• Legal Ethics, Jurisprudence, and the Cultural Study of the Lawyer

      Anand, Rakesh K. (00)
      In America, law is a cultural practice. Americans are dedicated to living as a community under the rule of law. This commitment to a legal way of life cannot be reduced to an equally strong devotion to a moral form of being. That is, the two dimensions of experience are incommensurable (which does not mean that they are wholly insulated or separate from one another). One consequence of this normative condition is that the demands arising from a commitment to law are not always reconcilable with those stemming from moral beliefs. At the same time, neither obligation has priority over the other. For the individual in his or her role as a lawyer, this indicates that he or she may be required to act in a manner that is not defensible on any moral ground, but is still capable of justification. As an analysis of the character of the lawyer's life, these facts reveal a basic truth: the life of the lawyer is an inherently conflicted, and an absolutely meaningful, one. This argument presents a direct challenge to contemporary legal ethics discourse, in its most essential aspects. In this Article, this argument takes the form of a defense of a new orientation toward our thinking about the practice of law, which is the cultural study of the lawyer (cultural study understood as a type of philosophical anthropology). An in-depth introduction to this line of reasoning is presented, an explanation that appeals to a variety of fields of knowledge, including jurisprudence, epistemology, political theory, and moral philosophy. The goal is to convince the reader of the propriety, and the power, of this form of inquiry into a lawyer's professional responsibility. The benefit is an understanding of lawyer ethics that is both realistic and hopeful.
    • Managerialism, Legal Ethics, and Sarbanes-Oxley Section 307

      Bainbridge, Stephen M.; Johnson, Christina J. (00)
      Prepared for a conference on the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (a.k.a. the "Public Company Accounting Reform and Investor Protection Act" of 2002), this Article focuses on the professional responsibility rules promulgated by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 307 of the Act. According to the theoretical model of corporate governance espoused by all business corporation statutes, a corporation is to be run by its board of directors for the benefit of its shareholders. In practice, however, corporations frequently are run by their top managers for the benefit of those managers. A number of recent trends have empowered boards of directors vis-a-vis management. As this Article's review of the statutory text and its legislative history demonstrates, Congress intended the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to further that trend. We further demonstrate that Section 307 should be understood as part of the Act's overall anti-managerialist intent. Congress sought to enlist legal counsel in strengthening the board. Specifically, Congress directed the SEC to create an up the ladder reporting requirement pursuant to which a firm's legal counsel would report evidence of misconduct to the board of directors, thereby redressing one of the information asymmetries between boards and managers. This Article argues that, as a normative matter, Sarbanes-Oxley Section 307 was well-intentioned. As a practical matter, however, Section 307 seems unlikely to effect significant changes in corporate governance. In our view, the nature of legal practice, the largely unchanged relationship between lawyers and managers, and the problematic approach taken by the SEC to implementing Section 307 suggest that the new legal regime is unlikely to result in significantly better information flows within the corporate hierarchy.
    • Bargaining Ethics, Contract and Collaboration

      Peppet, Scott R. (00)
      This Article combines contractarian economics and traditional ethical theory to argue for a revision of the legal profession's codes of ethics. That revision would replace the existing uniform conception of the lawyer's role with a more heterogeneous profession in which lawyers and clients could contractually choose the ethical obligations under which they wanted to operate. This "contract model" of legal ethics, in which lawyers could opt in and out of various ethical constraints, would lead to greater efficiencies and greater satisfaction for attorneys and clients. In particular, the paper explores the bargainer's problem of sorting honest collaborators from dishonest adversaries, and concludes that the legal ethics codes should be revised to facilitate self-identification by collaborative attorneys.
    • When to Push the Envelope

      Margulies, Peter (00)
      National security lawyers regularly encounter situations where pushing the envelope of international or domestic law seems expedient, desirable, or even necessary. As the present situation at Guantanamo demonstrates, in cases involving the authorization of regimes of detention or interrogation, pushing the envelope can have deeply problematic results. Discounting or disregarding international and domestic norms can erode the integrity of the legal system, lawyers' ethics, and the credibility of the United States around the world. In some cases, however, pushing the envelope may be the appropriate course. The lawyer's guideposts in this uncertain realm where legal doctrine and statecraft meet should be the importance of dialogue, institutional consequences, and harmonization with evolving norms. The paper argues that decisions such as the Emancipation Proclamation, Lend-Lease, and the response to the Cuban Missile Crisis meet these criteria.
    • Institutional and Individual Justification in Legal Ethics

      Wendel, W. Bradley (00)
      Monroe Freedman is well known as a proponent of the "standard conception" of legal ethics - that is, that a lawyer cannot be criticized in moral terms for actions taken in a representative capacity. Surprisingly, however, Freedman has argued that client selection is a decision for which a lawyer may be required to provide a justification in ordinary moral terms. This apparent inconsistency reveals a conceptual distinction in normative ethical theory, which is often blurred, between justifying a practice (in this case, the legal system or some specialized practice such as criminal defense) and justifying an action falling within the practice (here, either actions of a lawyer while representing a client or the decision to accept or decline the representation of a client). A practice as a whole must be justified on the basis of moral concepts, such as consequences, rights, and other values. Once a practice exists, however, particular "moves" within the practice are justified on the basis of the constitutive rules which make up the practice, not on the basis of underlying moral concepts. This is the practice conception of rules, defended by John Rawls in an influential 1955 paper. This paper makes two arguments - one metatheoretical and one a substantive argument within legal ethics. The methodological or metatheoretical argument is that professional ethics should proceed at one level of abstraction or another, but not equivocate back and forth between them. One can give systemic reasons why a lawyer ought to act on rules of a practice, and not on the basis of an all-things-considered moral evaluation of what she ought to do in the situation. Once committed to this style of reasoning, however, consistency demands that the frame of reference for the argument not suddenly be shifted to ordinary moral considerations. On the other hand, one might believe that clarity or some other consideration demands addressing questions of professional ethics exclusively in terms of first-order moral values. If one adopts that stance, however, it is impermissible to appeal to blanket permissions on the basis of the rules of the game. Every action must be justified on an all-things-considered basis. Subtle shifting between the two levels of justification creates unnecessary confusion, and may account for the occasionally frustrating nature of debates in legal ethics, where the participants seem to be talking past each other. Moreover, it is part of the general pattern of ethical justification in the public domain - including political and legal ethics - that the primary focus of evaluation is the institutional structure through which action occurs. This evaluative perspective, which is one rough distinction between political and moral philosophy, excludes from deliberation the full range of reasons that would ordinarily be relevant in practical reasoning. The client-selection debate, like any controversy within legal ethics, should therefore be resolved not as a matter of straightforwardly applying ordinary moral values, but in the way suggested by Rawls, with due attention given to the institutional setting of the action. The substantive argument within legal ethics is that the concept of agency does not require that a practice build in significant opportunities for the exercise of judgment on the basis of ordinary moral values. Reflective self-consciousness, which is constitutive of moral agency, is consistent with opting into a practice at a relatively high level of generality, and considering onself bound by the rules of the game. At the very least, whatever one may say in terms of moral agency, in support of an argument that a lawyer has moral discretion in client selection, can be said in support of an argument that a lawyer ought not to follow the standard conception while acting in a representative capacity. Client selection and representation stand or fall together, from the point of view of their effect on agency. This paper was prepared for a conference at Hofstra Law School in honor of the work of Monroe Freedman, and will appear in the Hofstra Law Review.
    • When the Lawyer Knows the Client is Guilty

      Asimow, Michael; Weisberg, Richard (00)
      This article concerns a classic puzzle in legal ethics: what should a criminal defense lawyer do when the lawyer is certain that the client is factually guilty (usually because the client confessed to the lawyer), but the client insists on an all-out defense? Legal ethicists have struggled with this problem since the Courvoisier case in 1840, but it remains unresolved. This article draws a distinction between strong and weak adversarialism and explains how these two normative positions guide a lawyer's tactical decisionmaking. The article suggests that lawyers should have discretion to choose between the strong and weak positions, depending on context and their personal conscience. Both popular culture and great literature provide interesting perspectives on the strong vs. weak adversarialism dilemma. According to numerous films, television shows and novels, the right answer to the lawyer's dilemma is no adversarialism at all. The good lawyer should betray evil clients to insure that the truth is discovered. Pop culture's no-adversarialism model is a universe few lawyers would care to inhabit but which reflects popular views on the relationship of lawyering to truth. Literature casts doubt on whether a lawyer can know with certainty whether a client is telling the truth. It presents numerous models of successful strong adversarialists and unsuccessful weak adversarialists. Few literary lawyers manage to be both skilled advocates and decent human beings.
    • Ethics for the Ex-Juror

      King, Nancy J. (Paradigm Publishers, 00)
      When jurors complete their service, they often encounter situations in which they must decide whether to reveal or discuss what went on in the jury room during their jury service. In the United States a prohibition of such speech by former jurors would generally run afoul of the First Amendment and be unenforceable. Nevertheless, there are ethical principles that former jurors should consider before speaking about their deliberations. This essay addresses those ethical considerations and canvasses situations in which former jurors might have to choose whether to talk, to whom to speak, and what to say. It concludes with a sample jury instruction on the topic for judges to give to jurors at the end of their service.
    • Managing the Risks of Legal Compliance

      Hasnas, John (00)
      This article contains an overview of the ethical problems and counterproductive aspects of the current federal campaign against white collar crime.
    • An Ethics Critique of Interference in Law School Clinics

      Kuehn, Robert R.; Joy, Peter A. (00)
      Law school clinics play an important role in training future lawyers and in providing legal assistance to traditionally under-represented individuals and groups. In addition to facing the legal issues present in any law practice, law clinic students and faculty are often confronted with ethical issues that lawyers representing poor and unpopular clients sometimes face - outside interference in case and client selection. This article explores the ethical considerations raised by interference in law school clinic case and client selection and limitations on the means of representation lawyers may employ in representing their clients. The article's analysis provides a useful framework for responding to interference with not just law school clinics, but also with legal services lawyers, public defenders, and private practitioners representing poor and unpopular clients and causes.
    • Migrating Lawyers and the Ethics of Conflict Checking

      Tremblay, Paul R. (00)
      Lawyers often leave a practice setting and move to a new practice as their career paths advance or change. The incidence of lawyer migration has increased dramatically in the past decade, as law firms recruit more lateral hires and offer fewer partnership opportunities to their associates. As a lawyer prepares to change employment settings, her prospective new law firm asks her about the clients she has represented in the past. The new law firm must insist on this information, for without it the firm could not screen for possible conflicts of interest. Were the firm to hire a lawyer without such conflict screening, the new lawyer's taint could disqualify the firm from important and lucrative work, and cause great harm to its clients. At the same time, the migrating lawyer owes her clients a strong confidentiality obligation under the Model Rules of Professional Conduct and the law of lawyering. When the prospective new firm asks for information about her clients, the lawyer faces a delicate quandary. Her career interests and her respect for the new firm's conflict policies demand that she provide the requested information; her confidentiality duties seem to require her not to reveal her client's information without their permission. Seeking such permission is often impossible or impractical. This Article investigates this difficult and widespread ethical issue. It begins by identifying five types of information which a new law firm is likely to want from a prospective hire, including information about the prior firm's work but also financial data regarding the lawyer's client billings. It then looks carefully at the Model Rules, the Restatement (Third) of the Law Governing Lawyers, and other authority for insights about which disclosures are lawful and which are not. It concludes that the available authority in fact permits surprisingly little information sharing, but argues that the authority ought to permit carefully defined disclosures which will not present hardships or embarrassment to the migrating lawyer's clients. The Article offers distinctions in information-sharing which can protect the moving lawyer's client confidences while allowing law firms to protect their clients' interests, and offers protocols for performing conflict checks when a lawyer cannot reveal her client's identities without causing them some harm. Finally, the Article offers several discrete changes to the Model Rules, which if adopted would provide clarity to lawyers and law firms engaged in the lateral hiring process.
    • The Myth of Civic Republicanism

      Spaulding, Norman W. (00)
      Ethicists, historians and sociologists have generally accepted the premise that the legal profession did not offer strong, public defenses of the adversary ethic (ethically neutral service of clients) until after 1870 when professional elites sought to rationalize their role in the rise of corporate capitalism. Prior to 1870, it has been argued, the legal profession was dominated by a civic republican ideology in which lawyers conceived their role as a form of public service dedicated to vindicating the interests of justice and morality even if that meant refusing to seek a client's lawful ends. This paper challenges both claims. Surveying antebellum law periodicals, the article reveals a robust debate on the definition and justifiability of the lawyer's role. In particular, the article examines defenses of the adversary ethic that were both more vigorous and far less apologetic than defenses offered today. Moreover, the article shows that the defenses came from legal elites, not simply Jacksonian levelers, and the defenses were couched in the discourse of civic republicanism - suggesting that morally activist lawyering was not the only conception of the role thought to be consistent with civic republican principles.
    • The Problematical Role of the Legal Ethics Expert Witness

      Selinger, Carl M. (00)
      Legal ethics scholars are divided in their willingness to be employed as expert witnesses (or to submit affidavits, be deposed, or prepare public statements that will be released as the opinion of an impartial expert). The admission of testimony on the law governing lawyers, as distinguished from factual testimony on the customary practices of lawyers, would seem to be inconsistent with the common law's traditional exclusion of expert testimony on the law -- an exclusion based on the ability of the court to look up the law itself and on the ability of litigants to retain experts on the law as consultant-advocates rather than as witnesses. This article evaluates the three principal justifications that have been offered for admitting expert legal ethics testimony: the inaccessibility of legal ethics law, the advantage of objectivity, and the advantage of cross-examination. It then goes on to discuss two ethical issues that have arisen for ethics expert witnesses themselves: serving in the same case as both witness and consultant, and giving an opinion without independently examining the facts.
    • Los excluidos, extraña criatura del nuevo paradigma tecno-científico [Excluded, strange creature of new techno-scientific paradigm]

      Thai-Hop, Pablo (Servicios Koinonia, 0)
      "La innovación tecnológica y el proyecto neoliberal, implantado para superar la crisis económica, provocaron una exclusión socio-económica de grandes sectores de la sociedad. De hecho, ante un mundo cada vez más sofisticado y frente a la globalización del mercado, los pobres se van quedando aún más atrasados. Y es en los países menos industrializados, marcados históricamente por el retraso tecnológico, la pobreza y desigualdad social, donde el impacto se torna dramático. Esta exclusión de los sectores pobres de la sociedad y de los pueblos subdesarrollados de la humanidad aparece, en su verdadera faz, como el subproducto de la innovación tecnológica y la economía neoliberal, convirtiéndose en la extraña criatura del mundo moderno. En este artículo, trataremos de analizar solamente dos aspectos: el concepto de excluidos y la evolución asimétrica de la pobreza como una criatura extraña del nuevo paradigma tecno-económico."
    • La realidad de la muerte [Reality's death]

      Corominas, Jordi (Servicios Koinonia, 0)
      "En el animal humano es imposible establecer alguna actitud ante la muerte que pueda considerarse inherente a su naturaleza. Como máximo se podrán identificar algunas tendencias, pues todo deseo de muerte o de inmortalidad innatos, todo trasunto de otra vi da o necesidad de autoengaño connatural, queda en entredicho porque precisamente lo que hace viable la estructura física humana es la apertura a la realidad propia y ajena y el tener que ir estableciendo un sistema de habitudes que responda a los apremios de esta apertura1 . Aun en el supuesto de que encontráremos en todos los seres humanos algunas actitudes tan comunes y permanentes a lo largo de la historia conocida que pudieran inducir a alguien a calificarlas de "naturales" nada nos garantizaría su pe rsistencia en el futuro."
    • El auténtico lugar social de la Iglesia [Real social place of Church]

      Ellacurí, Ignacio (Servicios Koinonia, 0)
      "Contenido: Siendo tan importante este concepto de «lugar social» para la teología y para la praxis cristiana, no ha sido tematizado por muchos teólogos. Este artículo de Ellacuría está enmarcado en el contexto de una década ya pasada, pero permanece iluminador en sus planteamientos teológicos. Sin duda, es uno de los artículos antológicos de su autor."
    • ¿ Esperanza o caos ? [Hope and chaos]

      Richard, Pablo (Servicios Koinonia, 0)
      "Vivimos hoy una acelerada crisis económica, una crisis del sistema; incluso algunos piensan que vivimos una crisis de la modernidad, o más profundamente: una crisis de civilización. También se habla de crisis de paradigmas y de crisis de esperanza. No es una época de cambios, sino un cambio de época. Es también tiempo de derrumbes. Hace poco vivimos -como un caso típico- el derrumbe de la Unión Soviética, y hoy ya empezamos a vivir un derrumbe similar en México, precursor quizás de otros nuevos derrumbes en el norte y el sur. Igualmente sufrimos la agresividad y destructividad de los nuevos "vencedores" en el campo económico y político internacional. Todo esto causa perplejidad, miedo, angustia, dolor social e incluso desesperación. Hay un dicho popular que dice: "Es mejor encender una luz, que maldecir las tinieblas". En este clima de crisis, derrumbe, miedo, agresividad y desesperación, la única actitud humana responsable es la reconstrucción de la esperanza. Pero no una esperanza voluntarista, ideológica o ilusoria, sino una esperanza histórica, real y creadora de alternativas. Este final de siglo (y final también de milenio) quizás no sea un tiempo lleno de certezas, de éxitos y de triunfos, pero sí será un tiempo de construcción de fundamentos y de creación de alternativas. Es un período de transición, donde el poner fundamentos y fortalecer las alternativas nacientes, es tarea ineludible de todas y de todos en esta humanidad sufriente de fin de siglo. En esta exposición veré primero la confrontación entre caos y esperanza, y a continuación, la construcción de fundamentos y alternativas para que podamos soñar todos juntos con un mundo diferente en el siglo XXI. En esta parte nos centraremos en la reconstrucción de la sociedad civil como espacio para la reconstrucción de la esperanza."
    • La Reforma: ¿tragedia o liberación? [The Reformation: tragedy or liberation? ]

      Koch, Kurt (Servicios Koinonia, 0)
      "El 4 de noviembre de 1991 se celebraba en la iglesia de San Lorenzo de la ciudad de Suiza de Sankt Gallen la fiesta de la Reforma. A ella fue invitado el teólogo católico Kurt Koch. Este artículo reproduce el discurso que él pronunció en aquella ocasión ante un auditorio de cristianos de la Iglesia Reformada. No deja de ser sorprendente y a la vez esperanzador que un teólogo católico sea invitado a tomar parte en un acto en el que se festeja el acontecimiento de la Reforma protestante. Es un signo de que los tiempos han cambiado. Pero, como el autor indica, es también indicio de que, por parte de los cristianos reformados existe un interés por conocer el punto de vista católico, incluso en aspectos comprometidos de la propia realidad eclesial. ¿Podrá decirse lo mismo de los católicos? Sea lo que fuere, Kurt Koch no desperdició la ocasión que se le brindaba. Con gran valentía -San Pablo usaría aquí el término «parresía»- dijo en voz alta lo que todo cristiano consciente de la voluntad de Cristo (Jn 17,21) siente en lo secreto de su corazón. El autor hace ante todo una valoración positiva del objetivo que inicialmente pretendía la Reforma y que, al no poderse realizar y convertirse en tragedia por culpa de ambas partes, continúa siendo una tarea prioritaria, de la que depende el ser o no ser, la credibilidad de la Iglesia de Cristo en el mundo de hoy. Luego pasa revista a los bienes que ha aportado y ha de seguir aportando la Reforma al cristianismo en general y a la causa ecuménica en particular. En esto no hace sino glosar las palabras del Vaticano II: «Es necesario que los católicos reconozcan en gozo y aprecien los bienes verdaderamente cristianos, procedentes del patrimonio común, que se encuentran entre nuestros hermanos separados» (Unitatis Redintegratio, 4)."
    • Ideologías neoliberales, análisis críticos y tradiciones cristianas [Neoliberal ideologies, critical analysis and Christian traditions]

      Equipo teológico Justicia y Paz de la Bélgica francófona (Servicios Koinonia, 0)
      "En un momento en el que la mayoría de la humanidad está consciente de los límites de los sistemas marxistas, podría ser útil intentar no perder de vista los límites de los sistemas capitalistas y del liberalismo. Estos sistemas no fun cionan tan maravillosamente como algunos de sus defensores pretenden. Los discursos que exaltan la libertad como ideología no siempre conducen al reparto equitativo de la libertad real. Entre los discursos equilibrados que reconocen la pertinencia de los mecanismos de mercado o que rehusan un Estado tentacular, y las ideologías del liberalismo desenfrenado, hay un abismo que este artículo quiere poner en evidencia."
    • La opción por los pobres. [Option for the poor]

      Vigil, José María (Servicios Koinonia, 0)
      "Pretendemos hacer una evaluación crítica de la situación de la Opción por los pobres (=OP) tanto en su formulación teológica como en su recepción en la comunidad creyente. Partiremos de una delimitación del concepto a base de sus elementos fundamentales (1) de los que deduciremos las características esenciales (2); examinaremos luego su fundamentación teológica (3) su novedad (4) y su «recepción» en la comunidad creyente (5), para concluir señalando perspectivas de futuro (6)."
    • Orden mundial y Liberación [Global order and Liberation]

      González, Antonio (Servicios Koinonia, 0)
      "Es hoy muy frecuente identificar el desmoronamiento del bloque soviético con el agotamiento de alternativas para los movimientos de liberación en el llamado "Tercer Mundo". El objetivo de estas páginas es mostrar que, desde el punto de vista teórico, esta identificación es falsa y que, desde el punto de vista práctico, las tareas que aguardan a los movimientos de liberación, lejos de haberse reducido, se han agravado y han adquirido una dimensión más universal y acuciante. Naturalmente, las consideraciones que se harán aquí son enormemente provisionales, y necesitarán ser ulteriormente ampliadas y profundizadas."