• A ÉTICA AMBIENTAL DE TOM REGAN

      de Almeida, Julia Aschermann Mendes (Universitade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2006-07)
      Aiming to introduce to Portuguese readers a relevant debate on environmental ethics, this paper explains in an introductory way the main concepts, arguments, proposals and the point of view used by Tom Regan to found a genuine environmental ethics. Keywords: Inherent Value, Environmental Ethics, Interests, Life’ Criterion Resumo Tendo por objetivo introduzir o público de língua portuguesa no debate ambientalista internacional, este artigo reconstitui de forma introdutória a concepção de Tom Regan, sua filiação teórica, estratégia de argumentação, conceitos e propostas para uma ética genuinamente ambiental.
    • A Marriage of Convenience? Domestic and Foreign Policy Reasons for the 1943 Soviet Church-State 'Concordat'

      Dickinson, Anna (Keston Institute, 2000)
      "Determined and vicious antireligious persecution in the Soviet Union came to an informal halt after the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. The Russian Orthodox Church played an important propaganda role and earned recognition as a legal person and permission to have a bank account, and bishops were once more appointed to dioceses in Russia and the rest of the Soviet Union. The most important turning-point in church-state relations was, however, a meeting on 4-5 September 1943 where Stalin, Molotov and Metropolitans Sergi, Nikolai and Aleksi met and discussed the concessions that the church needed from the state in order to become a substantial force once more in the ecclesiastical world."
    • A Modern-Day Saint?

      Slater, Wendy (Keston Institute, 2000)
      "The modern world tends not to produce many saints - or at least, not ones officially recognised by organised religions. I And yet the reactions in 1997 to the deaths of two very different women - Diana Princess of Wales and Mother Teresa of Calcutta - showed that modern industrialised societies, despite their largely secular culture, still need saintly figures. The devotees of Mother Teresa regarded her as a living saint and on her death urged the Roman Catholic Church to disregard convention and canonise her immediately. Diana's death, more disturbingly, engendered an instant hagiography of a misunderstood princess who had devoted her life to 'helping others', and turned her into a candidate for popular, if not official, sainthood."
    • A New Role for Religion in Russia's New Consumer Age

      Caldwell, Melissa L. (Keston Institute, 2005)
      "Of all the changes that have marked Russia's transformation in the postsoviet period, one of the most intriguing has been the emergence of a vibrant religious orientation in what was formerly an officially atheistic society. If the Soviet era was characterised by the official secularisation of the state through a series of measures that included disbanding religious organisations, closing churches and synagogues, confiscating church property and executing religious leaders, the postsoviet period has, by contrast, been marked by a resurgence in public religious activity. Both indigenous and foreign religious communities have capitalised on the opportunities for religious freedom that were initiated in the late 1980s, with the reform-oriented policies of glasnost' and perestroika initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev and then continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The state has returned church and synagogue property to their respective religious communities and Russian citizens have begun attending worship services, immersing themselves in religious education and publicly identifying themselves as believers. What is most intriguing, however, about these changes are the ways in which Russians have incorporated religion into their everyday lives and specifically into practices of a decidedly more economic nature."
    • A Reappraisal of the Recent Past in the West

      Hogebrink, Laurens (Keston Institute, 1997)
      "Two years ago 22 people gathered here. There were almost twice as many partici- pants on our list today, although unfortunately not all have come. Is the time now riper? I do not know. In the churches of Central and Eastern Europe a serious reap- praisal of the Cold War past, the division of Europe and the communist period has proved to be very difficult. In the churches of Western Europe such a process never began. On this side we have simply turned the page on 1989."
    • A Self-fulfilling Prophecy

      Hertog, Katrien (Keston Institute, 2005)
      "The Russian invasion was extremely cruel under the famous Russian General Ermolov, who destroyed village after village, massacred, expelled and tortured the population. His campaign of terror in fact fuelled the Chechens' hatred of the Russians, as well as their desire for freedom and their willingness to fight and die for it. The Russian invasion had completely disrupted the traditional way of life. The people were about to lose their independence as well as their identity to the Russian anti-Islamic policies. Moral decadence increased under influence of Russian habits. The ruling house of native Dagestani princes had compromised itself in the eyes of the population by choosing to hold on to their titles in return for their allegiance to the Russians. In short, the beginning of the 19th century in the North Caucasus was marked by social and political turmoil, which constituted a fertile ground for the ideas of the Naqshbandiya."
    • A Vision for Theological Education for Difficult Times

      Kuzmic, Peter (Keston Institute, 1994)
      "In addressing this topic one immediately faces the question: does one focus on 'difficult times' or on 'vision'? What I am going to do is make a few general remarks about how I see the task of theological education within the larger mission of the church in our world. "
    • A "aliança" e a economia patriarcal [The Covenant and the patriarchal economy]

      Aguilar, Ruben (Centro Universitário Adventista de São Paulo (Unasp), 2005)
      "Toda atividade humana e suas relações sociais estão incorporadas na economia. A economia de um grupo social está relacionada com mecanismos de produção, circulação e consumo de bens (K. Polanyi). A circulação de bens é um processo de transferência de produtos (comércio). A transferência depende do valor determinado a cada bem. Segundo as teorias econômicas, o valor de um objeto está associado a sua utilidade e poder de compra: “valor de uso” e “valor de troca” (Adam Smith); e ao trabalho despendido, sendo o “trabalho o primeiro preço do objeto” (K. Marx). Não se deve ignorar o “valor do significado” do objeto (Vautsaki). No estudo da economia das sociedades antigas, em geral, aplicam-se as duas primeiras teorias. No entanto, na sociedade patriarcal, impera uma economia baseada no “significado do valor” dos objetos. Esse significado tem seu princípio na “Aliança” entre Deus e o patriarca Abraão. No período patriarcal, o significado da “Aliança” é o princípio que fundamenta a economia, porque outorga valor aos bens. A relação entre a “Aliança”, como fundamento, e a economia patriarcal, se manifesta na distribuição de bens que ocorre em três esferas: na esfera do direito; do prestigio e da subsistência. Na esfera do direito a circulação de bens ocorre no matrimônio. Na esfera do prestigio, na primogenitura e na transferência da terra. Na esfera de subsistência, os bens circulam na hospitalidade, no comprometimento social, na proteção ao necessitado (leis de proteção), do Ano Sabático, nas instituições familiares como o Jubileu, o Levirato, e o papel do Resgatador. Baseada na “Aliança”, a economia do período patriarcal estabelece uma sociedade única na história (a sociedade patriarcal), onde a circulação de bens não é realizada por mecanismos de compra e venda. Isso quer dizer que nessa sociedade, ninguém compra e ninguém vende" ["All human activity and its social relationship are incorporated in the economy. The economy of one social group are related with means of production, circulation and consuming of goods (K. Polanyi). The circulation of goods is a process of transference of products (trade). The transference depend upon the value determined to each good. According to some economic theories, the value of a product is associated to its utility and capacity of purchase: “use value” and “exchange value” (Adam Smith); and also is related to the work spended, then “the work is the first price of a good” (K. Marx). It not must be ignored the “value of meaning” of a object (Vautsaki). In the study of the economy of ancient societies, in general, are applied the two first theories. But in patriarchal society, rules a economy based in the “value of meaning” of goods. That meaning has its principle in the “covenant” beetwen God and the patriarch Abraham. In the patriarchal period, the meaning of the “covenant” is the principle in which the economy is based because this gives the value to the goods. The relationship beetwen the “covenant” and the patriarchal economy, is manifested in the distribution of goods that occur into three spheres: The sphere of the right, of the prestige and of the subsistence. In the sphere of the right the circulation of goods occur in the marriage. In the sphere of prestige, occur in the primogeniture and the transference of the land. In the sphere of subsistence, goods are transfered in the hospitality, social engagement, protection to the needy (laws of protection), Sabbathical year, family institutions such as the Jubilee, the levirate and the rule of the ransomer. Based in the “covenant”, the economy of the patriarchal period, set up a kind of society unique in the history (the patriarchal society) where a circulation of goods is not accomplished by means of purchase and sale. That means that in this society, nobody purchase and nobody sale"]
    • A "despolitizacào" nasce o tempo todo da vida atual ["De-politicization" is born all the time of the present life]

      Nogueira, Marco Aurélio (Instituto Humanitas Unisinos - IHU, 2005)
      "A democracia atual é uma "vítima" do processo de modernizaçâo do capitalismo. A liberaçao frenética dos mercados, as rápidas mudanças tecnológicas, a mudança do padrao da acumulaçao, a financeirizaçâo do capital, as alteraçôes na dimensao tempo/espaço por conta das tecnologías de informaçao e comunicaçao, tudo isso se combina com uma forte fragmentaçao social, com uma nova fase de individualizaçào, com aquilo que se costuma chamar de "desterritorializaçâo", com o encolhimento do mundo, com a diminuiçao da força e da soberania dos Estados nacionais."
    • A "ingo if Its ahn"

      Ziegler, John (Open Humanities press, 2004)
      "If, as Homi Bhabha writes in the introduction to The Location of Culture, the "study of world literature might be the study of the way in which cultures recognize themselves through their projections of otherness'" (12), then the literature which arises out of colonialism warrants especially close examination. The need to construct Otherness is intensified in colonial relationships, both for the colonizer and the colonized. One must do so in the process of ruling, the other in resisting that rule. For both, the Other provides a site for the "formation of cultural identities understood not as essentializations...but as contrapuntal ensembles, for it is the case that no identity can ever exist by itself and without an array of opposites, negatives, oppositions: Greeks always require barbarians, and Europeans Africans, Orientals, etc." (Said, Culture 52). Imperialist states use this contrapuntal structure of identity to justify subjugation, while colonized peoples use it to spur and sustain resistance movements which require the creation of a national character portrayed, within an opposition to the culture of the oppressor, as in need of revival and reclamation. The operation of these projections of identity becomes particularly interesting in the case of colonial Ireland due to its unique racial and geographic relationship to England. The work of playwright Sean O'Casey, particularly in his Dublin trilogy, offers an opportunity to interrogate the operation and ramifications of cultural constructions of Otherness in an Irish colonial context."
    • A "New" Vision of Marriage as Vocation for the Lutheran Tradition

      Jungling, Laurie A. (Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 2007-02-01)
    • A "Nonreligious" Christianity and An "Atheist" Theology [Editorial Foreword]

      YANG, Huilin (Institute of Sino-Christian Studies (ISCS); Institute for the Study of Christian Culture, Renmin University of China, 2016-05)
      Translated by Chloë F. Starr
    • A "nova era", no caminho de uma ética universal? [The "New Era", in the way of a universal ethics?]

      Lepargneur, Hubert (Faculdade Jesuíta de Filosofia e Teologia, 1996)
      "É-nos difícil separar nossa moral de nosso cristianismo. Contudo, o contexto secular e pluralista de nossa sociedade e época exige tal discernimento para fins de diálogo compreensível. Suspeitamos que nosso primeiro e principal obstáculo venha do fato de que, ao abstrair nossa fé religiosa de nossa conceituação ética, achamos que temos de prescindir de Deus na sistematização. Mas isto não seria confundir as virtudes teologais, sustentadas pela nossa opção religiosa, com nosso relacionamento ontológico, filosoficamente alcançável, com a divindade? Fiquei surpreendido ao reler um artigo meu publicado em 1964 que exprime que se eu tivesse, naquela época, de escrever uma exposição de ética natural, começaria e terminaria pela virtude de religião que nos vincula à divindade, suporte da ética. Talvez tenha hoje menos segurança acerca da religiosidade na modernidade. Agora, perguntamos: Não será que, ao criar um espaço vazio entre a nossa religião teologal e a ética secular do ateu, não temos preparado o terreno acolhedor de uma "Nova Era" (New Age) que resgata nossa inserção individual numa Totalidade significante, que engloba ab mesmo tempo a humanidade e o cosmo, com seus virtuais imperativos ecológicos?"
    • A "teologia inquieta" de Juan Luis Segundo [The "restless theology" Juan Luis Segundo]

      Murad, Afonso (Faculdade Jesuíta de Filosofia e Teologia, 1994)
      "J. L. Segundo tem consciência de que a contribuição para um cristianismo libertador não pode ser reduzido a uma simples apresentação da mensagem cristã em termos de libertação. Uma teologia libertadora é um procedimento complexo que reelabora tanto os temas quanto o método de aceder aos temas. Ele nào separa método de conteúdo. No entanto, detendo-se em determinado momento de sua criação teológica na questão do método, pode aí afirmar, com razão, que o que caracteriza fundamentalmente uma teologia libertadora é o método. Tomemos aqui três pontos a respeito do seu método; apreciação crítica geral, alguns elementos espedficos, e a "teologia do povo objeto."
    • A 'Contract Model' for Genetic Research and Health Care for Individuals and Families

      Sass, Hans-Martin (Eubios Ethics Institute, 2001)
      "The evolving revolution in human genetics knowledge soon will lead to revolutionary modifications in concepts of health and disease, in prediction and prevention, in clinical research, in health literacy of lay persons, and last but not least, in health care and its priorities. Health cannot simply be understood anymore as 'a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity' [13:459], rather as processes of challenge, response, and balancing. Health is not just a status, as the WHO formula suggests. Health results from balancing care with support and access: health-literate and risk-competent care of one's own physical, emotional, and social well being and well feeling, achieved in competent understanding, modification and enhancement of genetic, social and environmental properties, the support of health care professionals and through equal access health care information including predictive and preventive services [9;10]. Bioethics, therefore, needs to focus more the ethics of the lay person in health care matters [1;10]."
    • "A 'D.P.' in Germany

      Pastor, A Latvian (Baptist Ministers Fellowship, 1948)
      "B. Y birth and nationality I am a. Latvian. I lived and laboured in Riga, Latvia, till the autumn of 1944. I am a displaced person in Germany now. This means that I am without a country, without a home, and also, to a certain extent, without human rights. I do not know what the world is going to do with me in the future"
    • A 'Good' Funeral

      Sheppy, Paul P.J. (Baptist Ministers Fellowship, 1997)
      "This brief essay introduces two questions about funerals: *what makes a funeral Christian? * how is this expressed in the shaping of the service? Ron Arm strong In answering each question, I wantto suggest a response which is not customary among Baptists. My first answer will proceed from an understanding about the nature of Christian worship in general. The second answer will be founded upon social, anthropological and contemporary liturgical scholarship. I do not imagine that the answers I give will be congenial to all my readers, but the issues I address are central to the way we approach our pastoral ministry in the time of death and bereavement. What makes a funeral Christian? Many ministers find it difficult to take what they call "non-Christian funerals". I find it impossible. However, we are not talking about the same thing, and the phrase "nonChristian funeral" normally means the funeral of a non-Christian. With these I have no problem. Indeed, I have officiated at the funeral of a Chinese Buddhist without any hesitation - although until now I have not gone into print on the matter!"
    • A (est)ética do cuidado e religiosidade contemporânea [The (cosmetic care and contemporary religiosity]

      Gomes Esperandio, Mary Rute (Núcleo de Estudos e Pesquisa do Protestantismo da Escola Superior de Teologia, 2005)
      "Este estudo coloca em relevo a questão da (est)Ética do cuidado desde a perspectiva religiosa. Mais concretamente, apresenta, através de duas histórias de vida, uma (est)Ética que se delineia e se difunde a partir de um tipo específico de religiosidade que se tem estabelecido no Brasil e no exterior nos últimos 27 anos pela Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus. Desenvolvo, aqui, uma análise do cuidado enquanto oferta e propagação, por essa igreja, de uma técnica para lidar com o sofrimento. Ao focalizar a compreensão de sofrimento que reside nessa técnica, evidencia-se, aí, um modo de ser no mundo. Portanto, uma ética e uma estética da vida. Permeia e conduz a presente reflexão, perguntas tais como: A chamada “Pare de sofrer” e a subseqüente oferta de felicidade apresentada por essa igreja, poderia ser compreendida como prática de “cuidado”, quais as implicações ético-estéticas no modo IURDiano de lidar com o sofrimento?" ["This study sheds light on the question of (est) Care Ethics from the religious perspective. More specifically, it through two stories of life, a (est) Ethics that outlines and diffuses from a particular kind of religiosity that has been established in Brazil and abroad in the last 27 years by the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God. Develop here an analysis of care as supply and spread, for this church, a technique for dealing with suffering. By focusing on the understanding of suffering that lies in this technique, it is evident, then, a way of being in the world. Therefore, an ethics and aesthetics of life. Pervading and leads this reflection, questions such as: The call "Stop suffering" and the subsequent happiness offer from this church, could be understood as a practice of "care", which the ethical and aesthetic implications IURDiano way of dealing with suffering?"]
    • A (in)diferença e (in)tolerância religiosa em escolas públicas municipais de Juiz de Fora [The religious (in)difference and (in)tolerance in public schools of Juiz de Fora]

      Martins, Sueli (Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência da Religião da UFJF, 2013)
      "Em pesquisa desenvolvida sobre a religião no espaço público, que envolve escolas da rede municipal de ensino da cidade de Juiz de Fora, observando o discurso dos professores quanto à questão da laicidade no ambiente escolar, percebemos que, na maior parte das escolas, as questões religiosas não são discutidas, sendo na maioria das vezes escamoteadas. O presente artigo enfocará como as manifestações e presenças de signos religiosos são tratadas no espaço escolar e como é a postura dos dirigentes dessas instituições quanto aos conflitos gerados. A discussão da laicidade se faz necessária para uma tentativa de compreensão destas realidades escolares específicas" ["In research on religion in the public space, developed at public schools in Juiz de Fora, observing the teachers speech on the secularism at the educational environment, we realized that the religious issues are not discussed. This article will focus on how the presence of the religious signs is considered in the academic space and on the behavior of the leaders of the institutions about the conflicts related to religion. It is necessary to discuss the secularism at schools in order to understand their specific realities"]