"I must have heard about the phrase “Japanese doctors’ human experimentations in China” in the course “History of Chinese Communist Party” (with “Marxist Philosophy” and “Political Economy,” a universally required course for college and university students in China then). The phrase, however, did not make much sense to me until sometime in the early 1980s when I watched, together with my fellow medical students, a movie titled “The Black Sun 731” at the assembly hall of Hunan College of Chinese Medicine in Changsha. I cannot remember where the movie was originally made, but not in Mainland China for sure. Horrible images in the movie had given me nightmares for a few nights. Even today I still remember a half-naked frozen Chinese man being checked by a Japanese doctor with a stick in a freezing field of ice and snow. I was horrified, angered, and puzzled. Nevertheless, the most natural question seemed never to occur to me: “How medical doctors who are supposed to relieve human sufferings and save lives can do such things to other human beings?” The whole education we received up to that point had taught that Japanese soldiers, including military doctors, are guizi (devils or monsters), not only enemies of Chinese people but also not really fellow human beings. Like other “class enemies,” they were no more than cruel beasts, belonging to a totally different category."
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