Now showing items 60187-60206 of 86160

    • R v Latimer 2001 SCC 1

      The Supreme Court of Canada (2001)
      "At its core, this appeal raises a single issue: does Canadian law equally protect the lives of all persons, or does it permit or condone the killing of some because of their physical or mental disabilities? While this appeal technically raises several legal issues concerning criminal law defences, charges to the jury and sentencing, they are sidebars to the fundamental question: was Tracy Latimer a person whose life enjoyed the same protection under Canadian criminal law as that given to every other person in Canada?"
    • (R)Evolusi Guru Pendidikan Agama Kristen dalam Mentransformasi Kehidupan Siswa

      Utomo, Bimo Setyo (STT Intheos Surakarta, 2017-04)
      If we look deeper, one of the most important issues in the education world is that we (as teachers) are not doing the education in the real sense, but merely teach as a formality. Transformation happens only on transfer of knowledge that only involves the role of science teachers and students ignorance. So, the teacher does not give an understanding to the students, but only move a formula or proposition for students to memorize which then will be issued if necessary. Therefore, it is necessary to have r(evolution) which is not only good, but more importantly, can transform the lives of students. We are fully aware that this time, the teacher is an agent of change which has the task of both institutional and non-institutional. Teacheris a person who daily teach spiritual values, norms, morals, ethics, and positive character habituation.
    • R.I

      Comber, L.T. (Baptist Ministers Fellowship, 1948)
      "I TEACH Scripture ,and 'Mathematics in a Grammar School,. and the combination 'is not unusual. M~ny standard mathematical text books have been written by men in Orders. A professor of Semitic languages in the North, well known to us all, recently submitted to me a problem in geometry which he had solved when some of the maths. men of his University had been beaten by it"
    • Rabindranath Tagore

      Thompson, E J (Association Press, 1921)
      Biographical details of Tagore and an enumeration of his philosophical and literary works.
    • Rabindranath Tagore

      Rhys, Ernest (The Macmillan Company, 1915)
      Biography of Rabindranath Tagore
    • Rabindranath Tagore and Ludwig Wittgenstein: Two Sentinels on the Borderlands of Modernity

      Tyler, Peter (Journal of Dharma, 2015)
      "This paper shall explore how two great masters of twentieth century thought engaged with the mid-twentieth century secular agenda and how one influenced the other. One hundred years ago Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889 – 1951), the Austrian philosopher, fought for the Austro-Hungarian army during the First World War and subsequently experienced a personal, professional and philosophical crisis. In the aftermath of the war, as he sought to rebuild his life, he came across the writings of his contemporary Rabindranath Tagore (1861 - 1941), the Bengali poet and social reformer. This paper will explore the impact of Tagore’s work on Wittgenstein and how it opens up new perspectives for theologians today."
    • Race, Class, and Legal Ethics in the Early Naacp (1910-1920)

      Carle, Susan (2002)
      The history of the NAACP is key to American conceptions of how to achieve social change through law. Yet despite the vast literature on the NAACP, no one has explored how the early NAACP navigated traditional legal ethics strictures in developing its innovative test case litigation strategies. In this Article, Prof. Carle examines that question, focusing on the activities of the elite white New York City practitioners who dominated the NAACP's first national legal committee between 1910 and 1920. Prof. Carle shows that this committee was experimenting with litigation strategies that included soliciting clients, advertising legal services to strangers, and staging facts for test cases. At the same time, legal committee members were involved in local bar associations that were enforcing legal ethics prohibitions against solicitation, advertising, and "stirring up" litigation. Prof. Carle explores the world view that allowed these lawyers to champion the NAACP's innovative legal work while simultaneously supporting the bar's traditional legal ethics views. She argues that the committee members' universalist understanding of the public good allowed them to endorse the NAACP's use of innovative litigation techniques while sitting on bar committees that penalized other practitioners for similar conduct, and that their professional and social privilege gave them such freedom to maneuver around inconvenient legal ethics norms in experimenting with new forms of public interest practice.
    • Race, Class, Caste and the Bible

      Kirk, J. Andrew (Religious & Theological Students Fellowship, 1985)
      "On the surface a subject like this may appear straight forward. However, there are a number of potential pitfalls. The Bible provides, for example, no clearly defined reference-point from which to start. This means that any attempt to cross-reference is hazardous. Moreover, the terms used in the title will not be found in Bible diction¬ aries, however sophisticated they may be: neither race, class nor caste are biblical words."
    • Race, discrimination, slavery, nationalism and citizenship in the afro-arab borderlands

      Kwaa Prah, Kwesi (UNRISD, 2001-09-03)
      "This paper attempts to historically trace and raise issues concerning tensions in the Afro-Arab Borderlands, (with particular reference to the Sudan) which are generally avoided in public discussions because too many people regard these issues as sensitive and unsuitable for discussion in polite company. They are however issues which in the light of the establishment of the African Union, the implications and goals of this institution, the ideals implicit in the creation of this institution and the historical tensions in the Afro-Arab Borderlands, are matters whose discussion cannot be wished away or indefinitely postponed. We need to remind ourselves of the fact that, in the historical experience of Africa, two major forms of dominance have been nationally imposed. The first of these was the cultural and political imposition arising out of the Arab conquest of North Africa which started in the 8th century A.D. with the Hejira. The second over-lordship has arisen out of Western expansion and conquests and is of much later vintage mainly dating from the late 19th century. The conquest of North Africa by the Arabs was a slow process, which has been steady over the centuries. Apart from the political implications of conquest, perhaps even more important and in many ways more socio-culturally consequential has been the process of cultural denationalization of African communities in the face of Arab conquest and over-lordship, and the replacement of African cultural institutions by Arabic ones. Possibly the most notable and far-reaching of these cultural denationalization experiences has been the case of the Berbers/Tamasheq in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. The culture of the Berbers/Tamasheq and the language of the people suffered subjugation and denigration from very early in the history of the Arab/African encounter. Recent conflicts, protests and demonstrations in Algeria highlight the historical plight of Berber national culture in the face of Arabization and dominance. In a news item put out on the BBC on Sunday the 22nd of July, 2001, the Algerian President Bouteflika during a visit to President Bush in the US announced that his government will give greater cultural rights to the Berber. But possibly nowhere in the Afro-Arab Borderlands is the problem of race, class and citizenship in such high tension between Arab and African (or possibly Arabized Africans and Africans) as the Sudan and Mauritania. These two countries are frequently in the news for these reasons, but indeed the problem and scenario is enacted in other countries in the region including Libya, Mali, Niger and Chad."(pg 3)
    • Race, Ethnicity and Culture

      Fenton, Dianne A. (European & International Research Group on Crime, Ethics and Social Philosophy (ERCES), 2004)
      The terms race, ethnicity and culture have no generally agreed upon definitions. The term deviance, does. There is a growing interest in the interaction between these four terms perhaps as a result of the biogenetic, psychiatric and psychological studies being conducted to identify a possible link between criminality and genetics, physiology, mental disorders, personality and moral development. This writing presents a general overview of deviance and how it is influenced by such elements as race, ethnicity, culture and socioeconomic status.
    • Race, health care and the law

      Randall, Vernellia R. (UNRISD, 2001-09-03)
      "Even though socially constructed, race, like geopolitical constructions, conveys both privilege and deprivation. We live in a world marked by poverty and underdevelopment. Eighty percent of the world’s population live in countries that have access to less than twenty percent of the world’s resources; while the other twenty percent live in the luxury of more than eighty percent of these resources. Similar disparities in resource distribution occurs within countries. Slavery, colonization, neo-colonialism, cultural imperialism and exploitation of the resources of the developing world (predominantly non-white) has resulted in the wealth of the developed world (predominantly white). Even within societies the distribution of valuable resources tracks race, with one group being privileged and the other groups deprived. That is why this paper refers to racially privileged and racially disadvantaged groups and countries. I use these terms to highlight the point that both countries and peoples are privileged and disadvantaged based on race. In addition, the question of which group is privileged or disadvantaged will vary from country to country; and the groups that are disadvantaged are not necessarily the numerical minority. Finally, I do not at all intend to assert or imply that there is any biological explanation for the privilege or disadvantage. All privilege or disadvantage related to race is socially constructed from a past and present built on slavery, colonization, neo-colonialism, cultural imperialism and/or racism (both individual and institutional). The World Health Organization defines health as ". . . a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."[45] However, for racially disadvantaged groups that definition has little validity. Colonialization, slavery, neo-colonialism and racism has assured that the developing world lags behind the developed world and that racially disadvantaged groups lag behind racially privileged groups.[11] The problem of racism and racial discrimination is evident not only in health status, but also in health care and in health care research. The pervasive nature of racism affects individuals at all economic levels, thus, there cannot be "complete . . . mental and social well-being"[57,45] for racially disadvantaged groups until the problem of racism is addressed and resolved."(pg 3)
    • Race, Truth, and Reconciliation in the United States

      Gravely, Will (Rabbi Myer and Dorothy Kripke Center for the Study of Religion and Society, 2001)
      Desmond Tutu’s suggestion that U. S. society should have a truth and reconciliation process about its racist past prompts this investigation into historical scholarship on racial violence. The lynchings of Zachariah Walker (1911) and of Willie Earle (1947) reveal different regional memories which deny or acknowledge the past. By contrast Wilmington, NC in 1998 re-collected a white supremacist coup (1898) in ways that were transformational for the present. The essay points to legacies of racial violence in hate crimes, in backlash against affirmative action and in continued racialization of citizenship and the census. Introduction The
    • Race: A Philosophical Introduction by Paul C. Taylor [Book Review]

      Lancaster, Guy L (Marx and Philosophy Review of Books, 2013)
      In 1929, Ronald Knox, a British clergyman and novelist, issued his “ten commandments” for mystery novels. Written largely in response to the era’s sensationalist fiction, they include such admonitions as “3. Not more than one secret room or passage is allowable” and “10. Twin brothers, and doubles generally, must not appear unless we have been duly prepared for them.” However, smack in the middle of this Decalogue of narrative common sense is “5. No Chinaman must figure in the story.” While such a rule these days sounds somewhat segregationist in the literary sense, Knox was actually responding to a proliferation of stories which all featured evil Chinese masterminds—Sax Rohmer had brought Fu Manchu to literary life in 1913, and even Agatha Christie herself employed the sinister Chinese trope with super-villain Li Chang Yen in her regrettable 1927 novel The Big Four.
    • Races et racisme [Race and racism]

      Susanne, Charles (Observatori de Bioetica i Dret - Universitat de Barcelona, 2006)
      "Le concept de race, bien que non accepté par les anthropologues, semble aisé à comprendre par les zoologistes lorsqu’il s’agit du monde animal, mais son application à l’Homme est plus complexe et controversée. Le terme race, utilisé en français depuis le 15ème siècle, dérive de l’italien razza, signifiant famille, et razza dérive pour sa part de l’arabe râs, qui peut être traduit par origine. Depuis longtemps, les descriptions de populations étrangères sont mêlées de préjudices. Cette attitude ("autrisme") amène à ce que «l’autre» est systématiquement considéré comme imparfait, surtout en termes psychologiques et sociologiques, ce qui justifie en fait les discriminations existantes. Tout au long de l’histoire, guerres et colonisations sont «scientifiquement justifiées»" ["The concept of race, though not accepted by anthropologists, seems easy to understand by zoologists when it comes to the animal world, but its application to humans is more complex and controversial. the term race, used in French since the 15th century, derives from Italian razza, meaning family, and its drift razza from Arabic Ras which can be translated as origin. Long descriptions of populations Foreign are mixed harm. this attitude ("autrisme") leads to that "other" is always considered imperfect, especially in psychological terms and sociological, which justifies the fact existing discrimination. Throughout history, wars and colonization are "scientifically justified"]
    • Racial and Gender Discrimination in the Global Political Economy

      Mushakoji, Kinhide (The International Council on Human Rights Policy, 1999-12-04)
      This paper attempts to study how racial and gender discrimination is surviving even when international criminality is institutionalised in the present global political economy, by taking the case of the recent deliberation at the Ad Hoc Committee on the Elaboration of a Convention against Transnational Organised Crime on a Draft Protocol to Combat International Trafficking in Women and Children supplementary to the United Nations Convention on Transnational Organised Crimes.
    • Racial bias within the Criminal Justice System contributes to the Overrepresentation of African-American Males in correctional facilities

      Williams, Dianne A. (European & International Research Group on Crime, Ethics and Social Philosophy (ERCES), 2005)
      This paper attempts to identify a correlation between race, rate of incarceration, and severity of sentencing for drug related crimes. Statistical data was analyzed and an overview of the information is presented. The statistical review reveals a substantial, but disproportionate increase in the rate of incarceration of African-American males for drug related crimes. Additionally, there is disparate handling of African-Americans compared to Anglo-Americans throughout the process of arrest to incarceration. Legislative policy that was implemented to control crime appears to support economic, geographic and cultural biases, which have resulted in disproportionate overrepresentation of African-Americans in correctional facilities. Stricter guidelines are needed to ensure that arresting and sentencing policies are applied across the board regardless of race.
    • Racial inequalities, black protest and public policies in brazil

      Sérgio, Antonio; Guimarães, Alfredo (UNRISD, 2001-09-03)
      "I begin by providing a brief overview of the evolution of racial inequalities and Black poverty in Brazil. There is a steady and increasing pattern of inequality between non-whites (blacks and pardos) and whites in every aspect of social life (income, occupation, education, health, housing, etc.). The data show that the increase in wealth and quality of life that occurred in the last decades was almost completely concentrated in the white population. The emergence of a black middle class did not contradict the fact of rampant inequality between ethno-racial groups. On the contrary, the tiny black middle class that has emerged provides support for an organized black movement in the country. I then discuss the question of how a country that is believed to have exceptionally few race issues generates contradictory public reactions even today towards the implementation of affirmative action policies, which could break the structural inertia of inequality. In the next section, I present the Movimento Negro Unificado (Unified Black Movement) agenda in the 1980s and 1990s. I explain (a) the main areas of racial unrest (everyday racial discrimination, prejudice expressed in books, mass media, educational system, lack of political representation); and (b) the political strategy of the Black movement, its alliance with the esquerda and the progressive parties, and the gains that accrued to it under the 1988 Constitutional Charter. Subsequently, I analyze the main state responses to the Black movement s agenda. I analyze the official responses to black mobilization and as attempts to integrate black protest into the political system. I conclude the paper by providing a brief appraisal of current federal programs, which can affect the black population and reduce inequalities (Agenda 2000-2001; Avança Brasil; Alvorada, PLANFOR). Given the increase in inequalities among ethno-racial groups, despite state efforts to tackle them, I will conclude by trying to answer the question: what is wrong with Brazil s anti-racist programs? "(pg 3)
    • Racial Justice

      Loury, Glenn (The International Council on Human Rights Policy, 2001-01-24)
      In this essay, I reflect on the interconnections between economic marginalisation and racial discrimination in the United States, focusing on the case of African Americans. My concerns are normative (seeking to evaluate the public morality of alternative policy responses to the scourge of racial inequality) and conceptual (seeking to clarify our understanding of the subtle processes that create and sustain durable racial inequality.) I do not here review statistical data, or take up empirical questions concerning the size of the income or wealth gap between racial groups in the United States (this I have done elsewhere, see references below). Rather, I am interested in the overarching philosophical commitments that inform and structure thinking about this problem, especially in the industrial democracies of Europe and North America. Specifically, I want to question the adequacy of liberal individualism as a philosophical paradigm for addressing questions of racial justice, in the American society and beyond
    • Racial justice - the superficial morality of colour-blindness in the united states

      Loury, Glenn C (United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 2004-05)
      "In this essay Glenn C. Loury outlines a theory of “race” applicable to the social and historical circumstances of the United States and sketches an account of why racial inequality is so stubbornly persistent. He offers a conceptual framework for the practice of social criticism on race-related issues that might encourage reflection among political and intellectual elites, and in this way promote social reform. Any theory of “race” must explain the fact that people take note of, and assign significance to, superficial markings on the bodies of other human beings—their skin colour, hair texture, facial bone structure and so forth. This practice is virtually universal in human societies and is the point of departure for his analysis. Loury refers to a society as being “raced” when its members routinely partition the field of human subjects whom they encounter in that society into groups, and when this sorting convention is based on the subjects’ possession of some cluster of observable bodily marks. This leads to his claim that, at bottom, “race” is all about “embodied social signification”. Loury argues that “race” emerges as a social phenomenon in the following way: a field of human subjects characterized by morphological variability comes through concrete historical experience to be partitioned into subgroups defined by some cluster of physical markers. In-formation-hungry agents hang expectations around these markers, and such beliefs can, in ways discussed in the essay in some detail, become self-confirming. Meaning-hungry agents invest these markers with social, psychological and even spiritual significance. Race-markers come to form the core of personal and social identities. Narrative accounts of descent are con-structed around them. And so groups of subjects, identifying with one another, sharing feelings of pride, (dis)honour, shame, loyalty and hope—and defined in some measure by their holding these race-markers in common—come into existence. This vesting of reasonable expectation and ineffable meaning in objectively arbitrary markings on human bodies comes to be reproduced over the generations, takes on a social life of its own, seems natural and not merely conven-tional, and ends up having profound consequences for social relations among individuals in the raced society. Loury goes on to argue that it is crucially important to distinguish between racial discrimination and racial stigma in the study of this problem. Racial discrimination has to do with how blacks are treated, while racial stigma is concerned with how black people are perceived. He claims that reward bias (unfair treatment of people in formal economic transactions based on racial identity) is now a less significant barrier to the full participation by African-Americans in US society than is development bias (blocked access to resources critical for personal development but available only via non-market-mediated social transactions). While Loury makes these points in the specific cultural and historical context of the black experience in US society, he nevertheless contributes to a deeper conceptualization of the worldwide problem of race and economic marginality. The racial stigma paradigm advanced by the author builds on the observation that, due to the history and culture peculiar to a given society, powerful negative connotations may become associated with particular bodily marks borne by some people in that society. Loury claims that this is decidedly the case with respect to the marks that connote “blackness” in US society. With his core concept—biased social cognition—he attempts to move from the fact that people make use of racial classifications in the course of their interactions, to some understanding of how this alters the causal accounts they settle upon for what they observe in the social world. Loury’s fundamental question is: when does the “race” of those subject to a difficult social circumstance affect whether powerful observers see the disadvantages experienced by such people as con-stituting a societal problem?"(pg ii)
    • Racial justice, refugees and the election

      Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales; Committee for Community Relations Office for Refugee Policy (Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, 2001)
      "The Macpherson Report (Stephen Lawrence Inquiry) highlighted the issue of ‘institutional racism’ and made it a subject of continuing debate in the run-up to a General Election. Refugees and asylum seekers is another controversial issue that has come up for scrutiny. The Catholic bishops of England and Wales welcomed the Macpherson Report and asked the Catholic community to reflect seriously on the challenge it presents. They have also spoken out on behalf of asylum seekers and refugees. These are two of a number of questions regarding marginalised people which Catholics will want to consider and raise with candidates as a General Election approaches." (p. 1)