Changements environnementaux et migrations au Népal : emprunter la voie de l'adaptation
Agriculture de subsistance
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AbstractRésumé : Le Népal fait partie des pays les moins avancés de la planète. Sa population, qui vit essentiellement d'agriculture de subsistance, est vulnérable aux incidences du changement climatique et aux risques de catastrophes naturelles, telles que la fonte des glaciers de l'Himalaya, les crues soudaines et brutales, les inondations, les glissements de terrain et les sécheresses. Ces fléaux peuvent en effet avoir des conséquences significatives et durables sur la vie des Népalais et les empêcher de rompre le cercle vicieux de la pauvreté. Un nombre croissant de citoyens prend donc l'initiative d'explorer des alternatives, dont celle de la migration. 85 % des migrants népalais proviennent de familles vivant d'agriculture de subsistance qui sont tributaires du régime des pluies pour l'irrigation de leurs cultures. Ces migrants se déplacent à l'interne ou à l'international. En outre, selon des statistiques officielles, le tiers des ménages népalais compte un membre de la famille travaillant et habitant à l'étranger pour diverses raisons.
Cet essai vise à analyser les réponses adaptatives aux changements environnementaux du Népal au travers des documents nationaux encadrant les migrations. Il appert que les autorités publiques ne font pas suffisamment le lien entre changement climatique et migration et que leur vision des flux migratoires observés au pays est plutôt négative. En outre, des lacunes au niveau des processus de consultation des citoyens et en matière d'accompagnement des migrants internes et internationaux sont constatées. Devant l'ampleur du phénomène migratoire, les collectivités népalaises gagneraient à être outillées sur des moyens d'adaptation appropriés pour faire face aux changements environnementaux.
Cet essai présente trois recommandations pour une meilleure intégration des besoins d'adaptation du pays et des citoyens face aux dégradations environnementales et à l'exercice des droits des migrants. La première recommandation consiste en une révision des processus de consultation et d'élaboration des documents d'adaptation, afin de mieux prendre en compte les préoccupations des populations les plus vulnérables aux changements environnementaux. La seconde a pour objet la reconnaissance des migrations comme stratégie d'adaptation et l’amélioration des politiques traitant de migrations et d'adaptation, afin que le lien entre les deux phénomènes soit pris en compte. La troisième vise enfin le renforcement des efforts d’accompagnement des migrants, d'une part, pour les migrants internes au moyen d’une planification urbaine plus adéquate, d'autre part, pour les migrants internationaux par le biais de la lutte contre les abus et de la protection de leurs droits afin qu'ils mènent une vie empreinte de dignité.
Abstract : Nepal is one of the least developed countries in the world, with the Nepalese people relying mostly on subsistence farming for livelihood. They are vulnerable to climate change and natural disasters, such as the melting of the Himalayan glaciers, floods, landslides, and droughts. These catastrophes can have significant and lasting effects on the lives of the Nepalese and prevent them from breaking the vicious cycle of poverty. Hence, an increasing number of citizens decide to explore alternatives like migration. Heighty-five pourcent of Nepalese migrants come from families who derive their livelihood from subsistence farming and depend upon rainfall for agricultural production. These people migrate internally or internationally. According to official statistics, one person per three households works and lives abroad for various reasons.
The aim of this paper is to analyse the adaptive responses to environmental changes in Nepal through the country’s migration policies. It can be seen that public authorities do not link climate change and migration, and view the country's migratory tendencies rather negatively. Furthermore, there are significant gaps in the citizens' consultation process, as well as in the support measures available to internal and international migrants. Faced with migration on an unprecedented scale, Nepalese communities are lacking appropriate adaptation measures for coping with environmental degradation.
This thesis issues three recommendations for integrating the citizens' and the country’s adaptation needs with environmental changes and migrants' rights. The first recommendation aims to improve the consultation and writing processes of Nepalese adaptation documents in order to address the concerns of the groups most vulnerable to increasing environmental degradation. The second recommendation is intended to recognize migration as an adaptation strategy, and to link climate change and migration in national legislative documents. The last recommendation focuses on strengthening existing policies and aiding internal and international migrants in two ways : by enforcing appropriate urban planning, and by protecting their rights from exploitation and abuse, thus enabling them to live dignified lives.
Copyright/License© Nalitha Tousignant-Paradis
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