Contributor(s)Ghazzali, A. (Supervisor)
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AbstractLearning is a rather vague term, conveying different meanings, depending on the context in which it is used and on the perspectives from which it is looked at. Three main groups of theories (behavioural, cognitive and humanistic) have been developed to study the learning phenomenon. Adult learning is a distinct aspect of this phenomenon, having particular characteristics and principles.
The reasons that deter adult learning are various and act at two stages. Firstly, they prevent students form performing to their full capacities and secondly, they keep potential students away from courses. A short list of barriers to adult learning includes - among others, finance, lack of time, ageing, emotional barriers and lack of motivation.
Ageing is a natural process, bringing some physical , mental, psychological and other kinds of changes that influence negatively adult learning. What is of interest for this study is the way intelligence and memory respond to ageing, and the implications for learning. Moreover, other implications for learning derive from loss of speed, low self-concept and educational disadvantages due to age. Barriers like these are overcome by specially designed instruction and by encouragement.
Anxiety is a common emotional barrier to learning, causing a reaction of apprehension, when the individual's self-esteem is under threat. A learning situation provokes anxiety which generally speaking has a debilitating effect on performance. Such influence can be reduced in a [sic] environment characterized by respect, interest and encouragement.
There is a strong causal relationship between motivation and learning. What motivates people to learn is the desire to reduce unmet needs and the desire for self-advancement. However, there are factors such as the teacher, the learning material, the learner's self-concept and his socio-cultural environment that reduce motivation. Teachers can prevent that by applying the principles of adult learning in their instruction.