Metabolic syndrome in children with chronic kidney disease and after renal transplantation
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AbstractVisceral obesity and metabolic abnormalities typical for metabolic syndrome (MS) are the new epidemic in adolescence. MS is not only the risk factor for cardiovascular disease but also for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, there are some reasons to recognize MS as a new challenge for pediatric nephrologists. First, hypertensive and diabetic nephropathy, the main causes of CKD in adults, both share the same pathophysiological abnormalities associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance and have their origins in childhood. Secondly, as the obesity epidemic also affects children with CKD, MS emerges as the risk factor for progression of CKD. Thirdly, metabolic abnormalities typical for MS may pose additional risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in children with CKD. Finally, although the renal transplantation reverses uremic abnormalities it is associated with an exposure to new metabolic risk factors typical for MS and MS has been found to be the risk factor for graft loss and cardiovascular morbidity after renal transplantation. MS is the result of imbalance between dietary energy intake and expenditure inducing disproportionate fat accumulation. Thus, the best prevention and treatment of MS is physical activity and maintenance of proper relationship between lean and fat mass.