• Sanctuary or double-edged sword? Challenges confronting adolescents living at Nkosi’s Haven in Johannesburg, South Africa

      Dube, N; Ross, E (Taylor & Francis, 2013-01-08)
      Living in an institution associated with HIV and AIDS is likely to exacerbate difficulties experienced by teenagers who have to cope with the normal stresses of adolescence. The aim of the study was to explore the challenges that adolescents living at Nkosi’s Haven encounter and whether they experience any problems when interacting with their peers and other members of the community. The study was located within a qualitative research paradigm and utilised a purposive, non-probability sample of 15 participants recruited from two Nkosi’s Havens. A semi-structured interview schedule was employed as the research tool, with in-depth one-on-oneinterviews adopted as the method of data collection. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data collected during the interviews. The main finding that emanated from the study was that Nkosi’s Haven is indeed a place of care and nurturing as adolescents are afforded the opportunity to continue with their educational needs while basic and psychosocial needs are also addressed. However, it also emerged that rejection, discrimination, social exclusion and stigmatisation associated with the setting make it difficult for resident adolescents to integrate freely with their peers at school and in the community. The conclusion drawn is that Nkosi’s Haven can be regarded as a double-edged sword as it presents both positive and negative factors that impact on its resident adolescents. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for community awareness programmes, policies and practice changes regarding employment and training of staff, and visiting of parents as well as future research.
    • Self-care among caregivers of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kakola location, Nyando District, Kisumu County, Kenya

      Geteri, LM; Angogo, EM (Taylor & Francis, 2014-02-21)
      This study was carried out in Kakola Location of Nyando District in Kenya. The aim of study was to determine the factors influencing the practice of self-care among caregivers for person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) as well as their practice of self-care. A study by World Health Organization approximated that in developing countries, the need for long-term care will increase by as much as 40% in the coming years. HIV/AIDS has been cited as one of the challenges in long-term care. As demand for long-term care increases, the assumption that extended family networks can meet all the needs of their members deteriorates. The community-based survey employed descriptive cross-sectional design, involving primary caregivers of PLWHAs in Kakola location who had practiced care giving for more than 3 months. A household survey was conducted with 150 respondents. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 11.0. Simple frequencies and cross tabulations to compare variables were produced. Microsoft Excel was used to produce tables and graphs. Majority of the respondents 124 (82.7%) were female, while 26 (17.3%) were male. Self-care elements most  practiced by the respondents in all the age categories were infection prevention and nutritional care. Female respondents had the highest proportions in all the practices of self-care. The results also showed that gender, relationship of patient to caregiver and marital status were the main demographic factors that significantly influenced the practice of self-care among caregivers. There was a significant relationship between main sources of income of caregivers with the practice of self-care. The study also revealed that respondents with no education had the lowest number of respondents practicing all the six practices of self-care and  belonging to a support group. Recommendations for the study included, forging partnerships among stakeholders, training of caregivers and review of the home-based care policy.Keywords: self-care, primary caregivers, Kenya, PLWHAs, HIV and AIDS
    • Self-reported adherence to HAART in South-Eastern Nigeria is related to patients' use of pill box

      Chinwe V Ukwe; Obinna I Ekwunife; Patrick O Udeogaranya; Ukamaka I Iwuamadi (Taylor & Francis Group, 2010-07-01)
      The aim of this study was to assess levels of adherence and predictors of adherence to HAART in South-Eastern Nigeria. Selfreported adherence to HAART was assessed at 4-week intervals for a period of 3 months. A 10-item questionnaire was used to assess hypothesised factors in adherence to HAART. The average adherence score for the 3 months of follow-up was correlated with 10-item hypothesised factors and patient demographic variables. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between self-reported adherence and factors found to be correlated with adherence. The average adherence level of subjects that took part in the study was 86.1% ± 30.1%. Use of an adherence aid (pill box) was correlated with adherence (r=0.22, p<0.001, ß=8.3%). The study revealed a slightly higher adherence level compared with most reports in Africa. Use of a pill box could help adherence to HAART, particularly in South-Eastern Nigeria.
    • Self-reported adherence to HAART in South-Eastern Nigeria is related to patients’ use of pill box

      Ukwe, CV; Ekwunife, OI; Udeogaranya, OP; Iwuamadi, UI (Taylor &amp; Francis, 2011-07-07)
      The aim of this study was to assess levels of adherence and predictors of adherence to HAART in South-Eastern Nigeria. Selfreported adherence to HAART was assessed at 4-week intervals for a period of 3 months. A 10-item questionnaire was used to assess hypothesised factors in adherence to HAART. The average adherence score for the 3 months of follow-up was correlated with 10-item hypothesised factors and patient demographic variables. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between self-reported adherence and factors found to be correlated with adherence. The average adherence level of subjects that took part in the study was86.1% ± 30.1%. Use of an adherence aid (pill box) was correlated with adherence (r=0.22, p
    • Serum zinc levels in malnourished children of per-school age attending the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

      OK Nwosu; C Ogbonna; SN Okolo; M Okonji; O Ocheke (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2009-01-07)
      No Abstract.
    • Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

      Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa (Taylor &amp; Francis, 2016-06-20)
      Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8–10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based.Keywords: HIV prevention, sexual abstinence, adolescents, barriers, focus groups
    • Sexual behaviour and condom use among university students in Madagascar

      AI Rasamindrakotroka; L Ranaivoharisoa; OH Rahamefy; M Ravaoarinoro; R Morrisset; M Rivard (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2008-07-14)
      Although the number of known HIV-infected students in Madagascar increased significantly between 1989 and 1995, very little is known about student behaviour with regard to AIDS. The study objectives were: to describe Malagasy students\' sexual behaviour and condom use; to document students\' perceptions about condoms; and to study the relationships between students\' socio-demographic characteristics, their perceptions about condoms, and their condom use. The survey used a cross-sectional design and was conducted at the Antananarivo\'s university campus sites. Anonymous questionnaires were self-administered to 320 randomly selected students. Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Logistic regressions were performed to identify the predictors of condom use. Participants\' average age was 24 years. Approximately 80% of the participants reported sexual experiences, and the average age at sexual debut was 19 years. Only 5.7% reported consistent condom use. Common reasons for non-use were steady relationships (75.6%), the perception that condoms were useful only during ovulation periods (8.7%), and the decrease of pleasure (6.4%). The predictors of condom use were male gender, and the perception that condoms were useful during ovulation periods. Risky sexual behaviours with regard to AIDS were prevalent in this community. An HIV prevention programme is recommended. Bien que le nombre connu des étudiants malgaches infectés par le VIH ait largement augmenté entre 1989 et 1995, l\'information sur le comportement des étudiants par rapport au SIDA est très limitée. Les objectifs de cette étude furent: 1) décrire le comportement sexuel des étudiants malgaches et l\'utilisation du préservatif, 2) documenter les perceptions des étudiants envers les préservatifs, 3) examiner dans quelle mesure l\'utilisation du préservatif par les étudiants varie en fonction de leurs caractéristiques sociodémographiques et leurs perceptions envers les préservatifs. Cette étude a été menée dans les sites du campus universitaire d\'Antananarivo en utilisant un devis transversal. Un questionnaire anonyme a été auto-administré à 320 étudiants sélectionnés au hasard. Des statistiques descriptives et intervalles de confiance à 95% ont été calculés. La régression logistique a été utilisée pour identifier les déterminants de l\'utilisation du préservatif. La moyenne d\'âge des participants était de 24 ans. Environ 80% des répondants ont signalé avoir eu des rapports sexuels et l\'âge moyen de premiers rapports était de 19 ans. Seulement 5,7% ont rapporté l\'utilisation systématique du préservatif. Les raisons de non utilisation furent les suivantes : être dans une relation stable (75,6%), la perception que le préservatif est uniquement utile durant la période d\'ovulation (8,7%) et la réduction du plaisir (6,4%). Le genre masculin et l\'argument d\'ovulation ont été identifiés comme prédicteurs d\'utilisation de préservatifs. Les comportements sexuels à risque vis-à-vis du SIDA étaient prédominants dans cette communauté. Un programme de prévention du VIH est recommandé. Keywords: Sexual behaviour, condoms, HIV, students, Madagascar. SAHARA J Vol. 5 (1) 2008: pp. 28-35
    • Sexual behaviour and condom use among university students in Madagascar

      Onja Holisoa Rahamefy; Michèle Rivard; Madeleine Ravaoarinoro; Lala Ranaivoharisoa; Andriamiliharison Jean Rasamindrakotroka; Richard Morisset (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2008-04-01)
      Although the number of known HIV-infected students in Madagascar increased significantly between 1989 and 1995, very little is known about student behaviour with regard to AIDS. The study objectives were: to describe Malagasy students' sexual behaviour and condom use; to document students' perceptions about condoms; and to study the relationships between students' socio-demographic characteristics, their perceptions about condoms, and their condom use. The survey used a cross-sectional design and was conducted at the Antananarivo's university campus sites. Anonymous questionnaires were self-administered to 320 randomly selected students. Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Logistic regressions were performed to identify the predictors of condom use. Participants' average age was 24 years. Approximately 80% of the participants reported sexual experiences, and the average age at sexual debut was 19 years. Only 5.7% reported consistent condom use. Common reasons for non-use were steady relationships (75.6%), the perception that condoms were useful only during ovulation periods (8.7%), and the decrease of pleasure (6.4%). The predictors of condom use were male gender, and the perception that condoms were useful during ovulation periods. Risky sexual behaviours with regard to AIDS were prevalent in this community. An HIV prevention programme is recommended.
    • Sexual risk behaviour and its correlates among adolescents in Mozambique: results from a national school survey in 2015

      Supa Pengpid; Karl Peltzer (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2021-01-01)
      The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among adolescents in Mozambique. In the cross-sectional ‘Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS)’, 1918 students aged 11–18 years from Mozambique responded to a questionnaire in 2015. More than half (57.4%) of the students ever had sex, 68.4% among boys and 45.8% among girls. Among students who ever had sex, 41.5% had early sexual debut (&lt;14 years), 57.9% had multiple sexual partners, 25.0% had not used a condom and 42.0% had not used birth control at last sex, and 59.4% engaged in multiple sexual risk behaviour. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, alcohol use, school truancy, older age and male sex were associated with multiple sexual risk behaviours. A large number of adolescents in Mozambique reported sexual risk behaviours, emphasising the need for interventions.
    • Sexual risk reduction among Zambian couples

      O Villar-Loubet; D Waldrop-Valverde; SM Weiss; M Mumbi; P Ndubani; DL Jones; S Vamos; N Chitalu (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2010-01-20)
      Zambia has over 1 million HIV infections nationwide and an urban prevalence rate of 23%. This study compared the impact of maleinvolvement in multiple and single session risk reduction interventions among inconsistent condom users in Zambia and the role ofserostatus among HIV-seropositive and serodiscordant couples. Couples (N=392) were randomised into intervention arms. Amonginconsistent condom users at baseline (N=83), condom use increased in both conditions and this increase was maintained over a 12-month period. At 12 months, seronegative men in the multiple session condition increased sexual barrier (male and female condoms)use in comparison with those in the single session condition (F=16.13, p=0.001) while seropositive individuals increased sexualbarrier use regardless of condition. Results illustrate the importance of both single and multiple session risk reduction counsellingamong seronegative men in serodiscordant couples in Zambia, and highlight the differing perception of risk between seropositiveand serodiscordant persons.Keywords: HIV, men, women, Africa, high-risk behaviour, behavioural intervention.
    • Sexual risk reduction among Zambian couples

      Ndashi Chitalu; Phillimon Ndubani; Miriam Mumbi; Deborah L Jones; Stephen M Weiss; Olga Villar-Loubet; Szonja Vamos; Drenna Waldrop-Valverde (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2009-09-01)
      Zambia has over 1 million HIV infections nationwide and an urban prevalence rate of 23%. This study compared the impact of male involvement in multiple and single session risk reduction interventions among inconsistent condom users in Zambia and the role of serostatus among HIV-seropositive and serodiscordant couples. Couples (N=392) were randomised into intervention arms. Among inconsistent condom users at baseline (N=83), condom use increased in both conditions and this increase was maintained over a 12-month period. At 12 months, seronegative men in the multiple session condition increased sexual barrier (male and female condoms) use in comparison with those in the single session condition (F=16.13, p=0.001) while seropositive individuals increased sexual barrier use regardless of condition. Results illustrate the importance of both single and multiple session risk reduction counselling among seronegative men in serodiscordant couples in Zambia, and highlight the differing perception of risk between seropositive and serodiscordant persons.
    • SISTA South Africa: The adaptation of an efficacious HIV prevention trial conducted with African-American women for isiXhosa-speaking South African women

      D Saleh-Onoya; D Lang; TP Walters; ND Braxton; S Sifunda; P Reddy; GM Wingood; R Ruiter; B van den Borne (SAHARA J (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance), 2009-01-07)
      Although new HIV treatments continue to offer hope for individuals living with HIV, behavioural interventions shown to reduce HIV risk behaviour remain one of the most powerful tools in curbing the HIV epidemic. Unfortunately, the development of evidencebased HIV interventions is a resource-intensive process that has not progressed as quickly as the epidemiology of the disease. As the epidemic continues to evolve, there is a need to expedite the development of evidence-based HIV interventions for populations that are often disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS. One mechanism of accelerating the development process is to adapt evidence-based HIV interventions for vulnerable populations. The aim of this paper was to describe the adaptation process of a HIV intervention for African-American women for black South African Xhosa women. For African-American women the intervention was effective in increasing consistent condom use, sexual self-control, sexual communication, sexual assertiveness and partner adoption of norms supporting consistent condom use. Keywords: Intervention, women, cultural adaptation, HIV transmission risk behaviours.SAHARA-J Vol. 5 (4) 2008: pp. 186-191
    • SISTA South Africa: The adaptation of an efficacious HIV prevention trial conducted with African-American women for isiXhosa-speaking South African women

      Dorina Saleh-Onoya; Nikia Danette Braxton; Sibusiso Sifunda; Priscilla Reddy; Robert Ruiter; Bart van den Borne; Tiffany Pennick Walters; Delia Lang; Gina M Wingood (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2008-12-01)
      Although new HIV treatments continue to offer hope for individuals living with HIV, behavioural interventions shown to reduce HIV risk behaviour remain one of the most powerful tools in curbing the HIV epidemic. Unfortunately, the development of evidencebased HIV interventions is a resource-intensive process that has not progressed as quickly as the epidemiology of the disease. As the epidemic continues to evolve, there is a need to expedite the development of evidence-based HIV interventions for populations that are often disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS. One mechanism of accelerating the development process is to adapt evidence-based HIV interventions for vulnerable populations. The aim of this paper was to describe the adaptation process of a HIV intervention for African-American women for black South African Xhosa women. For African-American women the intervention was effective in increasing consistent condom use, sexual self-control, sexual communication, sexual assertiveness and partner adoption of norms supporting consistent condom use.
    • Social and behavioural factors associated with risky sexual behaviours among university students in nine ASEAN countries: a multi-country cross-sectional study

      Yi, Siyan; Te, Vannarath; Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl (SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 2018-08-02)
      While university students are potential human resources, this population group is particularly involved in health risk behaviours. Preventing risky sexual behaviours among them would contribute to prevention of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and unwanted pregnancies, which have posed a great burden on population health. This study was therefore conducted to identify social and behavioural factors associated with risky sexual behaviours among university students in nine ASEAN countries. A multi-country, crosssectional study was conducted in 2015 among university students by a network of researchers in the selected countries. A convenient sampling method and stratified random sampling procedures were employed to select universities and students, respectively. A structured questionnaire was translated into national languages of the participating countries and used to collect data from the selected students in the classrooms. Using STATA, Chisquare test was used to test differences in proportions, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain relative risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with to identify independent social and behavioural factors associated with non-condom use at last sexual intercourse. In total, 8,836 students with a mean age of 20.6 (SD = 2.0) participated in the study. Most of them (98.5%) were unmarried. In all countries, male students were significantly more likely to have two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months compared to female students (4.8% vs. 1.1%, p &amp;lt; 0.001). Female students were significantly more likely to report unprotected sex compared to male students (50.5% vs. 58.8%, p = 0.01). Results of multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that students who reported having two or more partners in the past 12 months were significantly more likely to be male, be aged between 20–30, be current tobacco smokers, be binge drinkers, have severe depressive symptoms, and have been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, compared to students who reported having less than two sexual partners in the past 12 months. Health intervention programmes to prevent and control STIs, especially HIV infection, should focus on university students having the social and behavioural characteristics that are associated with risky sexual behaviours.Keywords: Risky sexual behaviours; unprotected sex; multiple sexual partners; university students; ASEAN
    • Social and behavioural factors associated with risky sexual behaviours among university students in nine ASEAN countries: a multi-country cross-sectional study

      Siyan Yi; Vannarath Te; Supa Pengpid; Karl Peltzer (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2018-01-01)
      While university students are potential human resources, this population group is particularly involved in health risk behaviours. Preventing risky sexual behaviours among them would contribute to prevention of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and unwanted pregnancies, which have posed a great burden on population health. This study was therefore conducted to identify social and behavioural factors associated with risky sexual behaviours among university students in nine ASEAN countries. A multi-country, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 among university students by a network of researchers in the selected countries. A convenient sampling method and stratified random sampling procedures were employed to select universities and students, respectively. A structured questionnaire was translated into national languages of the participating countries and used to collect data from the selected students in the classrooms. Using STATA, Chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain relative risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with to identify independent social and behavioural factors associated with non-condom use at last sexual intercourse. In total, 8,836 students with a mean age of 20.6 (SD = 2.0) participated in the study. Most of them (98.5%) were unmarried. In all countries, male students were significantly more likely to have two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months compared to female students (4.8% vs. 1.1%, p &lt; 0.001). Female students were significantly more likely to report unprotected sex compared to male students (50.5% vs. 58.8%, p = 0.01). Results of multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that students who reported having two or more partners in the past 12 months were significantly more likely to be male, be aged between 20–30, be current tobacco smokers, be binge drinkers, have severe depressive symptoms, and have been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, compared to students who reported having less than two sexual partners in the past 12 months. Health intervention programmes to prevent and control STIs, especially HIV infection, should focus on university students having the social and behavioural characteristics that are associated with risky sexual behaviours.
    • Social and cultural aspects of HIV and AIDS in West Africa: A narrative review of qualitative research

      Samuelsen, H; Norgaard, O; Ostergaard, LR (Taylor &amp; Francis, 2012-08-28)
      With the increasing focus on the role of social aspects of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for an overview of existing research dealing with such issues has become more urgent. The objective of this article is to provide a thematic overview of existing qualitative research on HIV and AIDS in the West African region and to analyze the main researchfindings in order to identify possible gaps and recommend new research themes to inform future research-based interventions. The analysis is based on a total of 58 articles published from 2001 to 2009 in English or French identified through a literature search in seven scientific, bibliographical databases. Searches included terms related to qualitative studies combined with various terms related to HIV/AIDS. The results of this narrative review show that there was a geographical concentration on Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso and Co&amp;#710;te d&amp;#8217;Ivoire and a strong urban bias, with most studies taking place in the capital cities of these countries. The majority of the studies focused on women or women and men; only four articles dealt exclusively with men, of which only two were on men who have sex with men. The main study groups were people living with HIV, young people or female sex workers. Sexual risk-taking and&amp;#160; stigmatization were the themes that were most prominently explored in the articles we reviewed. We conclude that research needs to be strengthened in relation to the analysis of experiences with antiretroviraltherapy and the non-optimal access to treatment in West Africa. Also, more research is needed on men and their exposure to HIV/AIDS, as well as on the role of concurrent partnership in the spread of HIV.
    • Social and economic consequences of HIV and AIDS on children: case study of a high-density community in Harare, Zimbabwe

      Kembo, J (Taylor &amp; Francis, 2011-07-08)
      We present results from a household-based survey that was conducted in Mabvuku, a high-density community in Zimbabwe. The objective of the study was to improve understanding of social and economic consequences of HIV and AIDS on children. Children affected by HIV and AIDS (CABA) formed the treatment group while those not affected by HIV and AIDS (non-CABA) were the control group. We found that many of the differences in the socio-economic indicators that we studied between CABA and non-CABA were not significant. Therefore our results indicate a gloomy scenario for all the children. These results are consistent with existing literature which indicates that the impact of HIV and AIDS is exacerbated by poverty. Based on evidence from this paper, we conclude that programmes and interventions targeted at children should encompass both CABA and non-CABAwithin a framework of sustained commitment to improving the lives of these children. We hope that our findings will be used in the formulation of interventions and strategies to improve the situation of children affected by HIV and AIDS and/or living in impoverished communities
    • Social and economic consequences of HIV and AIDS on children: case study of a high-density community in Harare, Zimbabwe

      Joshua Kembo (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2010-12-01)
      We present results from a household-based survey that was conducted in Mabvuku, a high-density community in Zimbabwe. The objective of the study was to improve understanding of social and economic consequences of HIV and AIDS on children. Children affected by HIV and AIDS (CABA) formed the treatment group while those not affected by HIV and AIDS (non-CABA) were the control group. We found that many of the differences in the socio-economic indicators that we studied between CABA and non-CABA were not significant. Therefore our results indicate a gloomy scenario for all the children. These results are consistent with existing literature which indicates that the impact of HIV and AIDS is exacerbated by poverty. Based on evidence from this paper, we conclude that programmes and interventions targeted at children should encompass both CABA and non-CABA within a framework of sustained commitment to improving the lives of these children. We hope that our findings will be used in the formulation of interventions and strategies to improve the situation of children affected by HIV and AIDS and/or living in impoverished communities.
    • Social capital and the decline in HIV transmission – A case study in three villages in the Kagera region of Tanzania

      Frumence, G; Killewo, J; Kwesigabo, G; Nyström, L; Eriksson, M; Emmelin, M (Taylor &amp; Francis, 2011-07-08)
      We present data from an exploratory case study characterising the social capital in three case villages situated in areas of varying HIV prevalence in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews revealed a range of experiences by community members, leaders of organisations and social groups. We found that the formation of social groups during the early 1990s was partly a result of poverty and the many deaths caused by AIDS. They built on a tradition to support those in need andprovided social and economic support to members by providing loans. Their strict rules of conduct helped to create new norms, values and trust, important for HIV prevention. Members of different networks ultimately became role models for healthy protective behaviour. Formal organisations also worked together with social groups to facilitate networking and to provide avenues for exchange of information. We conclude that social capital contributed in changing HIV related risk behaviour that supported a decline of HIVinfection in the high prevalence zone and maintained a low prevalence in the other zones.
    • Social capital and the decline in HIV transmission – A case study in three villages in the Kagera region of Tanzania

      Gasto Frumence; Japhet Killewo; Gideon Kwesigabo; Lennarth Nyström; Malin Eriksson; Maria Emmelin (Taylor &amp; Francis Group, 2010-10-01)
      We present data from an exploratory case study characterising the social capital in three case villages situated in areas of varying HIV prevalence in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews revealed a range of experiences by community members, leaders of organisations and social groups. We found that the formation of social groups during the early 1990s was partly a result of poverty and the many deaths caused by AIDS. They built on a tradition to support those in need and provided social and economic support to members by providing loans. Their strict rules of conduct helped to create new norms, values and trust, important for HIV prevention. Members of different networks ultimately became role models for healthy protective behaviour. Formal organisations also worked together with social groups to facilitate networking and to provide avenues for exchange of information. We conclude that social capital contributed in changing HIV related risk behaviour that supported a decline of HIV infection in the high prevalence zone and maintained a low prevalence in the other zones.