The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE) is a peer-reviewed quarterly e-journal. International in scope, this scholarly e-journal publishes refereed articles focusing on the issues and challenges of providing theory, research and information services to global learners in any kind of distance education or open learning applications. TOJDE will particularly strive to meet the continuing education needs of practitioners and educators by providing a forum for the discussion of extended learning strategies, policies and practices, and trends in information technology as they impact the delivery of student support services for distance learners and faculties. Articles may be theoretical, philosophical and/or quantitative analyses of distance education/open learning and teaching issues, and may take the form of case studies, research studies or general interest reports. Sample topics include the role or history of distance education, standards for such services, organization or planning of new services, for distance learners, etc.


The library contains articles of The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education as of vol.1(2000) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • From The Editor

    T. Volkan YUZER (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-01-01)
    Dear TOJDE Readers
 Welcome to Volume 21 Number 1 of TOJDE,
 There are 13 articles and 2 book reviews in January 2020 issue. 25 authors write the articles and reviews from
 8 different countries. These countries are Greece, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Oman, Turkey, UK and USA.

    Umut Birkan ÖZKAN; Harun CIGDEM; Tolga ERDOGAN (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-07-01)
    The contribution of e-learning technologies, especially LMS which has become an important component of e-learning, is significantly increasing in higher education. It is critical to understand the factors that affect the behavioral intention of students towards LMS use. The aim of this study is to explore predictors of students’ acceptance of Course Portal at a postsecondary vocational school level. We utilised a framework suggested by Sezer and Yilmaz (2019) for understanding students’ acceptance of LMS. This framework obtains the main constructs in UTAUT: namely, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions. More external variables, associate degree programs, high school type, academic grade point average were also adopted. Accordingly, 387 students were answered the questionnaire for investigating behavioral intention. Artificial neural network analysis (ANN) was used to predict students’ acceptance of LMS use according to variables associated with their use of LMS technology. ANN analyses in the present study revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions are important predictors of students’ behavioral intention to use LMS. Nevertheless, performance expectancy was found to be the most influencing predictor of LMS use. The analyses of this research provides evidence on the utilization of ANN to predict the determining factors of LMS acceptance.

    Carina Dolch (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-07-01)
    Since the introduction of digital media the fear of women being left out of the virtual world is expressed in various contexts. With the aim to establish if these gender differences still exist and, if they do, what form they take this paper investigates the use of digital media by male and female higher education students. 1,327 students enrolled at German higher education institutions completed an online questionnaire concerning the digital devices that they own or have access to, and their usage of media and e-learning tools and services for their learning. Using multivariate analysis, the study indicates that male students show higher acceptance values for more general web tools higher than female students, but when it comes to e-learning related tools women show higher acceptance values for a lot more different tools and services than men. The findings indicate that differences in media usage patterns between male and female students are not a question of having access, but of the attitude toward and the reasons for using digital media, and that the mentioned fear of women being left out did not come true.

    Rhini FATMASARI (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-07-01)
    Performance appraisal is one of the activities carried out by the organization to assess performance quantitatively. One of the performance assessment methods used is Six Sigma and the Balanced Scorecard. Six Sigma is an organizational approach to improve operational excellence, while the Balanced Scorecard provides a framework for transforming organizational strategies into work matrices that help organizations compete. Strategic business plans can be implemented using the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) performance management system approach, while various action programs can be applied using the Six Sigma approach. Both methods can be integrated to synergize in achieving the company’s strategic goals. This study aims to measure the performance of Open University academic services with the integration of BSC and Six Sigma in the field of academic services. Through this integration, performance measurement was focused on quality control by exploring UT’s academic service system as a whole and combined with four perspectives in the Balanced Scorecard. The results showed the level of student satisfaction with UT’s academic services of 90.20% which means that students are very satisfied with UT’s academic services which include programs of distance education and programs, models, teaching materials (modules and non-print teaching materials), face-to-face tutorials and online tutorials, learning assistance counselling services, and learning evaluation. Meanwhile, measurement using Six Sigma shows that UT academic services are at level 3, which means there are still some UT services that are not perfect, especially in tutorial and teaching materials services.

    Beyza HIMMETOGLU; Damla AYDUG; Coskun BAYRAK (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-07-01)
    In this research, it is aimed to determine the school managers’, teachers’ and students’ characteristics of Education 4.0 according to opinions of educational experts. The study, which is a qualitative one, was designed by using basic qualitative research model. Participants of the study consisted of 10 faculty members, selected with snowball sampling method. Data of the study was collected via semi-structured interview form. To analyze data, content analysis technique will be used. It is expected to operationalize Education 4.0 revolution in education system for the case of Turkish Education System. According to findings, open access, individualized education, mental transformation, integration of digital technologies to education, seamless learning environments, lifelong learning, exploratory education and multidisciplinary education are the main components defining Education 4.0. It was found that the main qualities expected from the students of Education 4.0 are cooperation-communication skills, technological skills, learning skills and personal characteristics. The main qualifications expected from the teachers of Education 4.0 are technological skills, guidance skills, lifelong learning skills and personal characteristics. Lastly, the main qualifications expected from the school managers of Education 4.0 are guidance skills, technological skills, learning skills and technical skills.
  • Developing Online Sense of Community: Graduate Students’ Experiences and Perceptions

    Jesus TRESPALACIOS; Lida J. URIBE-FLOREZ (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-01-01)
    Building a sense of community (SoC) is an important process in the success of distance education and students’ retention. However, developing a community in online learning environments is not an easy task. The purpose of this research study is to explore perceptions of graduate students on SoC and learning after using different collaborative activities with diverse forms of interaction (text, audio, and video) in an online educational research course. Quantitative data from two surveys and qualitative data from individual interviews were collected. Findings indicate that multimodal and scaffolding interactive activities help to support connectedness and learning, and therefore foster online graduate students’ sense of community. The results of this study add to the literature with regard to instructional strategies used to support the development of online sense of community.

    Kamil CEKEROL; Emin OZEN (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-07-01)
    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) of teachers teaching at different levels of educational institutions and demographic information about them as well as their technology and Educational Information Network (EIN) use. The participants of the study were determined by using stratified sampling method from the teachers teaching in state-run primary schools, secondary schools and high schools in Eskisehir in Turkey. 364 teachers voluntarily participated in the study by filling out the data collection tool. The first part of the survey includes questions to collect demographic data about the participants as well as the ones related to their technology and EIN use. The second part involves TPACK scale developed by Horzum, Akgun and Ozturk (2014). According to the results of the statistical analysis, the teachers find themselves competent in terms of TPACK factors and there are significant differences between TPACK factors and demographic information about the participants as well as their technology and EIN use. It is believed that increasing technology knowledge of teachers will also improve their pedagogy and content knowledge. Therefore; it is suggested that more studies should be conducted which combine technology, pedagogy and content knowledge.
  • Re-Designing the Design Brief as a Digital Learning Tool with Participatory Design Approach

    Duysal DEMIRBAS; Sebnem TIMUR OGUT (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-01-01)
    Today, industrial design education is faced with a new group of students who have met daily life technologies from a very early age. The transformations in educational environments are becoming more and more important for project-based and student-centered design education model. Understanding the needs and expectations of the changing student profile has become essential for design education, which puts new and original outputs as the main objective. Students’ expectations of having a say in their own learning environments also provide an important opportunity for them to play an active role in the focus of this change. The aim of this study is to determine the design criteria of a new learning tool in line with the needs and expectations of the new generation industrial design students with a student-oriented approach. Participatory Design workshops were organized to expose expectations of the current learners about a new Design Brief in a digital and online medium. In this qualitative study conducted with participatory design method, gamification elements were used to increase students’ motivation, interest, and participation. Design criteria for a new generation design brief have been introduced with participatory design method. All suggestions were found to indicate a more interactive structure depending on the variable and cyclical structure of the design.
  • The Effectiveness of Using Wiziq Interaction Platform on Students’ Achievement, Motivation and Attitudes

    Abdelrahman Mohamed AHMED; Mohamed Eltahir OSMAN (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-01-01)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of using WiziQ platform as a virtual classroom on students’ achievement, motivation and attitudes. The sample of this study consists of 42 students enrolled in the course of “Educational and Information technology” at the college of education, Sultan Qaboos University. The participating students were assigned randomly to a control and experimental group (17 and 25 students respectively). Data collection tools included: an academic achievement test, motivation scale and attitude scale. The results of the study showed that there is a significant difference in the mean scores of the post-test between the control group and experimental group in favor of experimental group. The results also indicated that students in the experimental group developed positive attitude towards using WiziQ virtual classroom in their learning. In addition, the findings showed that students in the experimental group were more engaged and motivated to learn compared to their counterparts in the control group.
  • Who Takes a MOOC? Profile of Students in the Framework of a European Project

    Elia FERNANDEZ-DIAZ; Carlos RODRIGUEZ-HOYOS; Jose Luis BELVER DOMINGUEZ; Adelina CALVO SALVADOR (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-04-01)
    This research analyzes the profile of students on MOOC (massive open online courses) courses within the framework of the ECO project (E-learning, Communication and Open-Data: Massive Mobile, Ubiquitous and Open Learning) promoted by the European Union. An analysis of the profile of students enrolled in the five editions of the course entitled “Educational innovation and professional development. Possibilities and limits of technology” has been conducted based on the following objectives: (a) gain knowledge about the profile of students; (b) identify the students’ perception of their level of digital competence for participating in the course; (c) find out what their real expectations were when they enrolled on the course; and (d) suggest proposals for improving the design of the course based on the study carried out on the student profile. This research shows the tendencies of students enrolled on these types of training processes and suggests improvements in the design of the course in order to satisfy the participants’ motivations and expectations. In this regard, the results suggest that the design of MOOCs should be based on a sustainable, social and communicative curricular approach while at the same time greatly enhancing interaction and collaborative work.

    Ricardo Adan SALAS-RUEDA; Erika Patricia SALAS-RUEDA; Rodrigo David SALAS-RUEDA (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-07-01)
    This quantitative research analyzes the impact of the Web Application for the Educational Process on Compound Interest (WAEPCI) considering the machine learning and data science. The sample is composed of 46 students who studied the Financial Mathematics course in a Mexican university during the 2017 school year. WAEPCI presents the calculation of the Compound Interest and Compound Amount over a period of four years through the data simulation. The results of the machine learning (linear regression) indicate that WAEPCI positively influences the assimilation of knowledge and development of mathematical skills on the Compound Interest and Compound Amount. Data science establishes 4 predictive models on the use of WAEPCI in the educational process by means of the decision tree technique. The construction of web applications facilitates the active role of students, improves the assimilation of knowledge and allows the development of skills. Finally, WAEPCI improves the teaching-learning conditions on Financial Mathematics through the data simulation.

    T. Volkan YUZER (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-07-01)
    We have moved our Journal Management System to DergiPark. You can now access TOJDE at . If you want to submit your manuscript to TOJDE, please go to to submit your manuscript. If you do not have a DergiPark account, please use the link to create your account on DergiPark. After the creation of your DergiPark account, you can submit your manuscript. There are 14 articles in the July 2020 issue of TOJDE. 27 authors from 10 different countries contributed to the issue. These countries are Germany, Greece, Indonesia, Mexico, Phillippines, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey and Ukraine.

    Manuel MEDINA-LABRADOR; Marcela Georgina GOMEZ-ZERMENO; Lorena ALEMAN DE LA GARZA (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-07-01)
    One of the problems that require a solution in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) is the lack of identification and authentication of the students. Different investigations have been carried out through several navigation, physiological and behavioral methods, achieving different recognition scales. Biometric authentication by keystroke patterns (Ups&Downs) has been implemented in several MOOCs for the ease of the digital platforms of the offeror to solve the identification problem. The objective of this research is to analyze the independence of the keystroke tool of the other demographic, sociographic and behavioral variables within a MOOC, establishing an initial pattern, and two authentication measurements throughout the course. The results show that the keystroke is independent of the analyzed variables, and it is reliable to identify the students in qualitative tests with extension answers.
  • Analysis of Distance Education Business Models in Brazilian Private Higher Education Institutions

    Lidiane Campos BRITTO; Sergio Feliciano CRISPIM (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-04-01)
    This article is based on a research whose objective was to create and analyze the undergraduate business model taxonomy in Distance Education (DE) modality at private Higher Education Institutions in Brazil. As methodological procedure, a survey was conducted from August to November 2017, with 43 Brazilian institutions and a cluster analysis. The analysis resulted in the formation of two to three groups (clusters) in each of the nine business model building blocks explored in the literature review, in a total of 24 groups. From these groupings and the analysis of each group characteristics, their taxonomic classifications were created, that is, the main objective of this work. Two distinct and recurrent business models in distance education were also identified and analyzed, based on the 43 surveyed institutions study.

    Onuma LAKARNCHUA; Sean BALME; Andrew MATTHEWS (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-07-01)
    As an option to help cope with challenges such as differing student needs, lack of student interest, and limited contact hours, the commercial learning management system (LMS) Blackboard was used to support a flipped classroom approach in a first-year English as a foreign language course at a large Thai public university. The aims of the study were to determine students’ perceptions of the course and how it affected their second language writing anxiety, in order to improve later versions of the course. Data were collected over the course of two non-consecutive measures from 272 participants in the first semester and 141 in the second. Data on students’ perceptions and anxiety were collected using a questionnaire and the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (Cheng, 2004). After quantitative and qualitative analysis, results showed that participants’ second language writing anxiety was not significantly affected by the modified course. Their perceptions of the course appeared to be impacted by technological difficulties that occurred. The results seem to indicate that frustration with technology should be of greater concern when attempting to utilize an LMS or similar platform.

    Natalia KONONETS; Olena ILCHENKO; Volodymyr MOKLIAK (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-07-01)
    The article explores the problem of introducing resource-based learning (RBL) in higher education institutions as a holistic dynamic process of organizing and stimulating the independent cognitive activity of students for mastering the skills of the active transformation of the information environment, which involves the optimal use of the triad “student-teacher-librarian” of the consolidated personnel, logistical, methodological, financial and information resources. The effectiveness of the RBL system of future teachers, which consists of 5 subsystems (conceptual-target, structural-content, process-technological, motivational, diagnostic and productive) is theoretically substantiated and experimentally verified. The RBL system was implemented in the higher educational establishments of Poltava region. The organizational and pedagogical conditions of the implementation of the RBL system of future teachers as a set of interconnected circumstances, measures ensuring the purposeful management of the process of mixed learning, and the rules established in the system for ensuring high quality of professional training in higher educational establishments are identified. On the basis of pedagogical experiment was made the Implementation of future teachers in the RBL of higher educational establishments in Poltava region (Poltava V. G. Korolenko National Pedagogical University, University of Ukoopspilks “Poltava University of Economics and Trade”). Among the research methods used are: methods theoretical (analysis, comparison, generalization); methods pedagogical (pedagogical experiment, pedagogical observation); social and psychological methods (questioning), mathematical methods (mathematical calculation, ranking, regression). Poltava V. G. Korolenko National Pedagogical University, University of Ukoopspilks “Poltava University of Economics and Trade” were the basis of the empirical research. The undergraduates of the VI course of full-time and external forms of study of specialty “Secondary education”, educational programs “Secondary education (natural sciences)”, “Secondary education (computer science)”, “Secondary education (mathematics)” (Poltava V. G. Korolenko National Pedagogical University) and undergraduate students of the 6th year of the stationary and correspondence form of study in the specialty “Educational, Pedagogical Sciences”, educational program “Pedagogics of Higher School” (University of Ukoopspilks “Poltava University of Economics and Trade”) were made the sample of the study. The entire period of study in the magistracy – 1.4 years was covered by the study. It was conducted in two stages: the first (2018) – at the beginning of the experiment, before the introduction of the RBL system; the second (2019) – at the end of the experiment, after the implementation of the RBL system. Quantitative indicators of the pedagogical experiment involved 253 persons in control group (CG) and 240 persons in experimental group (EG).
  • From the Editor

    T. Volkan YUZER (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-04-01)
    There are 13 articles and 2 book reviews in April 2020 issue. 38 authors from 11 different countries contributed to the issue. These countries are Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Morocco, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Turkey and USA.
  • A Machine Learning Based Approach to Enhance Mooc Users’ Classification

    Youssef MOURDI; Mohammed SADGAL; Wafa BERRADA FATHI; Hamada EL KABTANE (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-04-01)
    At the beginning of the 2010 decade, the world of education and more specifically e-learning was revolutionized by the emergence of Massive Open Online Courses, better known by their acronym MOOC. Proposed more and more by universities and training centers around the world, MOOCs have become an undeniable asset for any student or person seeking to complete their initial training with free distance courses open to all areas. Despite the remarkable number of course enrollees, MOOCs have a huge dropout rate of up to 90%. This rate significantly affects the efforts made by the moderators for the success of this pedagogical model and negatively influences the learners’ experience and their supervision. To address this problem and help instructors streamline their interventions, we present a solution to classify MOOC learners into three distinct classes. The approach proposed in this paper is based on the filters methods to select the most relevant attributes and ensembling methods of machine learning algorithms. This approach has been validated by four MOOC courses from Stanford University. In order to prove the performance of the model (92.2%), a comparative study between the proposed model and other algorithms was made on several performance measures.
  • Perceptions and Opinions of Graduates about the Effects of Open and Distance Learning in Turkey

    Betul KAN KILINC; Berna YAZICI; Bulent GUNSOY; Guler GUNSOY (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-01-01)
    Open and distance learning in higher education provides an opportunity to individuals who cannot attend university full time on campus. Urban area residents especially have an advantage by accessing such higher education. There are almost three million people who receive university education in this way, and almost 1,5 million students in the Open and Distance Learning System at Anadolu University. On campus university graduates can also register for any department as a second university to receive university education in the Open and Distance Learning System. Therefore, the number of students and graduates increase every year. The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of the Open and Distance Learning System at Anadolu University, which has helped Turkish higher education by means of increasing economic and social welfare. To achieve the goal, 9131 graduates were surveyed. The results indicate that the Open and Distance Learning System in question has been effective with regard to their employment status (before and after education), income levels and their social-economic welfare positions.

    Sezan SEZGIN (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2020-07-01)
    This systematic review investigates two foci: identifying the ongoing status of smart personal digital assistants in educational contexts and the possible relationship between smart personal digital assistants and gamification elements. This relationship is expressed in almost two new figurative terms, namely, robo-sapiens and robo-ludens and the present study lays on the foundations of these terms. Therefore, this paper presents a holistic approach for the review and synthesis of the previous literature. The data of the study were gathered based on the findings reported in the related research articles, conference papers, dissertations, book chapters and project reports by focusing on 9 sets of generic keywords. As a part of this study, smart personal digital assistants in learning processes were scanned purposively in the lens of gamification. To this end, a two step inclusion criteria was implemented to review the studies of the research scope. Content analysis was the main method used for data analysis. The research findings revealed the most significant fields for the use of smart personal digital assistants are dominantly e-learning and special education. The research also discusses game-related components in smart personal digital assistant use in edu-centric purposes.

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