This Journal facilitates the individual and collaborative efforts of hundreds of international researchers who are working to develop innovative and sustainable higher education around the world. The Journal concentrates on the development of degree programmes and the challenges of their recognition, relevance and quality; as well as on teaching, learning and assessment strategies based on a student-centred approach.


The Globethics library contains articles of Tuning Journal for Higher Education as of vol. 1(2013) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • The attitude of students and teachers towards MOOC usage for their academic and professional development: A comparative study of two case study sites

    Panja, Suman Kalyan; Banerjee, Atanu; De, Kamal Krishna; Singh, Ajay Kumar (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
    The massive open online course (MOOC) and online learning concepts have received a lot of attention from educational stakeholders all around the world as a result of COVID-19. Initial studies demonstrated that people may use MOOCs as a tool for academic and professional advancement. This micro-study was conducted at two adjacent national higher educational institutions (HEIs) in India as case study sites (CSS) to learn more about the attitude of the students and faculties there. The research strategy used for the study was a mixed-method approach. To collect data, a tool that was created by the researchers was used. There was a type of atypical relationship between the institutions and the professionals. Comparing CSS2 students and CSS1 teachers to their peers from other institutions, it was discovered that they both displayed more optimistic attitude. The attitude of all four groups were discovered to be favorable. The study served as an example of some educational ramifications in the neighborhoods. Received: 9 June 2022Accepted: 15 April 2023
  • Introduction

    Gobbi, Mary (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
    The papers in this Edition of the Journal comprise nine papers, of which three are related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Together, the papers address the perceptions and experiences of students and their teachers, demonstrating where the views/conceptual understandings of students and their teachers align, where they do not and where stress factors have had an impact. The papers reflect a varied range of participant countries both in terms of the authors, but perhaps more importantly the study sites (Cuba, The Czech Republic, Germany, India, Mexico, Philippines, Slovakia, Spain, and Turkey). Similarly, the programmes of study included Engineering, Mathematics, Tourism, foreign languages, social sciences, and education.Consequently, the methodologies and methods are appropriately diverse, ranging from social network theory, mixed methods, qualitative research complex statistical analyses, evaluation scales like COPE, Hedperf, student evaluations of teaching, student engagement, and Sojkin’s instrument to evaluate the influences upon first- and second-generation university students. The authors have also generated some very informative literature reviews outlining the evidence base and the related conceptual and theoretical issues in their respective fields. While some studies had small samples, their findings may have important feedback for local educational service improvement, even if generalizability could not be claimed, readers may find utility in face validity. The papers also remind us that educational research is challenging, whether in the handling of small cohorts, the complexity of the issues under study or the application of sophisticated measuring tools. None the less, evaluation, audit, practitioner research or large scale studies are all necessary activities if we are to improve our understandings of (1) ourselves as educators/researchers; (2) our students with their motivations, interests and capabilities; (3) the system infrastructures that hinder or support the educational endeavours; and of course, (4) the efficacy of the pedagogies for a given cohort, in a specific programme in a cultural context.
  • The assessment of service quality effect in higher education sector on satisfaction, suggestion, and behavioral intention of university students: The case of Turkey

    Gürbüz, Esen; Bayraktar, Muhammet (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
    The number of enterprises in the service sector is increasing with the time and the market for service sector is expanding. Universities as higher education institutions were affected by these developments in the service sector and have included providing quality service to their internal and external stakeholders as their top priority. Providing quality service in a university affects the satisfaction of students, who are among the most important stakeholders, their intention to suggest university to potential students and to visit after graduation. Hedperf scale was used to measure the service quality at universities and various institutions in different countries. The construct validity of the Hedperf scale was investigated according to the student perceptions at a university in Turkey and it was found with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) that service quality dimensions were classified into four dimensions - academic, non-academic, reputation, and access. Among these dimensions, the effect of academic, reputation and access dimensions on satisfaction, suggestion, and behavioral intention for visiting after graduation was determined, while the effect of non-academic dimension was not determined. Service quality dimensions explain approximately 31% of the variability in overall satisfaction. Access affects satisfaction at the level of β = .322, which is more than other dimensions. It was determined that the service quality dimensions explained 17% of the behavioral intention to “visit the university after graduation” and the effect of access (β = .264) among these dimensions was higher than the other dimensions. University service quality dimensions explain 23% of the intention for “suggest the university to potential students”, and it was determined that the reputation dimension has the strongest effect (β = .367). The research explores the link between service quality and satisfaction, suggestion, behavioral intention and determines the construct validity of the scale developed in a foreign culture. Received: 22 March 2022Accepted: 16 January 2023
  • Editors’ Acknowledgments

    Gobbi, Mary (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
  • Cooperative learning and social cohesion: Study in the 4th year classes of tourism degree of Cuba and Mexico

    Díaz-Pompa, Félix; Hernández-Carreón, Nadia Vianney; Lores-Leyva, Idevis; Ortiz-Pérez, Olga Lidia (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
    The comprehensive training of future professionals is a fundamental objective of Higher Education. In this sense, cooperative learning, while contributing to learning, also favors the development of social competences that promote the social cohesion of the group or class. The objective of this research is to compare two class groups of Bachelor’s degree courses in Tourism from universities in Cuba and Mexico, taking into account the social cohesion achieved from the cooperative learning experience. The Social Network Analysis method is used to obtain those indicators that show the social cohesion achieved by these class groups subject to cooperative learning practices. The results show that the Cuban class group exhibits better results with respect to Mexico. On the other hand, some elements that should continue to be worked on from this experience for the development of social competencies and to achieve greater social cohesion are evidenced. Received: 8 April 2022Accepted: 16 April 2023
  • Tourism and hospitality management faculty satisfaction towards flexible learning: A cross-sectional survey from higher educational institutions in Central Luzon, Philippines

    Miranda, John Paul; Cruz, Maria Anna D. (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
    The present study aimed to assess faculty satisfaction on the delivery of tourism and hospitality management programs in the flexible learning mode at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It employed a purposive sampling design where 85 Tourism and Hospitality Management (THM) faculty members, across 27 Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the Central Luzon, Philippines, participated. While findings indicate that the faculty members are generally satisfied with the conduct of flexible learning in their institutions, they generally agree on items relating to having higher workloads, longer preparation time for a course, lack of human interaction by not seeing students face-to-face, lower participation of students, technical and connectivity problems, and the need to employ creativity and resourcefulness in the development of learning aids. As the better normal ushers in, flexible learning will still be implemented with the addition of limited face-to-face delivery. As such, faculty members play a vital role in the success of program delivery. That is, when they are satisfied with their conditions, students perform better which leads to better learning and outcome. Effective institutional support services are thus key to ensuring quality flexible learning environments. For continuous improvement, recommended actions should constantly be reviewed, modified, and enhanced to respond to uncertainties and the changing times. HEIs need to recalibrate their curriculum grounded on a deeper understanding of flexible learning to address these challenges; capacitate the faculty with innovations available to enhance student engagement; upgrade infrastructure designed to provide timely feedback and to ease out connectivity issues; and lastly, review policies on faculty workload and number of preparations to consider longer preparation time. Received: 29 December 2021Accepted: 8 March 2023
  • Measuring students’ coping with the Brief COPE: An investigation testing different factor structures across two contexts of university education

    Pels, Fabian; Schäfer-Pels, Alina; von Haaren-Mack, Birte (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
    Appropriate instruments are required for professionals in the field of educational psychology to measure students’ strategies to cope with stress. As the results of previous studies are inconsistent, the purpose of the present manuscript was to examine the factor structure of the situational version of the Brief COPE as an economic and flexible coping measure to be used in the domain of university education and health psychology. In a sample of 508 university students, three factor structures were compared across two contexts of university education. Results show that a hierarchical two-level factor structure fits the data best, with relatively stable coping dimensions at superordinate levels and a variety of specific strategies and acts at subordinate levels. The findings support the applicability of the situational version of the Brief COPE in research and non-clinical practice. Received: 11 November 2021Accepted: 16 January 2023
  • Exploring the impact of generational differences on university study decisions in Slovakia

    Nikola Šabíková; Kamila Valentová; Radomír Masaryk; Aleš Neusar; Sokolová, Lenka (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
    Students whose parents did not study at a university (first-generation students) exhibit differences in how they decide whether and what to study, compared to students whose parents attended university. In our study, we looked for possible similarities and differences between these two groups of students. The participants were Slovak students aged from 18 to 22 (N = 357). The data were collected using an online questionnaire. The results showed that it was significantly more important for second-generation students, whose parents had university degree experience, to continue the family tradition when deciding to study than for first-generation students. The results also revealed that the internet is the most important source of information for students when choosing the subject of their studies. At present, higher education institutions strongly compete for students and, consequently, we recommend that universities pay attention to different target groups of students and develop intervention programs aimed at retaining them. It is equally important that universities keep up with the times and provide relevant information on their websites in today’s digital world. Received: 8 March 2022 Accepted: 16 April 2023
  • Editorial

    Gobbi, Mary (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
  • Major increases in teachers’ performance evaluations: Evidence from student evaluation of teaching surveys

    Prieto, Jaime; Guede-Cid, Rocío; Cid-Cid, Ana I.; Leguey, Santiago (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
    Purpose: This exploratory study examined major increases in teachers’ performance evaluations and their immediate impact on next year’s score for those instructors that taught the same subject for at least two years in a row. The purpose was twofold. Firstly, to identify those Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) survey items associated with major increases in teacher evaluations. Secondly, to examine if there is evidence of the use of these SET results by instructors to improve their teaching.Design: The sample comprised SET survey ratings from one university over a five consecutive year period, for a total sample of 13,052 teacher evaluations and 3,893 teachers-subject observations under analysis. Frequency tables and Student’s t-test were used for analysis.Findings: The results highlighted the three SET survey items captured by the dimension of teaching methodology as those most closely related to major increases in teacher evaluations. Regarding the second objective, the results show no generalised response from teachers who experience major increases in SET ratings. This suggests that the use of SET results is either limited or does not have an immediate measurable effect on student satisfaction.Originality/Value: To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to specifically examine major increases in teachers’ performance evaluations and their immediate impact on next year’s score based on evidence from SET surveys. Received: 22 December 2021Accepted: 26 February 2023
  • Understanding critical thinking: A comparative analysis between university students’ and teachers’ conception

    Bezanilla, María José; Galindo-Domínguez, Hector; Campo, Lucía; Fernández-Nogueira, Donna; Poblete Ruiz, Manuel (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
    Critical thinking is a key competence in higher education. However, little is known about the conception that students have of this competence. This study aims to analyze what university students understand by critical thinking and if these conceptions agree with those of university teachers analyzed in a previous study. A total of 263 participants took part in the study. The findings reveal that students tend to consider critical thinking as a competence related to reasoning/arguing and questioning/asking oneself. Also, that students’ conception about critical thinking differs from that of teachers. Whereas students tend to consider critical thinking as related to reasoning/arguing, questioning/asking oneself and, to a lesser extent, to acting/compromising. Teachers, on the other hand, tend to consider critical thinking as related to analyzing/organizing and evaluating. No significant differences were found regarding students’ gender and academic year. These results highlight the importance of considering students’ views when designing the curricula and the learning activities to develop students’ critical thinking. Received: 30 June 2022Accepted: 6 March 2023
  • The influence of remote learning environment and use of technology on university students’ behavioural engagement in contingency online learning

    Dvorakova, Katerina; Emmer, Jaroslav; Janktová, Renata; Klementová, Kateřina (University of Deusto, 2023-05-22)
    The shift of instruction imposed on higher education institutions by the pandemic-related restrictions bolstered the interest in students’ online class participation. This study investigates university students’ engagement in remote foreign language classes during the COVID-19 lockdown. While engagement is a multi-faceted construct, we only aim to explore its behavioural dimension. The authors felt compelled to acknowledge and comprehend their students’ behaviour in contingency online learning (COL). Through a qualitatively oriented exploratory case study, we sought to answer two research questions related to the extent the use of technical equipment and remote physical environment influenced students’ engagement. The study was conducted with students enrolled in regular, in-person Bachelor’s or Master’s degree courses to qualify as teachers of English at primary or lower-secondary schools. The results indicate that the use of technology did not prove to be a significant obstacle to online learning engagement. Concerning the remote physical environment, the learning process was compromised most significantly by the intimate character of the home-working space. We believe that our findings will help educators to rationalise their expectations and formulate best practice recommendations. Received: 7 January 2022Accepted: 16 January 2023
  • Competences in parallax in higher education from multiple standpoints in a Brazilian undergraduate program in International Business

    Pereira, Marcelo Almeida de Camargo; Felicetti, Vera Lucia (University of Deusto, 2022-11-29)
    This article, a summary of a broader doctoral research study by the author, has different research participants, namely: graduates, their employers, professors, the College Dean and the Program Chair. The goal is to identify how these subjects comprehend the teaching and learning processes of professional competences, in the context of a Brazilian higher education program in International Business. For the theoretical reference, we discuss the concept of competence with different theoretical foundations. We present educational tools that promote teaching and learning competences, in addition to addressing competences for the 21st century. Using Textual Discourse Analysis, we deconstruct and categorize the transcribed discussions by the participants. We arrive at units of meaning, which are related to cognition, behavior, management, pedagogy, and technology, among others. Graduates understand competences are developed through work experience. Professors incorporate life and professional problems into their pedagogical practice, in line with the Dean and Program Chair, who claim the use of market values to structure the program curriculum. As for the employers, they conceive of college as background for the development of professional competences, which in their opinion, occurs via work experience. The process of analyzing and connecting the units of meaning led to the development of two emerging categories: culture and technology. They are in constant action and reaction, moving the dimensions necessary for competent action, under the aegis of the technological paradigm. Received: 25 August 2021Accepted: 9 August 2022
  • An investigation of mission differentiation and specialization in Turkish universities in the context of strategic objectives

    Karadağ, Nazife; BALKAR, Betül (University of Deusto, 2022-11-29)
    This study examines and compares the strategic objectives of the universities included in the “mission differentiation and specialization on the basis of regional development” project carried out in the Turkish higher education system and well-established universities in Turkiye. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine how the goal of “mission differentiation and specialization on the basis of regional development” is tried to be realized in the higher education system and whether this goal really brings a difference to the activities of universities. The study was conducted through document review. The universities included in the study were determined by criterion sampling and two different study groups were formed for comparison. The first study group consisted of the universities involved in the mission differentiation project. The second study group consisted of the well-established universities located in various geographical regions of Turkiye. Data were analyzed through the content analysis. The strategic objectives of the universities were examined under the themes of increasing quality in education, increasing the quantity and quality of scientific research, improvement of communication and interaction with stakeholders, strengthening of corporate identity/structure/ensuring institutionalization and internationalization. The strategic objectives of the universities with mission differentiation are also analyzed in terms of leading local and regional development. The results of the research show that universities subject to mission differentiation and well-established universities have different qualifications only in terms of “leading local and regional development” and “strengthening community service studies.” However, there are also points where goals and performance indicators depending on these strategic objectives are resembled. The similarities in the strategic objectives of the universities show that the missions of the universities with mission differentiation and specialization should first be clarified based on a general framework provided by the Council of Higher Education. In line with the guiding framework, universities should establish their unique strategic objectives in the strategic planning process in order to contribute to regional development.  Received: 20 October2021Accepted: 7 October 2022
  • Editors’ Acknowledgments

    Gobbi, Mary (University of Deusto, 2022-11-29)
  • Beyond performance-based budgeting policy in Iran’s public universities: Causes, outcomes, and strategies

    Faramarzi Nia, Zargham; Farhadi Rad, Hamid; Mehralizadeh, Yadollah; Gholipour Soteh, Rahmatullah (University of Deusto, 2022-11-29)
    The main aim of the present study was to analyze the causes, outcomes, and strategies of performance-based budgeting in the Iranian higher education system. To this end, a qualitative approach based on the grounded theory was used. In order to collect reliable data, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with two groups of experts who were selected by purposive sampling method based on the selection of desirable cases. After qualitative content analysis of the collected information via encoding, the detailed report preparation method and comparison with expert opinions were taken into account to validate the findings. At a significance level of 0.0001, the kappa measure of agreement was 0.786. The results showed that finding a suitable mechanism to ensure accountability and transparency in universities was the main focus of performance-based budgeting approach, and its implementation was affected by various factors at the macro level (government) and micro level (university). Positive outcomes of this budgeting model include improved accountability and transparency, project- oriented nature of the model, and improved efficiency and effectiveness. Besides, threat to the nature and independence of the university was possibly a negative consequence of this plan. To use the benefits simultaneously and avoid the negative consequences, various strategies were proposed, including the expansion of the authority, independence, and freedom of the university and the involvement of the university’s senior managers. Received: 10 March 2022Accepted: 15 August 2022
  • Teaching-learning process through virtual mode during the pandemic time: Systematic literature review and gap analysis

    Singh, Ajay Kumar; Meena, Mukesh Kumar (University of Deusto, 2022-11-29)
        PURPOSE: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) was closed temporarily. During this historical lockdown, the face-to-face mode classroom was temporarily got replaced by a virtual classroom. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of nationwide lockdown on the benefits of the virtual classroom for the teaching-learning process for teachers and students due to change in the teaching-learning process in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic.     DESIGN: A total of 893 responses have been used for this study. We have collected data through a structured questionnaire on a Likert scale from 305 teachers and 588 students of Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) from all India levels. Descriptive and frequency statistics, t-test was used in SPSS software to analyze the data collected through the primary source.     FINDINGS: The mean difference between expected benefits from the virtual classroom and actual benefits from the classroom is positive for students as well as faculty members. That indicates the overall mean of expected benefits is higher than the overall mean of actual benefits, and that difference value is 0.250055, with a Sig. (2-tailed) value of 0.036 which is less than 0.05 for teachers and 0.3872827, with a Sig. (2-tailed) value of 0.000 which is less than 0.05 for students. That indicates the significant difference between means of actual benefits and expected. The mean value of the expected benefit is higher than the mean value of actual benefits for 11 pairs and 08 pairs in the case of teachers and students respectively.     DISCUSSION: Technical barriers are the reasons for not being able to attend the expected benefits from virtual classrooms in full capacity by students as well as by faculty members. Poor digital skills of teachers and students, lack of electricity facilities, less availability and accessibility of internet, connection issues, inadequate facilities, training, funding, and unacceptability of technology, etc. were the barriers to online education at the time of closure of colleges due to COVID-19 pandemic Onyema et al. (2020). Students can also have a casual attitude, less attendance, feeling of isolation and less interaction can lead to mental distress, spending more time in front of a computer could be hazardous for health too Surkhali and Garbuja (2020). Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) faculty members, as well as students, were not able to perceive actual benefits in full in comparison to expected benefits due to the presence of challenges in the virtual classroom as moderators. The higher education authorities, colleges/institutes/universities need to fix the above issues to enhance the quality of the teaching-learning process. The higher education authorities, institutes/colleges/universities must work together to resolve the issues and challenges of virtual classrooms to improve their effectiveness of the virtual classroom. Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) may provide technical support, and training to the faculty members as well as students for a better experience in the virtual classroom. Students who are lacking technical infrastructures such as computers/laptops and internet connectivity may be provided by Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) with financial and technical support to these students. Received: 18 November 2021Accepted: 25 October 2022
  • Editorial

    Gobbi, Mary (University of Deusto, 2022-11-29)
  • Preparing for the unexpected in a COVID-19 world: The teaching dilemmas of a mid-semester faculty change

    Gray, Deborah M.; Bond, Jeremy T.; Wicks, Jessica M.; Hicks, Nancy (University of Deusto, 2022-11-29)
    Despite the perceived rarity of mid-semester faculty changes, there is a shortage of literature to guide administrators and faculty on best practices for handing the dilemmas associated with mid-semester faculty changes. This is particularly concerning given the uncertainty of situations like the COVID-19 global pandemic and recent research that finds that future extreme epidemics are likely to happen. This paper seeks to answer two questions (1) What can faculty and administrators do to prepare students who are experiencing a mid-semester faculty change, and (2) What procedures and processes are in place to assist the incoming faculty? Data were collected through a survey of students who had underwent a mid-semester faculty change and interviews with administrators who deal with personnel issues like this one. The data suggest faculty should first meet with students to assess their progress before jumping into an established lesson plan (the opposite of how faculty normally prepare to teach a class). Clear communication about expectations, organization of the course materials, and instructor flexibility was identified as keys to student success during a teaching disruption. These findings align with decades of research on teaching and learning. Administrators should create contingency plans that go beyond the personnel transaction and that help faculty quickly prepare for a transition that is student focused. More research is needed to identify the best administrative processes and procedures to assist faculty in a smooth transition when taking over a course mid-semester. Received: 14 September 2021Accepted: 29 September 2022
  • Achievement emotions of university students in on-campus and online education during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Ghaderi, Esmaeil; Khoshnood, Ali; Fekri, Neda (University of Deusto, 2022-11-29)
    Feelings and emotions play a prominent role in the motivation and academic performance of students. Considering this importance, this study aimed to compare the achievement emotions of students in two educational environments, traditional face-to-face classes and online classes, grown after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve this goal, 92 university students who had the experience of the two modes of education evaluated their emotions in these contexts. The findings indicated that university students had better class-related and learning-related feelings (enjoyment, hope, and pride) in traditional face-to-face education. These students also reported feeling angrier in online classes. Differences in other emotions, such as anxiety, hopelessness, boredom, and shame, were not significant. Test-related emotions of students were rather similar in these two educational contexts. Although traditional face-to-face education produced more positive emotions in students, 29.7% of the students preferred to continue their studies in online mode. Blended education can help students make optimum use of available resources. The findings can be of use to educational policymakers, curriculum planners, teachers, and students. Received: 31 January 2022Accepted: 19 October 2022

View more