Social forestry program in the Majalengka forest district, West Java, Indonesia: agroforestry systems and extension services
KeywordsAgricultural education and studies
Agricultural education (Agricultural extension education)
Agricultural extension education
Forestry (Forest economics)
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AbstractFarmers need land to grow food and the government needs forests to grow timber and protect water resources. Social forestry is thought to meet these needs. A study was conducted in the Majalengka forest district, West Java, Indonesia to evaluate the efficiency and adoptability of a social forestry program (SFP) including its associated extension services. Data were collected in 1996-1997 from program personnel and a sample of 101 forestry farmers. Agroforestry systems economics, adoption models of new agroforestry techniques, and the extension program were evaluated. Farmers joined the SFP because they need additional family income and land. Mahogany, pine, Albizzia falcataria (Fosberg), mangoes, salak fruits, pineapples, corn, rice, and peanuts were planted. A 3-year, undiscounted revenue to cost ratio (R/C) indicated that for farmers to maximize their short-term profits, they should plant cucumbers, chilies, and corn, rather than corn, rice, and peanuts. Based on net present value, the current agroforestry systems were 10x more profitable for the farmer and the government company (Perum Perhutani) than a timber-only production system. Farmers attended four formal extension meetings each year, but preferred one-on-one consultations with group leaders, friends, and SFP staff to obtain desired technical information. Farmers were mostly satisfied with the extension program and personnel. Farmers expected future improvements in extension programming and prefer group tours, skill contests, movies, and internships to other extension delivery methods. Adoption models of increasing area devoted to recommended crops/trees, implementing multi-purpose trees, reducing herbicides, and giving credit for animal/green manure were developed. Adjusted R2 values ranged from 0.27 for adopting reduced herbicides to 0.57 for adopting the use of green manure. Farmers' adoption of these four agroforestry techniques was influenced by attributes of each practice and their attitudes towards the SFP and extensionists more so than economics factors. Farmers generally accepted the social forestry extension program. Desired improvements in extension programming included increased training of the group leaders and technology transfer of the types of foodcrops that give more profit potential.
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