory departments were more likely to believe that HIV patients should be on separate wards, OR = 3.6, 95% CI (1.9–7.0). HCWs should be protected and encouraged to access HCT services in order to be effective role models in the prevention of HIV/AIDS.
    • On the periphery of HIV and AIDS: Reflections on stress as experienced by caregivers in a child residential care facility in South Africa

      Kesh Mohangi; Chereen Pretorius (Taylor & Francis Group, 2017-01-01)
      Few researchers have investigated how female caregivers of institutionalised children, especially those affected by HIV and AIDS, experience stress. The role played by caregivers cannot be overemphasised; yet caregivers who work in institutions caring for orphaned and/or abandoned children affected by HIV and AIDS, are often marginalised and on the periphery of the HIV and AIDS pandemic. The implication is that insufficient attention or consideration is given to the importance of the role they play in these children’s lives. The objective of the study was to explore how female caregivers of institutionalised children affected by HIV and AIDS experience stress. A qualitative research project with a case study design was conducted. The purposively selected participants from a previously identified care facility were seven females in the age ranges of 35–59. Data was gathered during individual interviews and focus group discussions. Thematic content analysis of the data yielded the following themes: (1) contextualising caregiving as ‘work’; (2) stresses linked to caregiving; and (3) coping with stress. Findings from this study indicated that participants experienced caregiving in an institution as stressful, demotivating, and emotionally burdensome. Moreover, caregivers working in an environment of HIV and AIDS experienced additional stress related to organisational and management impediments, lack of emotional and practical support, inadequate training, discipline difficulties, and lack of respect and appreciation from the children in their care. It is recommended that training and management support as well as personal support and counselling for caregivers in the institutional context could help them to cope better, feel empowered and to potentially elevate their status as valued members of society.
    • Parental HIV disclosure in Burkina Faso: Experiences and challenges in the era of HAART

      Tiendrebeogo, G; Hejoaka, F; Belem, EM; Compaore, PLG; Wolmarans, L; Soubeiga, A; Ouangraoua, N (Taylor & Francis, 2013-10-11)
      Increasingly parents living with HIV will have to confront the dilemmas of concealing their lifelong treatment or disclosing to their children exposed to their daily treatment practices. However, limited data are available regarding parental HIV disclosure to children in Burkina Faso. Do parents on antiretroviral therapy disclose their HIV status to their children? What drives them? How do they proceed and how do children respond? We conducted in-depth interviews with 63 parents of children aged seven and above where the parents had been in treatment for more than 3 years in two major cities of Burkina Faso. Interviews addressed parental disclosure and the children’s role in their parents’ treatment. The rate of parental HIV status disclosure is as high as that of non-disclosure. Factors associated with parental disclosure include female sex, parent’s older age, parent’s marital history and number of children. After adjustment, it appears that the only factor remaining associated with parental disclosure was the female gender of the parent. In most of the cases, children suspected, and among non-disclosers many believed their children already knew without formal disclosure. Age of the children and history of divorce or widowhood were associated with parental disclosure. Most parents believed children do not have the necessary emotional skills to understand or that they cannot keep a secret. However, parents who disclosed to their children did not experience blame nor was their secret revealed. Rather, children became treatment supporters. Challenges to parental HIV disclosure to children are neither essential nor specific since disclosure to adults is already difficult because of perceived risk of public disclosure and subsequent stigma. However, whether aware or not of their parents’ HIV-positive status, children contribute positively to the care of parents living with HIV. Perceptions about children’s vulnerability and will to protect them against stigma lead parents to delay disclosure and not to overwhelm them with their experience of living with HIV. Finally, without institutional counselling support, disclosure to children remains a challenge for both parents and children, which suggests a need for rethinking of current counselling practices.Keywords: : HIV, parental disclosure, children, care and support, counselling, Burkina Faso
    • Parenting experiences of couples living with human immunodeficiency virus: A qualitative study from rural Southern Malawi

      Gombachika, BC; Sundby, J; Chirwa, E; Malata, A (SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 2014-10-07)
      The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has allowed couples living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to live longer and healthier lives. The reduction in the mother-to-child transmission of HIV has encouraged some people living with HIV (PLWH) to have children. However, little is known about the parenting experiences of couples living with HIV (CLWH). The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe parenting  experiences of seroconcordant couples who have a child while living with HIV in Malawi. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 14 couples purposively sampled in matrilineal Chiradzulu and patrilineal Chikhwawa  communities from July to December 2010. The research findings shows that irrespective of kinship organization, economic hardships, food insecurity, gender-specific role expectations and conflicting information from health institutions and media about sources of support underpin their parenting roles. In addition, male spouses are directly involved in household activities, childcare and child feeding decisions, challenging the existing  stereotyped gender norms. In the absence of widow inheritance, widows from patrilineal communities are not receiving the expected support from the deceased husband relatives. Finally, the study has shown that CLWH are able to find solutions for the challenges they encounter. Contrary to existing belief that such who have children depend solely on public aid. Such claims without proper knowledge of local social cultural contexts, may contribute to stigmatizing CLWH who continue to have children. The study is also relevant to PLWH who, although not parents themselves, are confronted with a situation where they have to accept responsibility for raising children from their kin. We suggest the longer-term vision for ART wide access in Malawi to be broadened beyond provision of ART to incorporate social and economic interventions that support the rebuilding of CLWH social and economic lives. The interventions must be designed using a holistic multi-sector approach.Keywords: Malawi, couples, experiences, HIV and AIDS, parentingL’ave`nement de la the´rapie antire´trovirale a permis couples vivant avec le VIH de vivre plus longtemps et en meilleure sante´. La re´duction de la transmission du VIH de la me`re a` l’enfant a encourage´ certaines personnes vivant avec le VIH ont deux enfants. Cependant, on sait peu sur les expe´riences parentales des  couples vivant avec le VIH. Le but de cette e´tude qualitative e´tait d’explorer et de´crire des expe´riences  parentales des couples se´roconcordants qui ont un enfant tout en vivant avec le VIH au Malawi. Les donne´es  ont e´te´ collecte´es abuser des entrevues en profondeur avec des quatorze couples dessein e´chantillonne´s dans les communaute´s matriline´aires et patriline´aires Chiradzulu, Chikhwawa de Juillet jeu. De´cembre 2010.  Les re´sultats de recherche montrent que, inde´pendamment de l’organisation de la parente´, les difficulte´s  e´conomiques, l’inse´curite´ alimentaire, le roˆle des attentes spe´cifiques de genre et des informations  contradictoires des institutions de sante´ et les me´dias au sujet des sources de soutien angoisse leur roˆle  parental En outre, les conjoints de sexe masculin sont directement implique´s dans les activite´s de me´nage,  garde d’enfants et les de´cisions de l’alimentation des enfants, contestant la norme de genre ste´re´otype´s existant. En l’absence de l’he´ritage des veuves, veuves des communaute´s patriline´aires ne rec¸oivent pas le  soutien attendu de la famille du mari de´funt. Enfin, l’e´tude a montre´ que les couples vivant avec le VIH sont  a` l’aise pour trouver des solutions aux de´fis qu’ils rencontrent. Contrairement deux croyance existante que ce  qui ont des enfants de´pendent uniquement sur l’aide publique. Ces revendications sans la connaissance de  contextes socioculturels locaux, peut contribuer a` stigmatiser les couples vivant avec le VIH qui continuent deux  ont des enfants. L’e´tude est e´galement pertinent pour les personnes vivant avec le VIH qui, bien que non les  parents themelves, sont confronte´s a` une situation ou` ils doivent accepter la responsabilite´ d’e´lever les enfants de leurs parents. Nous sugge´rons la vision a` long terme de la the´rapie antire´trovirale large acce`s au Malawi a` eˆtre e´largi au-dela` de la fourniture d’un traitement antire´troviral deux interventions sociales et e´conomiques Incorporer qui soutiennent la reconstruction des couples vivant avec le VIH vie sociale et  e´conomique. Les interventions doivent eˆtre conc¸ues utilisation excessive d’une approche multi-sectorielle  globale.Mots cle´s: Malawi, les couples, les expe´riences, le VIH et le SIDA, la parentalite´
    • Partager l’information sur son statut s&#233rologique VIH dans un contexte de polygamie au S&#233n&#233gal (HIV disclosure in polygamous settings in Senegal)

      Sow, K (Taylor & Francis, 2013-10-11)
      Au Sénégal, où la prévalence du VIH est inférieure à 1 % et la stigmatisation reste importante, 40 % des unions sont polygamiques. L’objet de cet article est de décrire et analyser les motivations, les avantages et les contraintes liés au partage de l’information à propos du statut VIH + , en explorant les particularités relatives aux situations de polygamie. Il repose sur les données d’une recherche qualitative par entretiens approfondis et répétés sur l’expérience du traitement antirétroviral et ses effets sociaux, menée sur une période de 10 ans auprès de personnes sous traitement et de leurs soignants. Les professionnels de santé encouragent les personnes à partager leur statut, surtout dans certaines circonstances telles que la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant; néanmoins ils sont bien conscients des risques sociaux que courent certains patients, notamment des femmes. Certains insistent, d’autres n’interviennent pas auprès de celles qui ne partagent pas avec leur conjoint, tout en soulignant leur dilemme éthique. Les entretiens retracent l’évolution des attitudes des soignants à cet égard. La majorité des femmes mariées commencent par partager leur statut VIH+ avec leur mère, attendant d’elle qu’elle atteste que la contamination n’est pas due à des comportements amoraux et qu’elle participe à la mise en place d’une stratégie. Dans les foyers polygames, les femmes tentent de partager l’information avec leur conjoint, en maintenant le secret au-delà du couple. Certaines craignent la divulgation par leur conjoint auprès des coépouses, dont les attitudes peuvent être très diverses: des récits rapportent le rejet collectif hors du foyer dont certaines femmes ont été victimes; l’annonce est parfois faite de manière progressive en suivant la hiérarchie des positions de chaque interlocuteur dans le foyer; une autre personne rapporte la solidarité montrée par ses coépouses qui lui a permis de maintenir le secret hors du foyer. L’article montre la diversité des situations et leur caractère évolutif tant en matiére de partage du statut qu’à propos des effets sociaux de ce partage.Mots clé: partage de l’information, polygamie, femme, VIH, PTME
    • Partager l’information sur son statut s&#233rologique VIH dans un contexte de polygamie au S&#233n&#233gal (HIV disclosure in polygamous settings in Senegal)

      Sow, K (Taylor & Francis, 2013-10-11)
      Au Sénégal, où la prévalence du VIH est inférieure à 1 % et la stigmatisation reste importante, 40 % des unions sont polygamiques. L’objet de cet article est de décrire et analyser les motivations, les avantages et les contraintes liés au partage de l’information à propos du statut VIH + , en explorant les particularités relatives aux situations de polygamie. Il repose sur les données d’une recherche qualitative par entretiens approfondis et répétés sur l’expérience du traitement antirétroviral et ses effets sociaux, menée sur une période de 10 ans auprès de personnes sous traitement et de leurs soignants. Les professionnels de santé encouragent les personnes à partager leur statut, surtout dans certaines circonstances telles que la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant; néanmoins ils sont bien conscients des risques sociaux que courent certains patients, notamment des femmes. Certains insistent, d’autres n’interviennent pas auprès de celles qui ne partagent pas avec leur conjoint, tout en soulignant leur dilemme éthique. Les entretiens retracent l’évolution des attitudes des soignants à cet égard. La majorité des femmes mariées commencent par partager leur statut VIH+ avec leur mère, attendant d’elle qu’elle atteste que la contamination n’est pas due à des comportements amoraux et qu’elle participe à la mise en place d’une stratégie. Dans les foyers polygames, les femmes tentent de partager l’information avec leur conjoint, en maintenant le secret au-delà du couple. Certaines craignent la divulgation par leur conjoint auprès des coépouses, dont les attitudes peuvent être très diverses: des récits rapportent le rejet collectif hors du foyer dont certaines femmes ont été victimes; l’annonce est parfois faite de manière progressive en suivant la hiérarchie des positions de chaque interlocuteur dans le foyer; une autre personne rapporte la solidarité montrée par ses coépouses qui lui a permis de maintenir le secret hors du foyer. L’article montre la diversité des situations et leur caractère évolutif tant en matiére de partage du statut qu’à propos des effets sociaux de ce partage.Mots clé: partage de l’information, polygamie, femme, VIH, PTME
    • Partager l’information sur son statut s&#233rologique VIH dans un contexte de polygamie au S&#233n&#233gal (HIV disclosure in polygamous settings in Senegal)

      Sow, K (Taylor & Francis, 2013-10-11)
      Au Sénégal, où la prévalence du VIH est inférieure à 1 % et la stigmatisation reste importante, 40 % des unions sont polygamiques. L’objet de cet article est de décrire et analyser les motivations, les avantages et les contraintes liés au partage de l’information à propos du statut VIH + , en explorant les particularités relatives aux situations de polygamie. Il repose sur les données d’une recherche qualitative par entretiens approfondis et répétés sur l’expérience du traitement antirétroviral et ses effets sociaux, menée sur une période de 10 ans auprès de personnes sous traitement et de leurs soignants. Les professionnels de santé encouragent les personnes à partager leur statut, surtout dans certaines circonstances telles que la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant; néanmoins ils sont bien conscients des risques sociaux que courent certains patients, notamment des femmes. Certains insistent, d’autres n’interviennent pas auprès de celles qui ne partagent pas avec leur conjoint, tout en soulignant leur dilemme éthique. Les entretiens retracent l’évolution des attitudes des soignants à cet égard. La majorité des femmes mariées commencent par partager leur statut VIH+ avec leur mère, attendant d’elle qu’elle atteste que la contamination n’est pas due à des comportements amoraux et qu’elle participe à la mise en place d’une stratégie. Dans les foyers polygames, les femmes tentent de partager l’information avec leur conjoint, en maintenant le secret au-delà du couple. Certaines craignent la divulgation par leur conjoint auprès des coépouses, dont les attitudes peuvent être très diverses: des récits rapportent le rejet collectif hors du foyer dont certaines femmes ont été victimes; l’annonce est parfois faite de manière progressive en suivant la hiérarchie des positions de chaque interlocuteur dans le foyer; une autre personne rapporte la solidarité montrée par ses coépouses qui lui a permis de maintenir le secret hors du foyer. L’article montre la diversité des situations et leur caractère évolutif tant en matiére de partage du statut qu’à propos des effets sociaux de ce partage.Mots clé: partage de l’information, polygamie, femme, VIH, PTME
    • Patients-to-healthcare workers HIV transmission risk from sharp injuries, Southern Ethiopia

      Desalegn, B; Beyene, H; Yamada, R (Taylor & Francis, 2012-08-27)
      Background: Accidental needlestick injury rate among healthcare workers in Hawassa is extremely high. Epidemiological findings proved the infectious potential of this injury contaminated with a Human  Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patient’s blood.Objective: This study aimed at estimating the risk of HIV transmission from patients to healthcare workers in Hawassa City, Ethiopia.Method: A probabilistic risk model was employed. Scenario-based assumptions were made for the values of parameters following areview of published reports between 2007 and 2010.Parameters: HIV prevalence, needlestick injury rate, exposure rate, sero-conversion rate, risk of HIV transmission and cumulative risk of HIV transmission.Finding: Generally, healthcare workers in Hawassa are considered to be at a relatively low (0.0035%) occupational risk of contracting HIV – less than 4 in 100,000 of healthcare workers in the town (1 in 28,751 workers a year). The 30 years’ maximum cumulative risk estimate is approximately five healthcare workers per 1000 workers in the study area. Still, this small number should be considered a serious matter requiring post-exposure prophylaxis following exposure to unsafe medical practice leading to HIV infection.
    • People living with HIV and AIDS in everyday conditions of township life in South Africa: between structural constraint and individual tactics

      R Ebrahim-Vally; Department of Anthropology, University of the Witwatersrandge/pj; F Le Marcis; Department of Social Anthropology, University of Victor Segalen – Bordeaux 2 (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2005-05-26)
      The HIV/AIDS pandemic in South Africa has negatively transformed the lives of many in townships and rural areas. People living with AIDS (PWAs) are the socially weakened, whose means of survival include migrating, enduring gender violence, and they are thus confined to living in the margins of society. Using the concept of tactic as defined by de Certeau, this paper shows how anthropology can use the narratives of everyday life to make sense of the different ways the socially weakened create networks of support, find a cure, and generate forms of income or use running away as a means to avoid gender violence. This paper argues that if the State hopes to successfully introduce antiretroviral therapy and so turn everyday logics of survival into long-term strategies, it needs to commit itself firmly to reducing inherited forms of inequalities. Similarly, the State\'s commitment to eradicate poverty also requires it to take cognisance of the different borderline activities the socially weakened regard as avenues of survival. Rather than morally condemn such activity as a wrongdoing, the State should enhance its knowledge of the socio-economic conditions that almost coerce the socially weakened to ‘do wrong\'. The data were collected during intensive fieldworlk carried out in Alexandra township and Diepkloof (Gauteng) in 2001 - 2002, using participant observation and repeated in-depth interviews. Key words: HIV/AIDS, social anthropology, conditions of life, tactics, life narratives, structural constraint. RÉSUMÉ La pandémie du VIH/SIDA en Afrique du Sud a négativement transformé la vie de nombreux individus aussi bien dans les townships que dans les zones rurales. Les séropositifs, souffrant de discriminations, développent des moyens de survie impliquant notamment la migration ou le fait d\'accepter des violences inscrites dans des relations de genre, á l\'instar de ceux qui, nombreux, vivent aux marges de la société sud africaine.A partir du concept de tactique, défini par de Certeau, cet article montre comment l\'anthropologie peut faire usage de récits du quotidien afin de rendre compte de l\'existence de réseaux de soutiens, afin de comprendre comment ceux vivant dans les marges trouvent des soins et génèrent des formes de revenus ou bien utilisent la fuite comme moyen d\'échapper aux violences de genre. Subtiliser, braconner, ‘voler à la tire\', ou vendre des substances illicites sont certaines des tactiques de survie que ceux qui vivent aux marges utilisent pour rester en vie. L\'argument de cet article est que si l\'objectif de l\'État sud africain est d\'introduire avec succès les médicaments antirétroviraux et ainsi de favoriser pour les individus le passage de logiques quotidiennes de survie à des stratégies à long terme, il doit simultanément s\'atteler fermement à la réduction des inégalités socio-économiques héritées du passé. Parallèlement, l\'engagement de l\'État pour l\'éradication de la pauvreté nécessite également de reconnaître que certaines activités illicites ou simplement blâmables constituent des moyens de survie. Plutôt que de condamner moralement de telles activités, l\'État doit améliorer ses connaissances de la matrice socio-économique qui les génère. Les données présentées dans cet article furent collectées lors d\'enquêtes de terrain menées de 2001 à 2002 dans le township d\'Alexandra et à Diepkloof (Gauteng) et reposant à la fois sur une observation participante et des entretiens ouverts répétés. Mots clefs: VIH/SIDA, anthropologie sociale, conditions de vie, tactiques, récits de vie, contraintes structurelles. Sahara J Vol.2(1) 2005: 217-235
    • People’s perceptions of HIV/AIDS as portrayed by their labels of the disease: the case of Botswana

      Mathangwane, JT (Taylor & Francis, 2012-08-27)
      It is typical of societies to come up with their own labels or names to any phenomenon that may befall them in the course of their life time. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has been no exception to this practice. In Botswana most of these labels are either in Setswana or English whereby an Eglish expression is simply adopted and used to refer to HIV/AIDS. This study looks at the different labels or names that have been used to refer to HIV/AIDS in Botswana. It is an attempt to provide insights into perceptions of HIV/AIDS by the local communities portrayed through the naming of this disease. The study demonstrates how, through the different labels, the local communities started in denial distancing themselves from this disease and in some cases associating AIDS with ailments already known to them, cultural practices and taboos. Some of these labels further demonstrate thenegative attitudes that may have fuelled HIV-related stigma in the country. Based on the informants’ responses, the paper further attempts a categorisation of these labels influenced by different attitudes to HIV/AIDS, some of which are self-perpetuating and may continue to be a hindrance to the fight against the disease.
    • Perceived HIV/AIDS impact among staff in tertiary institutions in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

      K Peltzer; Chief Research Specialist at the Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Health of the Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria; N Phaswana-Mafuya; Chief Research Manager at the Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Health of the Human Sciences Research Council in Cape Town (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2005-10-13)
      A descriptive questionnaire-based study was undertaken among staff in tertiary institutions in the Eastern Cape Province.The objective of the study was to explore perceived HIV/AIDS impact on duties at work, staff morale, job satisfaction and workload among a proportionate sample of 872 employees in eight randomly selected tertiary institutions.The results of the study showed that HIV/AIDS impacts negatively on duties at work, lowers staff morale and increases staff workload. Keywords: HIV,AIDS, impact, tertiary institutions, South Africa.R&#201SUM&#201Une &#233tude bas&#233e sur un questionnaire descriptif a &#233t&#233 faite parmi le personnel des &#233tablissements d&#39enseignement sup&#233rieur de la province du Cap de l&#39Est. Le but de cette &#233tude fut d&#39&#233tudier l&#39impact du VIH/SIDA perçu sur les fonctions &#224 remplir dans le lieu de travail, le moral du personnel, la satisfaction professionnelle et la charge de travail parmi un &#233chantillon proportionnel de 872 employ&#233s de huit &#233tablissements s&#233lectionn&#233s au hasard. Les r&#233sultats de cette &#233tude ont montr&#233 que le VIH/SIDA a un impact n&#233gatif sur les fonctions &#224 remplir dans le lieu de travail, qu'il r&#233duit le moral du personnel et qu&#39il augmente la charge de travail. Mots cl&#233s: VIH, SIDA, impact, &#233tablissements d&#39enseignement sup&#233rieur, l&#39Afrique du Sud. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, Vol 2(2) 2005: 277-285
    • Perceived influence of value systems on the uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision among men in Kweneng East, Botswana

      Thandisizwe R. Mavundla; Fungai Mbengo; Khanyenda Bruce Ngomi (Taylor & Francis Group, 2020-01-01)
      Botswana is one of the countries in Eastern and Southern Africa significantly impacted by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). To control the spread of HIV, the government in 2009 rolled out the voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programme as an additional HIV prevention strategy with the goal of circumcising 80% of HIV negative men by 2016. However, the country failed to achieve this goal as less than 30% of the targeted men were circumcised by 2016. A study was therefore conducted to explore and describe the factors that are perceived by men in Botswana to influence the uptake of VMMC in order to inform future policymaking and programming on VMMC. An exploratory descriptive, qualitative design was utilised to investigate perceived factors influencing the uptake of VMMC among men. Data were collected from 38 men, aged 18–49 years in Kweneng East, Botswana using semi-structured individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs). Tesch's method of qualitative data analysis was used to code and categorise transcribed data into meaningful themes. Upon analysis, three themes emerged as influencing the uptake of VMMC: (a) the influence of value systems associated with stakeholder consultation in the community; (b) the influence of value systems associated with cultural beliefs and (c) the influence of value systems associated with religious beliefs. The influence of value systems associated with stakeholder consultation in the community was found to manifest in the form of the lack of consultation with men at the inception of the VMMC; the lack of involvement of village elders during the service delivery process and the lack of involvement of women in VMMC. In addition, the influence of value systems associated with cultural beliefs was found to manifest in the form of the lack of openness between parents and children on sexual matters and the lack of traditional leadership support in VMMC. Lastly, the influence of value systems associated with religious beliefs was found to manifest in the form of religious views not in support of the VMMC and religious views in support of the VMMC. It is concluded that value systems associated with stakeholder consultation, cultural beliefs and religious beliefs were the factors influencing the uptake of VMMC among men in Kweneng East, Botswana, and these factors to a larger extent deterred men from using VMMC services. Based on these findings, it is therefore concluded that government and other providers of VMMC should consider the influence of value systems on the uptake of VMMC in order to provide culturally congruent VMMC services and boost of the uptake of VMMC among men in Kweneng East, Botswana.
    • Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the sexually active university students in Zimbabwe

      Nkomazana, N; Maharaj, P (Taylor & Francis, 2014-10-08)
      The study sought to establish university students’ perceptions of risk of HIV infections. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 345 sexually active students at two universities in Zimbabwe (one state and one private).  Results revealed that above a quarter of the respondents felt at risk of getting HIV due to their regular partners’ sexual behaviours and more than half felt at risk of getting HIV due to their casual partners’ sexual behaviours. In addition, a third of the respondents acknowledged the HIV risk due to their own sexual behaviours. More state university respondents felt exposed to HIV infections due to own sexual behaviours than their private university counterparts. Despite these revelations, only 66.56% had earlier thought of their chances of getting infected with HIV. Personal HIV risk perceptions were low, reported by 27.76% of the sexually active respondents. Almost all respondents described their fellows’ sexual behaviours as either risky or very risky.Keywords: university students, HIV risk perceptions, sexual behaviour, ZimbabweL’e´tude visait a` e´valuer la perception du risque d’infection a` VIH des e´tudiants de l’universite´. Une ’e´tude transversale a e´te´ mene´e sur 345 e´tudiants sexuellement actifs dans deux universite´s du Zimbabwe (une e´tatique et une prive´e). Les re´sultats ont re´ve´le´ que plus d’un quart des re´pondants s’estimaient eˆtre expose´s au risque de contracter le VIH a` cause du comportement sexuel de leurs partenaires re´guliers et plus de la moitie´ se sentait exposer au risque de contracter le VIH a` cause du comportement sexuel de leurs partenaires occasionnels. En outre, un tiers des re´pondants ont reconnu qu’ils e´taient expose´s au risque de contracter le VIH a` cause de leur propre comportement sexuel. Il y a eu plus des re´pondants de l’universite´ de l’E´tat qui ont estime´ qu’ils e´taient expose´s au risque d’infection a` VIH a` cause de leur comportement sexuel que leurs homologues de l’universite´ prive´e. Malgre´ ces affirmations, seulement 66,56% s’e´taient de´ja` imagine´ qu’ils e´taient expose´s au risque d’eˆtre infecte´ par le VIH. La perception de contracter le VIH au niveau individuel e´tait faible, c’e´tait reconnu par 27,76% des re´pondants sexuellement actifs. Presque tous les re´pondants de´crivent le comportement sexuel de leurs semblables comme e´tant a` risque ou tre`s a` risque.Mots-cle´s: e´tudiants de l’universite´, risque d’infection a` VIH, comportement sexuel, Zimbabwe