Self-Efficacy in Music Performance: Measuring the Sources Among Secondary School Music Students
Author(s)Zelenak, Michael S.
sources of self-efficacy
Arts and Humanities
Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research
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AbstractThe purpose of this study was to develop a greater understanding of self-efficacy in music performance. I sought to (a) contribute to fundamental knowledge of self-efficacy in music performance, (b) determine whether scores from the Music Performance Self-Efficacy Scale (MPSES) were valid and reliable, and (c) provide insights for developing self-efficacy among secondary school music students. Participants (N = 290) were middle and high school students in band, chorus, and string orchestra ensembles from 10 schools in the southeast and western regions of the United States. Participants completed four online questionnaires: (a) Music Performance Self-Efficacy Scale, (b) Sources of Middle School Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale, (c) Self-Esteem of Musical Ability, and (d) Advanced Measures of Music Audiation. Teachers provided 5-point Likert-type ratings of their student's music self-efficacy. Data from the MPSES demonstrated good fit with Bandura's proposed self-efficacy model (SRMR = .06, RMSEA = .06). The strength of the relationships between the sources and composite construct were consistent with theory and findings from other studies. Mastery experience was strongest, followed by verbal/social persuasion, physiological state, and vicarious experience. No differences in responses were found between middle and high school students, or among band, chorus, and string orchestra students. Items on the MPSES were also found to assess participants equally across grade levels. Music aptitude was found to predict self-efficacy in music performance (â = .16) and accounted for 3% of the variance in self-efficacy. This finding raises questions about the role of self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between music aptitude and music achievement. The Music Performance Self-Efficacy Scale was found to be a valid and reliable measure of self-efficacy in music performance. Evidence of validity was based on test content, response process, and internal structure, along with convergent, discriminant, and multi-method relationships. Evidence of reliability was based on test-retest correlation (r = .87) and internal consistency (á = .88). Recommendations for researchers were to link the sources of self-efficacy to performance achievement; explore self-efficacy's relationship with aptitude and achievement; and expand the investigation to other populations. Recommendations for educators focused on improving understanding of self-efficacy and interpreting MPSES results.
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