• 20th Anniversary of the Bologna Declaration: From overview of processes to ongoing activities and experiences

      Donà dalle Rose, Luigi F.; University of Padova; Serbati, Anna; University of Padova (University of Deusto, 2019-05-29)
      The present Issue comes to the light in May 2019, exactly twenty years after the signing of the Bologna Declaration on May 19th, 1999. For this important event, the Editorial Team of TJHE planned to edit an Anniversary Issue. Meanwhile, the Tuning Academy has also published an impressive book “REFORM! TUNING the Modernisation Process of Higher Education in Europe”, by Robert Wagenaar, Director of the University of Groningen branch of the International Tuning Academy and cofounder of Tuning. Those interested in knowing more about the last three decades of HE policies in Europe will find real pleasure in reading those pages. In such a context, the present Issue relies on two invited papers, plus some ordinarily submitted manuscripts, which witness a grass-root situation, rich in critical awareness and creativeness.Published online: 29 May 2019
    • A 21st Century Imperative: integrating intercultural competence in Tuning

      Deardorff, Darla K.; Duke University (University of Deusto, 2015-12-23)
      Given the increasing demand for interculturally competent graduates and employees, it is incumbent upon the Tuning community to incorporate intercultural competence into Tuning Frameworks. With the growing diversity in the world today, beyond national diversity, intercultural competence cuts across disciplines, subjects, and contexts. This essay highlights the first research-based definition and framework of intercultural competence which can be translated into any subject and context and makes the case for why intercultural competence must be embedded into Tuning Frameworks around the world.Published online: 23 December 2015
    • A Comparative analysis of global competences within the framework of internationalized curricula

      Beneitone, Pablo; Yarosh, Maria (University of Deusto, 2021-05-23)
      An agreement seems to exist that graduates must be equipped with competences required to act successfully and appropriately in a global context. Many authors have proposed lists of competences that could form part of such a graduate profile which must be taken into account when designing internationalized curricula. However, merely listing of a competence does not guarantee that students develop it to the level expected by society. The present article reports on a meta-study based on eight Tuning studies. This meta-study compared the findings across the eight Tuning studies in terms of the different stakeholder groups’ ratings of importance and achievement of 11 global competences – generic competences valued by over 71,000 graduates, employers, students and academics in more than 100 countries and across four continents (Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia). The contribution of the meta-study presented consists in offering a possibility to identify commonalities and differences among the perceptions of the four key stakeholder groups, not only across all the individual studies but also at the level of the four continents – something never accomplished until the present date. In addition, it will help identify the competences that might require particular attention of curriculum designers and teaching teams for students to develop these competences to the level perceived as optimal in different regions of the world. Future research questions are identified with the aim to enrich and validate or fine-tune these initial findings and compensate for the limitations related to the general timeline of the 8 individual Tuning studies that the meta-study built on. Received: 31 March 2021Accepted: 06 May 2021
    • A long way to go … A study on the implementation of the learning-outcomes based approach in the EU

      Birtwistle, Tim; Emeritus Professor of the Law and Policy of Higher Education (Leeds Beckett); Brown, Courtney; Lumina Foundation, USA; Wagenaar, Robert; Director, Tuning Academy, University of Groningen (University of Deusto, 2016-05-31)
      Higher Education institutions have, in the framework of the Bologna Process, been called to re-define their degree programmes on the basis of the learning outcomes approach. This implies a change of paradigm moving from teacher-centred to student-centred education. The Tuning project was set-up in 2000 to develop — through a bottom-up approach — a methodology to achieve this shift. This methodology proved not only to be relevant for Europe, but also for other world regions, including the USA, where Tuning projects were launched from 2009. In 2010 both in the EU and the USA the need was felt to find out whether the intended modernization of learning was actually taking place and how this process was perceived by its main stakeholders. For this purpose a study was initiated, covering the period 2011 to the beginning of 2016, based on the two-pillar approach of quantitative and qualitative instruments. For the study a robust evaluation instrument was developed, consisting of surveys and in-depth interviews implemented by a research team at a selected group of Higher Education institutions, involving management, teaching staff, student counsellors and students. In this paper the outcomes of the EU part of the study are presented, cross referencing to some of the USA study results. The main outcome of the study is that in general limited progress has been made regarding the intended paradigm shift and that key expectations of the reform Process have not been met. This is both the case for Europe and the USA. Although, good practices have been identified, the actual implementation of the student-centred approach is not proceeding beyond a discourse on the paradigm shift and there is no certainty it will be achieved. For Europe there is also a worrying disconnect between the various tiers of the HE sector, ranging from Ministers to students, regarding the actual penetration of the student-centred approach and the education experience of the students. There has been a failure to engage with and convince academic staff about the necessity and advantages of this paradigm shift. Teaching staff are struggling to adjust to the new concepts and paradigm shift and are challenged by no longer being the “knowledge owners” but rather learning facilitators. It does not help that the vast majority of staff members have not undertaken professional development for HE teaching. Where staff development has taken place, it is too focused on process, rather than the concepts and benefits of a learning outcomes approach. The outcomes of the study should therefore be perceived as a wake-up call because without additional and continued support in particular for the teaching staff the reform process could fail.
    • A model for the evaluation of competence-based learning implementation in higher education institutions: Criteria and indicators

      Bezanilla, María José; Unviersity of Deusto; García Olalla, Ana María; University of Deusto; Paños Castro, Jessica; University of Deusto; Poblete Ruiz, Manuel; University of Deusto (University of Deusto, 2019-05-29)
      Almost twenty years after the Bologna Declaration was signed, the extent to which universities are embracing competence-based learning is a topic of much interest. This article presents a comprehensive model for the analysis of the implementation of competence-based learning (CBL) in Higher Education. An extensive bibliographic review was carried out on the concept of competence-based learning and on each of its constituent elements, with a view to proposing a model made up of seven dimensions and a set of evaluation criteria and indicators. The areas reviewed were the legal and administrative context, the institutional context, the degree programme planning process (including the individual modules/subjects within it), teaching practices and their assessment, and the review and improvement of the overall process. This explanatory model can be very useful to universities, particularly from Spain and Latin America, for assessing their level of implementation of competence-based learning, and identifying their strengths and areas for development.Received: 11 April 2019Accepted: 20 May 2019Published online: 29 May 2019
    • A Model for the Regionalization of Higher Education: The Role and Contribution of Tuning

      Knight, Jane; Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canada (University of Deusto, 2014-04-07)
      A notable evolution in the internationalization of higher education in the last decade has been the increasing emphasis on regional level collaboration and reform initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to examine the process of regionalization through the lens of a conceptual model and to demonstrate how different Tuning initiatives serve as useful instruments in the application of the model, and the ultimate realization of higher education regionalization. The evolving nature and meaning of region and regionalization are explored in the first section of the paper. This leads to an analysis and conceptual mapping of the many terms used to describe the phenomenon. The proposed model is based on three distinct but complementary approaches; Functional, Organizational and Political Approaches (FOPA). The three approaches are inter-related. The model is generic in concept and purpose so that it can apply to the evolving process of higher education regionalization in different parts of the world. The article examines how the initiatives and implications of the Tuning process are directly related to the model and consequently make important contributions to the regionalization of higher education in all regions of the world.Published online: 4 July 2014
    • A new paradigm for Political Studies: competence-based teaching and learning

      Groth, Terrie R.; University of Brasília (University of Deusto, 2015-06-30)
      For some decades, students and scholars of Political Science have debated methodological differences, paradigmatic differences, and policy differences as they relate to curricula. Today, the real challenges facing the teaching of Political Science have less to do with content and much more to do with form and process. The next transformation in teaching and learning must address what kind of political scientist we wish to be, which kind of Political Science we need to create. Our argument advances in three moments. First, we sketch contemporary contexts for analyzing teaching and learning, musing about old and new paradigmatic/methodological debates and the new social-technological contexts of undergraduate learning. Second, we discuss conceptions of competencies in the U.S., Europe, and in relation to a specific Political Science program in Brazil. Third, we dare to sketch a “metaprofile” of the “good political scientist”, modeled on the work of the ALFA Tuning Project of the European Commission and reflections on related Brazilian and Latin American experiences.Published online: 30 June 2015
    • Adapting the Tuning Programme Profiles to the Needs of Russian Higher Education

      Karavayeva, Yevgeniya V.; Lomonossov Moscow State University; Kovtun, Yelena N.; Lomonossov Moscow State University (University of Deusto, 2014-04-07)
      This article considers how TUNING-compatible programme profiles could be developed in the Russian Federation in the context of: on-going reform of the higher education; introduction of the new generation of Federal State Educational Standards (FSES); development of the new professional standards; implementation of a system of public accreditation of educational programmes; and a complex system of educational quality assessment. It also analyses the results of monitoring of the effectiveness of FSES implementation in the system of Russian higher education by the Association of the Classical Universities of Russia (ACUR) that identified a number of problems in the area of programme design and implementation related to drawbacks within the current FSES. Based on the experience gained during the implementation of the TUNING RUSSIA Project (2010-2013), this article demonstrates the usefulness of the TUNING basic principles and approaches and suggests the ways TUNING profile development methodology might be successfully adapted and applied for designing educational programmes in the course of the Russian higher education reform. Creating TUNING-model degree profiles may be crucial to aid the Russian higher education institutions in the development of the new educational programs. Brief but all-encompassing formulation of the aims and outcomes and specific characteristics of an educational programme, listing competences and learning outcomes could permit higher education institutions to move from trying to comply with standards and requirements, which are sent from above but are foreign to the institutions themselves, to adopting the principle of transparency and designing better and more competitive degrees.
    • Algebraic competences and emotional intelligence of first year Bachelor of Science in Mathematics and Science Education students at the Copperbelt University in Zambia

      Musonda, Allan; Copperbelt University (University of Deusto, 2017-11-30)
      This study examined the relationship between algebraic competences and emotional intelligence of first year Bachelor of Science in mathematics and science education students at Copperbelt University in Zambia. All (143) first year Bachelor of Science in mathematics and science education students, in 2016, were purposively selected for the study. The study was motivated by evidence that students generally do not perform well in their first year university mathematics examinations despite the students having very good university entry grades in secondary school mathematics. This poor academic performance may be due to many factors. However, this study identified and focused on emotional intelligence as one such factor. Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to identify, assess and manage the emotions of one’s self, of others and of groups. It is argued that emotional intelligence represents an ability to reason with emotions and to use emotions to facilitate thought. On the other hand, Algebra was chosen as the focus of the study because of its centrality to the whole of first year university mathematics content. Algebra is found in all branches of mathematics directly or indirectly. Therefore, the study explored the algebraic competences of the first year students and examined possible relationships with their emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT), and algebraic competences were measured through a Grade 12 level algebra achievement test and a university level algebra achievement test constructed by the researcher. Data were analysed using non-parametric statistical techniques: Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation (rho) and the Mann-Whitney U Test. Results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between Grade 12 level and first year university level algebraic competences. Results also showed that there is no significant relationship between students’ algebraic competences and their emotional intelligence. Furthermore, the study reviewed that female students have higher levels of emotional intelligence than their male counterparts.First published online: 30 November 2017
    • Algebraic competences and emotional intelligence of first year Bachelor of Science in Mathematics and Science Education students at the Copperbelt University in Zambia

      Deusto International Tuning Academy; Copperbelt University; Musonda, Allan; Copperbelt University (University of Deusto, 2017-11-30)
      This study examined the relationship between algebraic competences and emotional intelligence of first year Bachelor of Science in mathematics and science education students at Copperbelt University in Zambia. All (143) first year Bachelor of Science in mathematics and science education students, in 2016, were purposively selected for the study. The study was motivated by evidence that students generally do not perform well in their first year university mathematics examinations despite the students having very good university entry grades in secondary school mathematics. This poor academic performance may be due to many factors. However, this study identified and focused on emotional intelligence as one such factor. Emotional intelligence is defined as the ability to identify, assess and manage the emotions of one’s self, of others and of groups. It is argued that emotional intelligence represents an ability to reason with emotions and to use emotions to facilitate thought. On the other hand, Algebra was chosen as the focus of the study because of its centrality to the whole of first year university mathematics content. Algebra is found in all branches of mathematics directly or indirectly. Therefore, the study explored the algebraic competences of the first year students and examined possible relationships with their emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT), and algebraic competences were measured through a Grade 12 level algebra achievement test and a university level algebra achievement test constructed by the researcher. Data were analysed using non-parametric statistical techniques: Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation (rho) and the Mann-Whitney U Test. Results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between Grade 12 level and first year university level algebraic competences. Results also showed that there is no significant relationship between students’ algebraic competences and their emotional intelligence. Furthermore, the study reviewed that female students have higher levels of emotional intelligence than their male counterparts.First published online: 30 November 2017
    • An examination of the relationship between competences and wages of higher education graduates: Evidence from Morocco

      Ahmed Nejmeddine, President of University Hassan I; Superior Council of Higher Education of Morocco; Tuning Academy: Tuning Africa Project; Abaida, Abdellah; University of Hassan I; Lakrari, Youssef; University of Hassan I; Abdouni, Abdeljabbar; University of Hassan I (University of Deusto, 2017-11-30)
      To provide research insights in line with the Tuning project approach, we estimate the effects of competences on wages of higher education graduates with work experience. Using the conventional earnings regressions methods (Mincer equation) on data from a survey of graduates, we investigate the way in which the labour market reacts and rewards competences. The results show small significant evidence for an effect of competences on wages in our dataset; however, methodological and social skills display positive payoff returns. Our empirical findings also suggest that the labour market rewards less specialised competences, and unlikely methodological and social competences are deemed more necessary compared to cognitive skills (theoretical knowledge). Finally, wages tend to decrease for those who are female and working in the private sector. Overall, the findings of the study are highly related to the specification and structure of the Moroccan labour markets.First published online: 30 November 2017
    • An examination of the relationship between competences and wages of higher education graduates: Evidence from Morocco

      Abaida, Abdellah; University of Hassan I; Lakrari, Youssef; University of Hassan I; Abdouni, Abdeljabbar; University Hassan I (University of Deusto, 2017-11-30)
      To provide research insights in line with the Tuning project approach, we estimate the effects of competences on wages of higher education graduates with work experience. Using the conventional earnings regressions methods (Mincer equation) on data from a survey of graduates, we investigate the way in which the labour market reacts and rewards competences. The results show small significant evidence for an effect of competences on wages in our dataset; however, methodological and social skills display positive payoff returns. Our empirical findings also suggest that the labour market rewards less specialised competences, and unlikely methodological and social competences are deemed more necessary compared to cognitive skills (theoretical knowledge). Finally, wages tend to decrease for those who are female and working in the private sector. Overall, the findings of the study are highly related to the specification and structure of the Moroccan labour markets.First published online: 30 November 2017
    • An exploration of the ‘African (Union Commission’s) perspective’ of quality and quality assurance in higher education: Latent voices in the African Quality Rating Mechanism (AQRM)

      Nabaho, Lazarus; Uganda Management Institute; Turyasingura, Wilberforce; Uganda Management Institute (University of Deusto, 2019-05-29)
      Quality assurance of African higher education is at the top of the region’s development agenda. Prompted by the imperative to enhance the quality of higher education, the Africa Union Commission is implementing the African Quality Rating Mechanism (AQRM). The AQRM is a continental tool that affords higher education institutions an opportunity to conduct self-assessment and compare their performance against similar institutions based on a set of common criteria. The mechanism is envisaged to engender institutional cultures of quality and enhance the quality of African higher education. However, a dearth of knowledge exists about the latent notions of quality in higher education that the AQRM aims to assure and the implicit institutional-level quality assurance practices in the AQRM. Therefore, this interpretivist article, based on a review of the AQRM survey questionnaire, answered the following research question: What notions of quality in higher education and the institutional-level quality assurance practices are inherent in the quality standards of the AQRM survey questionnaire? The findings revealed that quality as fitness for purpose and exceptional are the notions of quality in higher education in the AQRM. Nevertheless, fitness for purpose is the dominant notion of quality and this symbolises an imperative to re-direct higher education to serve social and economic ends. Distinguished (excellent) teacher awards, applied research excellence awards, staff professional development, tracer studies, external examination, and the involvement of key external stakeholders in programme development are the latent institutional-level quality assurance practices in the AQRM. These quality assurance practices are in sync with the notions of quality and aim at bridging the gap between the academy and the labour market. Methodologically, the AQRM survey questionnaire is devoid of benchmarks to inform the rating, and quality assurance practices such as student evaluation of teaching, peer observation of teaching and moderation of examination items are unnoticeable in the survey questionnaire.Received: 28 December 2018Accepted: 19 April 2019Published online: 29 May 2019
    • Analysis of curriculum processes for the development of competencies in engineering education

      Graffigna Vaggione, Ana María; Universidad Nacional de San Juan; Ghilardi, Lucía Mabel; Universidad Nacional de San Juan; Dávila, María Amelín; Universidad Nacional de San Juan (University of Deusto, 2020-05-19)
      This work presents the advances being made on a research project addressing curriculum processes for the development of competencies at the San Juan National University’s Faculty of Engineering (Argentina) in the framework of institutional policies that seek to make its programs of study appropriate for the second generation of accreditation standards. This is an exploratory, descriptive and interpretative study that is currently in the analytic phase, during which time we have carried out a characterization of the study plans currently in force for seven engineering programs in place at the university. In this sense, we describe both the institutional transformation related to the creation of accreditation standards and the perspectives of institutional actors as regards the curriculum design of the San Juan National University Faculty of Engineering’s programs, analyzing the institutional dynamic that emerges from said process.Received: 27 December 2019Accepted: 04 March 2020Published online: 19 May 2020 
    • Building a Higher Education Area in Central Asia: challenges and prospects

      Isaacs, Ann Katherine; University of Pisa (University of Deusto, 2014-12-20)
      In recent years, for a variety of reasons, higher education has begun to be considered much more frequently than previously in terms of ‘regions’, or ‘macro-regions’. Although for decades countries sharing some characteristics, or perceived as geographically or culturally closely related to each other, have promoted forms of cooperation between their higher education institutions (with varying degrees of success), it is now widely accepted that to ‘count’ on the world stage, it is useful for single countries, and especially for smaller countries, to work together with a view to making their systems better able to interact and hopefully to promote, increase and make visible their merits. Of course, in higher education as in many other fields, the regions or macro-regions are not defined once and for all, but are the result of stronger or weaker ad hoc groupings which take into account different factors in different contexts. Central Asia is one such potential region: it does not have unquestioned boundaries, but like other macro-regions, and more so than most, it can be understood and constructed in different ways. A current shared understanding of ‘Central Asia’ is that it is formed by the 4 ex-Soviet Republics of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), plus Kazakhstan. Over the last decade the possibility of building a Higher Education Area in those five republics has been explored, and a large-scale project which uses Tuning methodology to this end is under way. This project, called TuCAHEA (“Towards a Central Asian Higher Education Area: Tuning Structures and Building Quality Culture”), has already elaborated a Central Asian list of Generic Competences and eight Subject Area Groups have formulated their Reference Points and Guidelines. The five Ministries of the five countries have signed a Communiqué indicating their intention to collaborate more closely; a pilot student mobility scheme is soon to start. This article explores the Central Asian experience as an example of the construction of a Higher Education area in Asia, and looks at what the future appears to promise, in terms both of challenges and of positive developments.
    • Building Degree Profiles. The Tuning Approach

      González, Julia; Tuning Academy, University of Deusto; Yarosh, Maria; Tuning Academy, University of Deusto (University of Deusto, 2014-04-07)
      The development of degree profiles is an important art which has become quite specialized in recent years. This article concentrates on the analysis of the importance of the role of degree profiles in the design of degrees and, as a consequence, in Higher Education in general. It analyses, particularly, the work of the Tuning Project and its main processes in relation to profile building. It also gathers together and systematizes the specific contribution of four main components which should be taken into consideration at the time of the creation of new qualifications: two of the components relate to the analysis of social and professional needs and the future trends in the area. Both of these elements provide the relevance which a degree profile should strive to attain. The third component, the reference to the meta-profile, provides a capacity for recognition throughout an entire region and also in relation to the global context. The last element in profile development takes into consideration the university where the programme is anchored, its mission and strengths.Published online: 4 July 2014
    • Changing paradigms: towards competency-assessment in admission to master’s programmes in Europe: a review

      Kouwenaar, Kees; VU University Amsterdam (University of Deusto, 2015-12-23)
      The majority of efforts to improve admission to master’s programmes in Europe for students with a bachelor´s from outside the providing university have been focused on standardization of defined outcomes of bachelor´s degrees and improvement in mechanisms for recognition of diplomas and degree. With growing diversity within and around these master’s programmes, an alternative approach to master’s admission in needed. This article analyses the nature and shortcomings of the standardisation and the recognition approach and reports on the creation of a competency-assessment based approach in the Mastermind Europe project. In that project – part of the EU’s ERASMUS+ programme, Guiding Tools are produced for academic master’s directors who want to base their admission decisions less on recognition of a diploma and more on assessment of the applicants´ competency. The Guiding Tools focus on specific categories of admission criteria, on how they can be brought together in a coherent framework and on IT tools to help organize the process. The guiding tools are accompanied by a short Introductory Note on the Paradigm Shift from diploma-recognition based to competency-based master’s admission.[1] This article[2] is a more elaborate version of that introductory note, reflecting also the progress in thinking and tool development since the start of the project. It is intended both for users of the Guiding Tools who seek more background and detail, and for readers with a general interest in the topic. For users of the Guiding Tools, it may give them additional reasons and arguments that they may find useful to increase commitment in their own university.[1] A competency-assessment approach to master’s admission should not be confused with Competency-Based Education.[2] The author acknowledges the support received from all members of the Mastermind Europe project team; outside the team, special acknowledgement is due to Robert Wagenaar (Tuning) and to Bas Wegewijs (Nuffic/Naric).
    • Changing perspectives in Legal Education: competence-based learning and the possibilities to improve access to justice via mediation skills

      Felix, Loussia P. Musse; University of Brasilia; Azevedo, André Gomma de; University of Brasilia (University of Deusto, 2015-06-30)
      As one of the major Brazilian Law Schools, the University of Brasilia School of Law is at the forefront of a competence-based dispute resolution programme to be used in legal education and within the Brazilian Court system. Changes in Legal Education around the world obviate the need to integrate theoretical and practical perspectives at all levels in the formal training of new professionals in the field of Law. The University of Brasilia School of Law has participated in Tuning Latin America since 2006 and has recently adopted a Curriculum that embraces competence-based learning as part of a major change geared to bringing social, cultural and political effectiveness into the teaching of Law. This paper outlines the challenges facing the adoption of collaborative approaches to dispute resolution in the legal arena and the meta-competences and competences it entails.
    • Collaborative meta-profile development to harmonise mechanical engineering education in Africa

      Sackey, S. M.; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology; Ancha, V. R.; Jimma University; Chinyama, M. P.; University of Malawi; Awono Onana, C.; University of Yaounde I; Danwe, R.; University of Yaounde I; Megahed, M. M.; Cairo University; Delpouve, B.; University of Lille I; Chama, S.; Copper Belt University; Mahomed, N.; Cape Peninsula University of Technology; Kayibanda, V.; Kigali Institute of Technology; et al. (University of Deusto, 2014-12-20)
      This paper describes the contribution of the Tuning Methodology toward harmonisation of undergraduate mechanical engineering programmes in Africa. This methodology is an interactive process in which academics develop high quality curricula and learning standards for students through the identification of generic and subject specific competences in consultation with employers, students, graduates, peers and other stakeholders involved in Mechanical Engineering higher education. The current Tuning process involves academics in 11 universities drawn from across Africa. The aim is to collaboratively contribute to revitalizing and reforming Mechanical Engineering higher education in Africa to make it more responsive to Africa’s developmental needs. The results so far show that such a project is not only highly feasible but also holds promise for establishing compatible academic structures and reference standards across Africa, which would facilitate student and staff mobility as well as enhance cooperation not only among African academic institutions, but also between African institutions and those in the rest of the world. Eighteen generic competences and nineteen mechanical engineering-specific competences are developed, analysed and synergised to form a meta-profile that will inform the next phase of the project, which is the actual curriculum development. This activity is part of “Tuning Africa” project, which is funded through European Union-African Union collaboration.Published online: 20 December 2014
    • Columbus’ Egg? Qualifications Frameworks, Sectoral Profiles and Degree Programme Profiles in Higher Education

      Wagenaar, Robert; Director, Tuning Academy, University of Groningen (University of Deusto, 2014-04-07)
      During the last 25 years international mobility has become paramount in higher education. International and national authorities and higher education institutions have set-up effective structures to facilitate and implement this process. It has become part of a higher education modernization process which obtained a serious push with the start and development of the Bologna Process in Europe as of 1999. However the same authorities have been far less active in finding answers on how to facilitate this process in terms of curriculum development, quality assurance and recognition. The initiative was largely left to individuals supported by their employing organizations. These have proven to be visionaries. Their efforts have led to competence and learning outcomes based descriptors for meta-qualifications frameworks and to important reference points / meta profiles for subject areas. Academics have been strongly involved in developing the latter and by doing so have offered a more sustainable basis for implementing reforms based on the student-centred approach, which is so relevant for today’s world in terms of employability and citizenship. The most recent development has been the development of Tuning sectoral qualifications frameworks which allow for bridging the two European meta-frameworks, the EQF for Lifelong Learning and the QF for the European Higher Education Area, with sectoral and degree profiles. This can be seen as a breakthrough initiative because it offers us a transparent model which is developed and owned by academics and can easily be used by all involved in programme design and development, quality enhancement and assurance and recognition of (periods of) studies.Published online: 4 July 2014