The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE) is a peer-reviewed quarterly e-journal. International in scope, this scholarly e-journal publishes refereed articles focusing on the issues and challenges of providing theory, research and information services to global learners in any kind of distance education or open learning applications. TOJDE will particularly strive to meet the continuing education needs of practitioners and educators by providing a forum for the discussion of extended learning strategies, policies and practices, and trends in information technology as they impact the delivery of student support services for distance learners and faculties. Articles may be theoretical, philosophical and/or quantitative analyses of distance education/open learning and teaching issues, and may take the form of case studies, research studies or general interest reports. Sample topics include the role or history of distance education, standards for such services, organization or planning of new services, for distance learners, etc.


The library contains articles of The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education as of vol.1(2000) to current.

Recent Submissions

  • Factors Influencing Learners’ Self –Regulated Learning Skills in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Environment

    Nour Awni ALBELBISI (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    The importance of self-regulation in a MOOC has been extensively discussed in research studies that provide evidence about the significant relationship between self-regulated learning and success in an e-learning environment. Learners with high self-regulated learning are more independent in regulating their learning and have a greater probability of success in their online courses. This study identifies factors that influence self-regulated learning and determines relationships between these factors and self-regulated learning. A conceptual model is proposed for combining success factors for self-regulated learning in a MOOC environment. A research instrument based on the model was designed and administered to six hundred and twenty-two MOOC students enrolled in five universities. Relationships between relevant factors and self-regulated learning were examined using a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) technique, and the statistical findings revealed that three factors - service quality, attitude, and course quality - influence self-regulated learning in a MOOC.
  • Organizational, Psychological and Pedagogical Conditions for the Use of E-Books and e-Textbooks at School

    Iryna VOROTNYKOVA (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    The article defines the organizational, psychological and pedagogical conditions for the use of e-books and e-textbooks at school. The difference between e-books and e-textbooks is distinguished on the basis of systematization and comparison of scientific positions. Content analysis is made to determine the organizational and pedagogical conditions for the introduction of e-textbooks. The experience of using e-textbooks and e-books at school was generalized based on the results of a regional experiment, in which 25 schools participated. The results of the survey and questioning of 352 students, 296 teachers, and 357 parents are described. The results reveal the needs of respondents in e-textbooks and e-books, identify the advantages and disadvantages of their implementation. The main organizational, psychological and pedagogical conditions are defined. These are educational policy concerning the introduction of eLearning (requirements for mandatory e-textbooks, financial support for purchasing and updating, examination, standards for e-textbooks), availability and diversity of e-textbooks and e-books on the market of educational services, logistic, educational and methodological support of educational institutions, ergonomics, readiness of teachers, students, their parents to use e-textbooks and e-books, digital competence of teachers and students.
  • Influence of an Instructional Strategy on the Attitudes of University Professors toward Distance Education

    Juan Ignacio Barajas VILLARRUEL; Ricardo Noyola RIVERA; Maria Gregoria Benitez LIMA (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of an instructional strategy for the use of DOKEOS, Course Management System (CMS) on the attitudes of professors toward distance education. The study was carried out in the Faculty of Accounting and Administration of a Mexican Public University. The research design was non-experimental with a group of twenty-five professors who were selected through purposive sampling. A questionnaire, which was an attitude scale toward the use of an administration system of online courses, was administered to participants before and after the implementation of an instructional strategy on the use of DOKEOS. Afterwards, usage statistics was examined between weeks three and six. Data analysis included calculation frequency, median, mode and standard deviation. The significant differences between the median of the pre-tests and post-tests were analyzed, and then the t-test was administered. Results showed that the instructional strategy contributed to a more positive attitude of professors toward distance education.
  • Operational Indicators of the Learning Management System in Virtual Spaces Supported by ICT

    Jose CAPACHO (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    The paper presents the conceptual framework and operational indicators of the Learning Management System in virtual spaces supported by ICT. The framework of the management system has three layers that are operational, management-operative, and management-decision. The conceptual foundation of the system is related to the Science of Education, the Science of Computing and the Science of Administration, and takes into account the representative model of the teaching-learning process of the student in virtual spaces supported by ICT. The dimensions, characteristics, variables, and indicators of the management system are assembled on the model in question. The indicators presented in the article correspond to 153 indicators of the operational layer. These were evaluated internationally with a confidence level of more than 90%. The operative indicators are contained in the dimensions of identification, academic, pedagogical-didactic, formative, of assessment of the virtual learning, and technological of the system of management of the virtual learning. The importance of the indicators presented ensures the success of the operational phase of the management system. Therefore, once the operation of the system is guaranteed, the success of the management-operative and management-decision layers of the system is assured. The correct fulfillment of the layers above guarantees the achievement of both the student’s learning in the virtual course and the institution that offers virtual teaching through virtual learning platforms supported by ICT.
  • Data Mining for the e-Learning Risk Management

    Oksana GUSHCHINA; Andrew OCHEPOVSKY (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    The article shows the role of data mining methods at the stages of the e-learning risk management for the various participants. The article proves the e-learning system fundamentally contains heterogeneous information, for its processing it is not enough to use the methods of mathematical analysis but it is necessary to apply the new educational methods of data mining. It determines the basic types of e-learning risks for the elimination or minimization of which proactive manners are applied that aimed at testing and planning other actions. The article gives the rationales for the use of various data mining methods at the different stages of the risk management: 1) for quality authentication of the risks the classification based on using the method called “decision tree” is applied; 2) for making the analysis of risks the brainstorm method for mind map creation is used. The mind map displays the e-learning risk groups that are then rated on the prioritization criteria with the help of expert evaluation method; 3) for the assessment of probability of risk impact on organization of e-learning the expert evaluation method, cluster analysis and bow-tie analysis are used. The article shows that the data mining methods are able to not only classify educational risks but also identify the causes and anticipate possible impacts on the final outcome. Having a great deal of information obtained through the process of the e-learning risk management and using it in data mining, it is possible to determine the reasons and the taken actions depend more the minimization of risks and strengthen the effectiveness of the e-learning.
  • WhatsApp as a Tool for Sustainable Glocal Linguistic, Social and Cultural Interaction

    Aysegul TAKKAC TULGAR (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    As a popular social media application, WhatsApp has become an integral part of daily lives of many people on earth. Researchers have investigated the individual, social and pedagogical benefits of the tool. However, the possible contributions of WhatsApp as a platform for cultural interaction in the glocal sense has not been examined yet. To call attention to this dimension of the tool, this case study aims to investigate the role of WhatsApp in maintaining glocal linguistic, social and cultural interaction among a group of foreign learners of Turkish. The participants had a three-week summer school experience in Turkey where they formed a WhatsApp group for communication. After returning back to their home countries, these participants continued their interaction with their friends through the WhatsApp group. The data for this study were collected through open-ended questions. The results of the content analysis revealed that WhatsApp was an effective application to promote the maintenance of glocal cultural interaction among the participants with its personal, social and linguistic contributions. The participants could have the chance to exchange ideas and increase their perspectives and knowledge as global citizens while preserving their cultural and national identities as local citizens. Their interactional experiences through WhatsApp can be said to have helped the participants increase their awareness and expand their intercultural knowledge from the glocal stance.
  • The Comparison of Trust in Virtual and Face-To-Face Collaborative Learning Teams

    Meltem Huri BATURAY; Sacip Toker (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    The study investigates the effect of delivery types of (virtual and face-to-face) collaborative learning environments on the development of trust among group members in a graduate course. For this aim, a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent group comparison was used. It comprised a total of 64 participants – 21 in the face-to-face group, and 43 in the virtual group. Study participants were comprised of students registered in a course entitled ‘Web-based Education: Principles of Design and Implementation’ in the spring semester as part of either a virtual or traditional face-to-face graduate program in Information Systems at an institute of higher education in Turkey in 2010. Trust levels were measured at two different occasions, namely in the beginning and end of the semester, for both study groups. The participants completed a web-based course material design project as a collaborative group activity. The results indicate that trust increases over time among virtual participants, but declines among face-to-face participants. While levels of trust among virtual course participants are lower than those of face-to-face course participants in the beginning of the semester, trust levels of virtual participants surpass those of face-to-face participants by the end of the semester. This study demonstrates that trust can develop in virtual learning environments. The initial level of trust should be taken into consideration by instructors or managers before forming groups.
  • Bangladesh Betar’s Farm Programs to Motivate Farmers: Analysis of Effectiveness as Distance Education

    Mahedi HASAN; Nazrul Islam MONDAL (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    Bangladesh Betar (BB), the national radio of Bangladesh has been providing extension services to the mostly uneducated Bangladeshi farming communities for the diffusion of modern farm technologies from its very beginning. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of farm programs (FPs) of BB as distance education through assessing its capacity to motivate the farmers. A sample of 465 farmers was surveyed for primary data and the binary logistic regression model was used for data analysis. This study has revealed that those who listen to the FPs of BB were found more likely to adopt modern farm technologies than those who did not listen to the FPs. The concerned authority should take the necessary steps to make the farmers listen to the FPs of BB for educating and motivating them.
  • Effectiveness of Gamification Elements in Blended Learning Environments

    Can MESE; Ozcan Ozgur DURSUN (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of blended learning environments enriched with the use of gamification elements. The study was carried out using the convergent parallel mixed design, in which the qualitative and quantitative data were integrated. The study was conducted with 63 participants who were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. In the experimental group, the activities were enriched in the environment by using the gamification elements but not in the control group. The data were collected by Community of Inquiry data collection tool, academic achievement test, Instructional Materials Motivation Survey, experience activity, and interviews. According to the results, no difference was observed between the groups in terms of community of inquiry model, academic achivement, motivation. These findings are supported by qualitative data. According the findings, it could be stated that learning occurred in the form of latent learning in the experimental group.
  • A Fully Online Course Experience from Students’ Perspective: Readiness, Attitudes and Thoughts

    Emine CABI; Filiz KALELIOGLU (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    The purpose of the study was to reveal the effect of a course taken through distance education on students’ readiness and attitudes. Sequential explanatory design method was used as a research method in which qualitative and quantitative measurements were used in the research. For the quantitative data, a single group pre-test/post-test design was used as an experimental model; for the qualitative data, open-ended questions were asked in order to elicit students’ opinions following the experimental process. The study group consisted of 266 students from different faculties and departments who were studying undergraduate and associate degree programmes at a private university in Turkey. Results indicated that the course taken through distance education had a significant effect on students’ gaining Computer and Internet Self-Efficacy and was effective in improving undergraduate students’ self-directed learning skills. Moreover, the course taken through distance education had a significant effect on students’ familiarity with e-learning. Additionally, the course was found to be effective in decreasing the escape attitudes from e-learning.
  • An Evaluation of Content Creation for Personalised Learning Using Digital ICT Literacy Module among Aboriginal Students (mLICT-OA)

    Nor Syazwani Mat Salleh; Aidah ABDUL KARIM; Mazzlida MAT DELI; Siti Zuraida Abdul Manaf; Noor Fazrienee JZ NUN RAMLAN; Analisa Hamdan (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    ICT in the Malaysian education system serves as a tool to accomplish the National Education Blueprint 2015-2025. Under this blueprint, privileged groups such as the aborigines or Malaysian aboriginals will be given equal opportunity in education. However, a specific classroom teaching method is required to maintain the aboriginal students’ focus and attention on their learning experiences due to their unique paradigm of learning. This study used the Partial Least Square (PLS) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) tool to examine the factors influencing personalised learning and digital self-learning ICT literacy module. It also measured the impact of personalised learning and digital ICT literacy module among secondary aboriginal students. This study involved 92 aboriginal students who participated in a transferable skills and ICT programme held in a public university in Malaysia. Results show that personalised learning positively supported the use of a digital ICT literacy module as a teaching and learning approach. Therefore, this study suggests that the digital ICT literacy module is an adaptive educational resource for personalised learning to meet the learning needs of aboriginal students.
  • Should I Stay, or Should I Go? Revisiting Student Retention Models in Distance Education

    Marko RADOVAN (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    Supporters of distance education highlight the many advantages of online learning as compared to face-to-face education, such as greater openness, diversity of teaching materials, adjustment to student learning styles, the speed of learning, and more. Despite the advantages, the growing number of programs, and the increased acceptance of distance education in national strategies worldwide, distance learning providers are faced with the problem of dropouts. Studies have shown that the dropout rate in distance educational programs is higher than the dropout rate in traditional programs. Understanding of the reasons and determinants behind dropping out of an educational program is a challenging task for educators, researchers, and policy-makers. In this paper, we describe the main characteristics of distance education, and analyze the models that try to describe and prevent students from dropping out of these programs. Our analysis suggests that the circumstances that affect the dropout rate should be considered in the planning and implementation of distance education programs.
  • Online Learning, higher education, activity theory.

    Abdulvahap SONMEZ (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    Assessment, evaluation and grading have been used to verbalise the result or the process of learning and teaching interchangeably. However, with the rise of the student-centered teaching paradigm, the difference in application and notion of these terms are becoming clearer. Assessment is formative and sheds light on the process while evaluation is summative and gives importance to results. The emergence of open learning makes academicians to reconsider these assessment means. The advancement in technological means has led flexible learning tools to spread, especially online learning. Online learning’s widespread acceptance requires new ways of assessments which will both show the learning efforts of learners and encourage them to deepen their learning. The approval of the Community of Inquiry Model (CoI) necesitates social, cognitive and teaching presence, which results in engagement and authenticity in assessment.
  • From The Editor

    T. Volkan YUZER (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2019-07-01)
    Dear TOJDE Readers Welcome to Volume 20 Number 3 of TOJDE There are 13 articles and 2 book reviews in July 2019 issue. 28 authors write the articles from 9 different countries. These countries are Bangladesh, Colombia, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Rusia, Slovenia, Turkey and Ukraine.
  • Students’ Reflections on Vocabulary Learning through Synchronous and Asynchronous Games and Activities

    Hatice KARAASLAN; Nurseven KILIC; Gamze GUVEN-YALCIN; Abdulkadir GULLU (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2018-07-01)
    Many learners are now quite digitally skilled. However, this does not entail that they know how to learn through digital technologies. Therefore, establishing an interactive virtual learning platform that connects everyone together in a classroom environment and helping learners become familiar with such media might serve a set of purposes in any educational setting. Today, with the advances in web-based learning technologies, a hybrid teaching methodology has become widespread: blended learning. It is a term used to describe the way e-learning is being combined with traditional classroom methods and independent study. Educators design online materials and utilize them in synchronous or asynchronous ways to suit the convenience of learners and instructors and program demands. In this study with a group of intermediate-level English language learners at the School of Foreign Languages of an English-medium state university, the goal was to enhance students’ vocabulary learning performance by using synchronous and asynchronous games and activities that will activate and maintain intrinsic motivation in an effort to teach parts of speech and collocations over a period of eight weeks. The data consisted of a survey of students’ reflections on their vocabulary learning experiences through digital games and activities. The findings were discussed with respect to the efficiency of incorporating synchronous and asynchronous learning materials.
  • From The Editor

    T. Volkan YUZER (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2018-07-01)
    Dear TOJDE Readers, Welcome to Volume 19, Number 3 of TOJDE, There are 13 articles and 2 book reviews in July 2018 issue. 32 authors write the articles from 11 different countries. Bulgaria, Ghana, Indonesia, Iran, Netherlands, Nigeria, Republic of Macedonia, South Africa, Spain, Turkey and Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are the countries.
  • Accounting Education in an Open Distance Learning Environment: Case Studies for Pervasive Skills Enhancement

    Yolande REYNEKE; Christina Cornelia SHUTTLEWORTH (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2018-07-01)
    Distance learning institutions allow access to many students who do not enjoy the luxury of studying fulltime at contact-based universities by providing flexibility in terms of time, space and finances. Globally, accountants are vital for the economy and it is important that higher education institutions empower them with the necessary skills to face the volatile working environment. Equipping accounting students with only discipline-specific knowledge, does not result in practice-ready accountants, which cause great concern for professional accounting bodies as well as employers. Certain professional accounting bodies in South Africa have recently incorporated case study-based examinations to test students’ discipline-specific knowledge and pervasive skills. Pervasive skills are soft skills, also sometimes referred to as personal attributes that allow for effective interaction between people. Using case studies to develop pervasive skills in accounting education, specifically in Open Distance Learning (ODL) institutions, is regarded as a fairly unexplored area. This article reports on how semistructured interviews gave insight into how ODL accounting educators in a developing country perceived the need to introduce a case study-based module to develop pervasive skills. It is recommended that the training of distance education accounting students should be adapted to include case studies for pervasive skills development.
  • Digital Device Ownership and Learning Environment Preferences of Students in South Africa and Ghana

    Simon-Peter Kafui AHETO; Johannes CRONJE (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2018-07-01)
    This paper explores differences in access to technology and configuration of preferences for learning environments among design students in two universities of technology in South Africa (ISA) and Ghana (IG). Laptops and Smartphones ownership influenced and supported design students’ learning. In IG, there was a 97% Laptop ownership as against 69% in ISA. IG does not have computer laboratories; hence Laptop ownership is a pre-requirement for Design programs. Oppositely, ISA has fourteen computer laboratories for Design programs. There is no statistically significant difference between male and female design students in their choice of learning environments for academic success. Design students are not enthusiastic about accessing library resources via handheld devices. Towards academic success, students ranked low, their institutions’ Learning Management Systems. We recommend a blended approach when designing learning environments for Design Education, while promoting the use of media platforms for content management due to device ownership among students.

    Kiran LATA DANGWAL; Shireesh Pal SINGH (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2012-04-01)
    Spiritualism is one word which puts man on the highest plinth of life. Spirituality is the way we find meaning, hope, comfort and inner peace in life. Spirituality in the virtual World is generally known as Virtual Spirituality. A goldmine of wisdom from all kinds of religious and spiritual philosophies, traditions and practices can be found in virtual World now. Technology and Spirituality together forms the material to which man can incline on to and work for the development of a globe in which war will be considered a taboo and violence a rejected dogma. Therefore there is an urgent nee to made the world a safe place to live in and the spiritual reconstruction can help us in achieving this.Spiritualism, Virtual World, Online Technology.
  • Quality Assurance through Experiential Learning in A Distance Education Context: the Views of Major Stakeholders

    Kofi Poku QUAN-BAFFOUR; Akwasi ARKO-ACHEMFUOR (Anadolu University, Eskisehir, 2018-07-01)
    The quality of experiential learning in distance education is a dominant concern of all major stakeholders and the public at large. Institutions of higher learning which train school teachers at a distance are often blamed for the poor quality of teachers and teaching. The perception among some sections of the society is that teachers trained at a distance are of poor quality compared to those trained via the conventional face-to-face mode. While this perception can be disputed it gives distance education institutions food for thought. Debunking the wrong perception is to ensure quality in the training of teachers at a distance. Students of the University of South Africa (UNISA) are scattered all over the country and beyond and this makes effective and quality organization, managing, supervision, mentoring and evaluation of experiential learning quite daunting. Effective experiential learning cannot be organized and managed effectively without the involvement of key stakeholders. This paper used the qualitative research approach to explore the views of major stakeholders from two Provinces in South Africa on quality assurance of experiential learning for teacher trainees in distance education. The findings indicate that all the major stakeholders involved in providing experiential learning in the UNISA teacher training program support the idea of collaboration as the basis of quality teacher training.

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